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Follistatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752954/regulation-of-the-activins-follistatins-inhibins-axis-by-energy-status-impact-on-reproductive-function
#1
Nikolaos Perakakis, Jagriti Upadhyay, Wael Ghaly, Joyce Chen, Pavlina Chrysafi, Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Christos S Mantzoros
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the adipose tissue derived hormone leptin controls reproductive function by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in response to energy deficiency. Here, we evaluate the activins-follistatins-inhibins (AFI) axis during acute (short-term fasting in healthy people) and chronic energy deficiency (women with hypothalamic amenorrhea due to strenuous exercise [HA]) and investigate their relation to leptin and reproductive function in healthy subjects and subjects with HA...
May 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752426/protein-engineering-on-human-recombinant-follistatin-enhancing-pharmacokinetic-characteristics-for-therapeutic-application
#2
Chuan Shen, Andrea Iskenderian, Dianna Lundberg, Tao He, Kathleen Palmieri, Robert Crooker, Qingwei Deng, Matthew Traylor, Sheng Gu, Haojing Rong, David Ehmann, Brian Pescatore, Bettina Strack-Logue, Alla Romashko, George Baviello, John Gill, Bohong Zhang, Muthuraman Meiyappan, Clark Pan, Angela W Norton
Follistatin (FS) is an important regulatory protein, a natural antagonist for transforming growth factor beta family members activin and myostatin. The diverse biological roles of the activin and myostatin signaling pathways make FS a promising therapeutic target for treating human diseases exhibiting inflammation, fibrosis and muscle disorders, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, rapid heparin-mediated hepatic clearance of FS limits its therapeutic potential. We targeted the heparin binding loop of FS for site-directed mutagenesis to improve clearance parameters...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752282/niche-mediated-bmp-smad-signaling-regulates-lung-alveolar-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Mei-I Chung, Melissa Bujnis, Christina E Barkauskas, Yoshihiko Kobayashi, Brigid L M Hogan
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, including antagonists, functions in lung development and regeneration of tracheal epithelium from basal stem cells. Here, we explore its role in the alveolar region, where type 2 epithelial cells (AT2s) and Pdgfrα+ type 2-associated stromal cells (TASCs) are components of the stem cell niche. We use organoids and in vivo alveolar regrowth after pneumonectomy (PNX) - a process that requires proliferation of AT2s and differentiation into type 1 cells (AT1s)...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743638/screen-and-verification-for-transgene-integration-sites-in-pigs
#4
Linyuan Ma, Yuzhe Wang, Haitao Wang, Yiqing Hu, Jingyao Chen, Tan Tan, Man Hu, Xiaojuan Liu, Ran Zhang, Yiming Xing, Yiqiang Zhao, Xiaoxiang Hu, Ning Li
Efficient transgene expression in recipient cells constitutes the primary step in gene therapy. However, random integration in host genome comprises too many uncertainties. Our study presents a strategy combining bioinformatics and functional verification to find transgene integration sites in pig genome. Using an in silico approach, we screen out two candidate sites, namely, Pifs302 and Pifs501, located in actively transcribed intergenic regions with low nucleosome formation potential and without potential non-coding RNAs...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737562/mechanisms-involved-in-enhancement-of-osteoclast-formation-by-activin-a
#5
Tomonari Kajita, Wataru Ariyoshi, Toshinori Okinaga, Sho Mitsugi, Kazuhiro Tominaga, Tatsuji Nishihara
Several growth factors in bone tissues are reported to be associated with osteoclastogenesis. Activin-A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family is known to be present in bone tissues and an important regulator in osteoclastogenesis with SMAD-mediated signaling being crucial for inducing osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we examined the effect and underlying mechanisms of activin-A on osteoclast formation in vitro culture systems. Activin-A enhanced osteoclast formation in both mouse bone marrow cells and monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW 264...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731246/gdf11-induces-kidney-fibrosis-renal-cell-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-kidney-dysfunction-and-failure
#6
Marianne Pons, Leonidas G Koniaris, Sharon M Moe, Juan C Gutierrez, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher, Teresa A Zimmers
BACKGROUND: GDF11 modulates embryonic patterning and kidney organogenesis. Herein, we sought to define GDF11 function in the adult kidney and in renal diseases. METHODS: In vitro renal cell lines, genetic, and murine in vivo renal injury models were examined. RESULTS: Among tissues tested, Gdf11 was highest in normal adult mouse kidney. Expression was increased acutely after 5/6 nephrectomy, ischemia-reperfusion injury, kanamycin toxicity, or unilateral ureteric obstruction...
