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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159533/reduced-bone-mineral-density-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-a-meta-analysis-of-its-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#1
S S L Goh, P S M Lai, A T B Tan, S Ponnampalavanar
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary. PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to systematically review published literature on the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and its associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals...
November 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155868/tocilizumab-potentially-prevents-bone-loss-in-patients-with-anticitrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Yi-Ming Chen, Hsin-Hua Chen, Wen-Nan Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Jun-Peng Chen, Wen-Cheng Chao, Ching-Tsai Lin, Wei-Ting Hung, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Tsu-Yi Hsieh, Yi-Hsing Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a high risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors may suppress osteoclast activation. Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) titers are inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). However, the differential effect of ACPA on bone turnover marker (BTM) and BMD changes after IL-6 inhibition remains unclear. This prospective study recruited patients with active RA with inadequate response to methotrexate or biologics. BMD was measured before and after 2-year tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154969/adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-have-deficits-in-bone-structure-and-strength-at-the-distal-tibia-despite-similar-size-and-measuring-standard-and-relative-sites
#3
Kyle K Nishiyama, Sanchita Agarwal, Anna Kepley, Fernando Rosete, Yizhong Hu, X Edward Guo, Claire L Keating, Emily A DiMango, Elizabeth Shane
Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA and are at higher risk of fracture than healthy controls. However, the 2-dimensional measurement of areal BMD (aBMD) provided by DXA is influenced by bone size and the true extent of the bone deficit is unclear. Our objective was to use high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis to compare volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and estimated strength at the distal radius and tibia in 26 young adults with CF and 26 controls matched for age, gender, and race...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152495/midterm-outcomes-of-titanium-modular-femoral-necks-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#4
Thurial Collet, Jean-Pierre Atanasiu, Jean-Baptiste de Cussac, Kamal Oufroukhi, Hugo Bothorel, Mo Saffarini, François Badatcheff
Background: Modular femoral necks present surgical and biomechanical advantages in total hip arthroplasty (THA), but their benefits remain controversial due to risks of corrosion and fracture at the additional junction. This study aimed to report 10-year survival and clinical outcomes of a titanium femoral stem with a titanium modular neck in consecutive series. Methods: The authors reviewed the records of 97 patients (99 THAs) using uncemented modular stem and ceramic-on-ceramic acetabular components...
October 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151451/fracture-risk-assessment-tool-frax-and-for-the-diagnosis-of-osteoporosis-in-japanese-middle-aged-and-elderly-women-chiba-bone-survey
#5
Rena Oka, Masahiro Ohira, Sawako Suzuki, Tomohiko Yoshida, Hisashi Koide, Tomoaki Tanaka, Ichiro Tatsuno
Osteoporosis not only increases bone fracture risk but also affects survival in postmenopausal women. Although osteoporosis is diagnosed based on low bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BMD measurement is sometimes difficult because DXA is not widely available in the community. The Fracture Risk Assessment tool (FRAX) can predict 10-year major osteoporotic fracture risk and hip fracture risk with or without femoral neck BMD. The FRAX has not been investigated adequately in community-dwelling Japanese women...
November 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147750/the-association-between-childhood-fractures-and-adolescence-bone-outcomes-a-population-based-study-the-troms%C3%A3-study-fit-futures
#6
T Christoffersen, N Emaus, E Dennison, A-S Furberg, L Gracia-Marco, G Grimnes, O A Nilsen, D Vlachopoulos, A Winther, L A Ahmed
Childhood fracture may predict persistent skeletal fragility, but it may also reflect high physical activity which is beneficial to bone development. We observe a difference in the relationship between previous fracture and bone outcome across physical activity level and sex. Further elaboration on this variation is needed. PURPOSE: Childhood fracture may be an early marker of skeletal fragility, or increased levels of physical activity (PA), which are beneficial for bone mineral accrual...