May 3, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723039/transcriptome-profiling-to-identify-key-mediators-of-granulosa-cell-proliferation-upon-fsh-stimulation-in-the-goose-anser-cygnoides
#7
Lei Du, Tiantian Gu, Yang Zhang, Zhengyang Huang, Wenming Zhao, Guobin Chang, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen, Ningzhao Wu
1. The low reproductive performance of geese has seriously hampered the development of the industry. Reproductive performance, particularly the egg laying rate mainly depends on the development of the follicle. Previous studies have shown that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an important role in the process of follicular development, but the exact underlying mechanism remains unclear. 2. This study showed that FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of FSH treatment on granulosa cell proliferation was greatest at a dose of 100 mIU/ml FSH for 24 h...
May 3, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695980/cardiac-remodeling-endothelial-cells-have-more-to-say-than-just-no
#8
REVIEW
Vincent F M Segers, Dirk L Brutsaert, Gilles W De Keulenaer
The heart is a highly structured organ consisting of different cell types, including myocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and inflammatory cells. This pluricellularity provides the opportunity of intercellular communication within the organ, with subsequent optimization of its function. Intercellular cross-talk is indispensable during cardiac development, but also plays a substantial modulatory role in the normal and failing heart of adults. More specifically, factors secreted by cardiac microvascular endothelial cells modulate cardiac performance and either positively or negatively affect cardiac remodeling...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618935/metabolic-profiling-of-follistatin-overexpression-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-metabolic-diseases
#9
Rajan Singh, Shehla Pervin, Se-Jin Lee, Alan Kuo, Victor Grijalva, John David, Laurent Vergnes, Srinivasa T Reddy
Background: Follistatin (Fst) promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in adipose tissues. Methods: Abdominal fat volume (CT scan), glucose clearance (GTT test), and metabolomics analysis (mass spectrometry) of adipose tissues from Fst transgenic (Fst-Tg) and wild type (WT) control mice were analyzed. Oxygen consumption (Seahorse Analyzer) and lipidomics (gas chromatography) was analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. Results: Fst-Tg mice show significant decrease in abdominal fat content, increased glucose clearance, improved plasma lipid profiles and significant changes in several conventional metabolites compared to the WT mice...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616951/associations-between-food-group-consumption-and-follicular-fluid-follistatin-levels-in-subfertile-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization-treatment
#10
Dimitrios Karayiannis, Meropi Kontogianni, Roxani Tenta, Lygeri Douka, Christina Mendorou, Kyriaki Liapi, Dimitra Sakellari, Minas Mastrominas, Nikos Yiannakouris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594389/follistatin-like-1-in-development-and-human-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Mattiotti, Stuti Prakash, Phil Barnett, Maurice J B van den Hoff
Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a secreted glycoprotein displaying expression changes during development and disease, among which cardiovascular disease, cancer, and arthritis. The cardioprotective role of FSTL1 has been intensively studied over the last years, though its mechanism of action remains elusive. FSTL1 is involved in multiple signaling pathways and biological processes, including vascularization and regulation of the immune response, a feature that complicates its study. Binding to the DIP2A, TLR4 and BMP receptors have been shown, but other molecular partners probably exist...
March 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593116/tgf%C3%AE-facilitated-optic-fissure-fusion-and-the-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-antagonism
#12
Max D Knickmeyer, Juan L Mateo, Priska Eckert, Eleni Roussa, Belal Rahhal, Aimee Zuniga, Kerstin Krieglstein, Joachim Wittbrodt, Stephan Heermann
The optic fissure is a transient gap in the developing vertebrate eye, which must be closed as development proceeds. A persisting optic fissure, coloboma, is a major cause for blindness in children. Although many genes have been linked to coloboma, the process of optic fissure fusion is still little appreciated, especially on a molecular level. We identified a coloboma in mice with a targeted inactivation of transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2). Notably, here the optic fissure margins must have touched, however failed to fuse...
March 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575577/smad7-deficiency-decreases-iron-and-haemoglobin-through-hepcidin-up-regulation-by-multilayer-compensatory-mechanisms
#13
Peng An, Hao Wang, Qian Wu, Jiaming Wang, Zhidan Xia, Xuyan He, Xinhui Wang, Yan Chen, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang
To maintain iron homoeostasis, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is tightly controlled by BMP-Smad signalling pathway, but the physiological role of Smad7 in hepcidin regulation remains elusive. We generated and characterized hepatocyte-specific Smad7 knockout mice (Smad7Alb/Alb ), which showed decreased serum iron, tissue iron, haemoglobin concentration, up-regulated hepcidin and increased phosphor-Smad1/5/8 levels in both isolated primary hepatocytes and liver tissues. Increased levels of hepcidin lead to reduced expression of intestinal ferroportin and mild iron deficiency anaemia...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573844/expression-of-genes-for-enzymes-synthesizing-lysophosphatidic-acid-its-receptors-and-follicle-developmental-factors-derived-from-the-cumulus-oocyte-complex-is-dependent-on-the-ovarian-follicle-type-in-cows
#14
Emilia Sinderewicz, Katarzyna Grycmacher, Dorota Boruszewska, Ilona Kowalczyk-Zięba, Joanna Staszkiewicz-Chodor, Krzysztof Łukaszuk, Izabela Wocławek-Potocka
Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) release factors potentially involved in follicular growth and development, such as growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone-morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), follistatin (FST) and cathepsins (CTSs). Moreover, the quality of the oocytes and follicles may be related to both the lipid composition of the follicle cells and follicular fluid. One of the lipids, locally regulating the reproductive functions in ovaries of cattle, is lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In this study, the expression was investigated of the genes for LPA and other factors in COCs of follicles at different stages of development and regression...