November 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145961/vertical-femoral-neck-fractures-in-young-adults-a-closed-fixation-strategy-using-a-transverse-cancellous-lag-screw
#7
João Antonio Matheus Guimarães, Leonardo Rosa Rocha, Tito Henrique Noronha Rocha, Danielle Cabral Bonfim, Rafaela Sartore da Costa, Amanda Dos Santos Cavalcanti, Carlos Rodrigo Roesler, Jamila Alessandra Perini Machado, Diego Pinheiro Aguiar, Maria Eugenia Leite Duarte
Vertical femoral neck fractures (Pauwels type III classification) in young adults generally occur as a consequence of high-energy trauma and are frequently seen in association with multiple injuries. Considering the controversies regarding the optimal fixation for this fracture, our aim was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a closed fixation strategy for vertical femoral neck fractures in young adults using two parallel and one transverse cancellous lag screws. This was a single-surgeon, prospective study including 20 young adults with average age of 38...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144808/osteoporotic-fractures-during-bisphosphonate-drug-holiday-fractures-bisphosphonate-drug-holidays
#8
Brittany Bindon, William Adams, Neelam Balasubramanian, Jasmin Sandhu, Pauline Camacho
OBJECTIVE: Bisphosphonate (BP) drug holidays are recommended to lower the risk of rare adverse events, such as atypical femoral fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. However, there are minimal data on the optimal duration of these holidays. Our aim was to determine the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with increased fracture risk in patients on BP drug holiday. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 401 patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis who began a BP drug holiday from 2004 to 2013...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#9
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138544/early-postoperative-delirium-after-hemiarthroplasty-in-elderly-patients-aged-over-70-years-with-displaced-femoral-neck-fracture
#10
Yi-Hwa Choi, Dae-Hwan Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Tae-Wan Lim, Seok-Woo Kim, Je-Hyun Yoo
Purpose: Postoperative delirium is a risk factor for worse outcome after hip fracture surgery in elderly patients. Postoperative delirium is associated with anesthesia, postoperative pain, and patient factors. We investigated the incidence, predictors, and prognostic implications of post-operative delirium after hemiarthroplasty (HA) in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods: A total of 356 consecutive patients aged >70 years who underwent HA for femoral neck fracture were enrolled...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138386/reverse-less-invasive-stabilization-system-liss-plating-for-proximal-femur-fractures-in-poliomyelitis-survivors-a-report-of-two-cases
#11
Chen Yao, Dongxu Jin, Changqing Zhang
BACKGROUND Poliomyelitis is a neuromuscular disease which causes muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and disabilities. Treatment of hip fractures on polio-affect limbs is unique and difficult, since routine fixation methods like nailing may not be suitable due to abnormal skeletal structures. CASE REPORT We report one femoral neck fracture and one subtrochanteric fracture in polio survivors successfully treated with reverse less invasive stabilization system (LISS) plating technique. Both fractures were on polio-affected limbs with significant skeletal deformities and low bone density...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137027/morphobiochemical-diagnosis-of-acute-trabecular-microfractures-using-gamma-correction-tc-99m-hdp-pinhole-bone-scan-with-histopathological-verification
#12
Yong-Whee Bahk, Seok-Ha Hwang, U-Young Lee, Yong-An Chung, Joo-Young Jung, Hyeonseok S Jeong
We prospectively performed gamma correction pinhole bone scan (GCPBS) and histopathologic verification study to make simultaneous morphobiochemical diagnosis of trabecular microfractures (TMF) occurred in the femoral head as a part of femoral neck fracture.Materials consisted of surgical specimens of the femoral head in 6 consecutive patients. The specimens were imaged using Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP) pinhole scan and processed by the gamma correction. After cleansing with 10% formalin solution, injured specimen surface was observed using a surgical microscope to record TMF...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135667/nationwide-analysis-of-femoral-neck-fractures-in-elderly-patients-a-receding-tide
#13
Derek G Ju, Sean S Rajaee, James Mirocha, Carol A Lin, Charles N Moon
BACKGROUND: Geriatric femoral neck fractures are associated with substantial morbidity and medical cost. We evaluated the incidence and management trends of femoral neck fractures in recent years in the U.S. METHODS: Patient data from 2003 through 2013 were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Femoral neck fractures in patients ≥65 years old were identified and grouped using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure codes for internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty (THA)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134408/glucosamine-reduces-the-inhibition-of-proteoglycan-metabolism-caused-by-local-anaesthetic-solution-in-human-articular-cartilage-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Abhinav Gulihar, Shalin Shaunak, Pinelopi Linardatou Novak, Parthiban Vinayakam, Baljinder Dhinsa, Grahame Taylor
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether local anaesthetics caused inhibition of proteoglycan metabolism in human articular cartilage and whether the addition of Glucosamine sulphate could prevent or allow recovery from this adverse effect on articular cartilage metabolism. METHODS: Cartilage explants obtained from 13 femoral heads from fracture neck of femur patients (average age 80 years, 10 female) were exposed to either 1% Lidocaine, 2% Lidocaine, 0.25% Bupivacaine, 0...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134242/serum-parathyroid-hormone-is-associated-with-increased-cortical-porosity-of-the-inner-transitional-zone-at-the-proximal-femur-in-postmenopausal-women-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#15
M Osima, T T Borgen, M Lukic, G Grimnes, R M Joakimsen, E F Eriksen, Å Bjørnerem
Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was associated with increased bone turnover markers and cortical porosity of the inner transitional zone at the proximal femur. These results suggest that PTH through increased intracortical bone turnover leads to trabecularisation of inner cortical bone in postmenopausal women. INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased risk for fractures, whereas its association with cortical porosity is less clear. We tested (i) whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and PTH were associated with cortical porosity and (ii) whether the associations of 25(OH)D) and PTH with fracture risk are dependent on cortical porosity...