March 19, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569797/fstl3-enhances-the-function-of-endothelial-cells-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-facilitating-%C3%AE-catenin-nuclear-translocation-through-inhibition-of-gsk3%C3%AE-activity
#15
Sophia Kelaini, Marta Vilà-González, Rachel Caines, David Campbell, Magdalini Eleftheriadou, Marianna Tsifaki, Corey Magee, Amy Cochrane, Karla O'Neill, Chunbo Yang, Alan W Stitt, Lingfang Zeng, David J Grieve, Andriana Margariti
The fight against vascular disease requires functional endothelial cells (ECs) which could be provided by differentiation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS Cells) in great numbers for use in the clinic. However, the great promise of the generated ECs (iPS-ECs) in therapy is often restricted due to the challenge in iPS-ECs preserving their phenotype and function. We identified that Follistatin-Like 3 (FSTL3) is highly expressed in iPS-ECs, and, as such, we sought to clarify its possible role in retaining and improving iPS-ECs function and phenotype, which are crucial in increasing the cells' potential as a therapeutic tool...
March 23, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535644/differing-effects-of-younger-and-older-human-plasma-on-c2c12-myocytes-in-vitro
#16
Ifigeneia Kalampouka, Angel van Bekhoven, Bradley T Elliott
Ageing is associated with a general reduction of physiological function and a reduction of muscle mass and strength. Endocrine factors such as myostatin, activin A, growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11) and their inhibitory peptides influence muscle mass in health and disease. We hypothesised that myocytes cultured in plasma from older and younger individuals would show an ageing effect, with reduced proliferation and differentiation in older environments. C2C12 myoblasts were grown as standard and stimulated with media conditioned with 5% plasma from healthy male participants that were either younger ( n = 6, 18-35 years of age) or older ( n = 6, >57 years of age)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530451/pitx1-regulates-cement-gland-development-in-xenopus-laevis-through-activation-of-transcriptional-targets-and-inhibition-of-bmp-signaling
#17
Ye Jin, Daniel C Weinstein
The cement gland in Xenopus laevis has long been used as a model to study the interplay of cell signaling and transcription factors during embryogenesis. It has been shown that an intermediate level of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling is essential for cement gland formation. In addition, several transcription factors have been linked to cement gland development. One of these, the homeodomain-containing protein Pitx1, can generate ectopic cement gland formation; however, the mechanisms underlying this process remain obscure...
March 9, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518761/hormonal-responses-following-eccentric-exercise-in-humans
#18
Anastassios Philippou, Maria Maridaki, Roxane Tenta, Michael Koutsilieris
OBJECTIVE: Mechanically overloaded muscle and its subsequent damage are strong stimuli for eliciting acute hormonal changes, while the muscle adaptation which occurs following exercise-induced muscle damage may involve complex hormonal responses before the completion of muscle regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate systemic responses of various hormones, as well as secreted proteins that are exercise-regulated and associated with muscle adaptation, for several days after eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in humans...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496578/molecular-cloning-expression-pattern-of-follistatin-gene-and-association-analysis-with-growth-traits-in-bighead-carp-hypophthalmichthys-nobilis
#19
Meixia Pang, Jingou Tong, Xiaomu Yu, Beide Fu, Ying Zhou
Follistatin (FST) is a single-chain gonadal protein involving in various biological effects. FST plays important roles in not only ovary development but also body growth, whereas myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth. In this study, FST gene in bighead carp (HynFST) was cloned and characterized. A 5797 bp genomic sequence of HynFST, consisting six exons and five introns were cloned. The full-length cDNA of HynFST (2134 bp) has an open reading fragment encoding a polypeptide of 349 amino acids...
April 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486614/molecular-mechanism-of-amygdalin-action-in-vitro-review-of-the-latest-research
#20
Przemysław Liczbiński, Bożena Bukowska
Amygdalin, named as 'laetrile' and 'vitamin B-17' was initially supposed to be a safe drug for cancer treatment and was recognized by followers of natural medicine since it has been considered to be hydrolyzed only in cancer cells releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and thus destroying them. Unfortunately, current studies have shown that HCN is also released in normal cells, therefore it may not be safe for human organism. However, there have still been research works conducted on anti-cancer properties of this compound...
February 28, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
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