November 14, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126401/dyslipidaemia-for-patients-with-low-energy-femoral-neck-fractures-after-the-treatment-of-cancellous-screws-a-retrospective-study-with-a-3-year-minimum-follow-up
#16
Chi Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Genwang Pei, Ping Xu, Xianshang Zeng, Lili Zhang, Nan Zhang, Dan Zeng, Lei Cao, Weiguang Yu, Xinchao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) occurs infrequently following femoral neck fracture. The association between AVNFH and dyslipidaemia remains controversial. Although major risk factors for AVNFH have been proposed, most of them remain under discussion. Our purpose herein was to evaluate the association between dyslipidaemia and AVNFH following low-energy femoral neck fractures treated with cancellous screws in elderly patients in our tertiary care centre. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy-two consecutive patients (472 hips) with low-energy femoral neck fractures were identified and treated with cancellous screws from July 2007 to April 2013...
November 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124252/bone-loss-at-the-hip-and-subsequent-mortality-in-older-men-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#17
Peggy M Cawthon, Sheena Patel, Susan K Ewing, Li-Yung Lui, Jane A Cauley, Jennifer G Lyons, Lisa Fredman, Deborah M Kado, Andrew R Hoffman, Nancy E Lane, Kristine E Ensrud, Steven R Cummings, Eric S Orwoll
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with increased mortality risk, yet the impact of BMD loss on mortality is relatively unknown. We hypothesized that greater BMD loss is associated with increased mortality risk in older men. Change in femoral neck BMD was assessed in 4400 Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study participants with two to three repeat dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans over an average of 4.6 ± 0.4 (mean ± SD) years. Change in femoral neck BMD was estimated using mixed effects models; men were grouped into three categories of BMD change: maintenance (n = 1087; change ≥ 0 g/cm(2)); expected loss (n = 2768; change between 0 g/cm(2) and <1 SD below mean change [>-0...
August 2017: JBMR Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123840/a-system-of-delivering-medical-staff-members-by-helicopter-to-manage-severely-wounded-patients-in-an-area-where-medical-resources-are-limited
#18
Kohei Ishikawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kei Jitsuiki, Toshihiko Yoshizawa, Yasumasa Oode, Mutsumi Sakurada, Atsuhiko Mogami, Youichi Yanagawa
Aim: We review the case of a severely injured patient to evaluate the system of delivering medical staff by helicopter in areas with limited medical resources. Methods: The patient's chart was reviewed, summarized, and presented. Results: A 22-year-old woman attempted a suicidal fall after using a knife to stab herself. She was transported to a local hospital. A radiological study revealed fractures to the patient's face and the base of her skull, pneumocephalus, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, stab wounds to the neck and chest, pneumothorax, unstable pelvic fracture, and right femoral shaft fracture...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120655/-bone-quality-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#19
Martin Kužma, Ivana Ságová, Dušan Pavai, Peter Jackuliak, Zdenko Killinger, Peter Vaňuga, Juraj Payer
The impact of acromegaly on bone and the risk of fractures has not been sufficiently investigated. GH hypersecretion stimulates bone turnover, leading to an increase in bone turnover markers. Normal or even increased bone mineral density (BMD) in comparison to healthy controls have been reported, but there are some works where decreased BMD was observed among acromegaly patients with hypogonadism, particularly at lumbar spine. Less pronounced effect of GH overproduction was observed at the femoral neck, as explained by the positive effect of hypersecretion on the cortical bone (due to periosseal ossification)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117211/the-treatment-of-femoral-neck-fracture-using-vegf-loaded-nanographene-coated-internal-fixation-screws
#20
Shuo Li, Hengfeng Yuan, Jianfeng Pan, Wenshuai Fan, Liang Zhu, Zuoqin Yan, Changan Guo
PURPOSE: Previous studies have proved that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a dual role in the promotion of new bone formation and blood vessel repair during fracture healing. However, how to introduce VEGF to a fracture site safely and effectively is still a challenge. This study aimed to prepare a VEGF-loaded nanographene coated internal fixation screw and to evaluate its effects in the treatment of femoral neck fracture. METHODS: Nanographene coated screws were prepared by direct liquid-phase exfoliation of the graphite method, and the surface characteristics were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
2017: PloS One
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