Read by QxMD icon Read


Ifigeneia Kalampouka, Angel van Bekhoven, Bradley T Elliott
Ageing is associated with a general reduction of physiological function and a reduction of muscle mass and strength. Endocrine factors such as myostatin, activin A, growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11) and their inhibitory peptides influence muscle mass in health and disease. We hypothesised that myocytes cultured in plasma from older and younger individuals would show an ageing effect, with reduced proliferation and differentiation in older environments. C2C12 myoblasts were grown as standard and stimulated with media conditioned with 5% plasma from healthy male participants that were either younger ( n = 6, 18-35 years of age) or older ( n = 6, >57 years of age)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ye Jin, Daniel C Weinstein
The cement gland in Xenopus laevis has long been used as a model to study the interplay of cell signaling and transcription factors during embryogenesis. It has been shown that an intermediate level of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling is essential for cement gland formation. In addition, several transcription factors have been linked to cement gland development. One of these, the homeodomain-containing protein Pitx1, can generate ectopic cement gland formation; however, the mechanisms underlying this process remain obscure...
March 9, 2018: Developmental Biology
Anastassios Philippou, Maria Maridaki, Roxane Tenta, Michael Koutsilieris
OBJECTIVE: Mechanically overloaded muscle and its subsequent damage are strong stimuli for eliciting acute hormonal changes, while the muscle adaptation which occurs following exercise-induced muscle damage may involve complex hormonal responses before the completion of muscle regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate systemic responses of various hormones, as well as secreted proteins that are exercise-regulated and associated with muscle adaptation, for several days after eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in humans...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Meixia Pang, Jingou Tong, Xiaomu Yu, Beide Fu, Ying Zhou
Follistatin (FST) is a single-chain gonadal protein involving in various biological effects. FST plays important roles in not only ovary development but also body growth, whereas myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth. In this study, FST gene in bighead carp (HynFST) was cloned and characterized. A 5797 bp genomic sequence of HynFST, consisting six exons and five introns were cloned. The full-length cDNA of HynFST (2134 bp) has an open reading fragment encoding a polypeptide of 349 amino acids...
February 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Przemysław Liczbiński, Bożena Bukowska
Amygdalin, named as 'laetrile' and 'vitamin B-17' was initially supposed to be a safe drug for cancer treatment and was recognized by followers of natural medicine since it has been considered to be hydrolyzed only in cancer cells releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and thus destroying them. Unfortunately, current studies have shown that HCN is also released in normal cells, therefore it may not be safe for human organism. However, there have still been research works conducted on anti-cancer properties of this compound...
February 28, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Chad E Glasser, Michael R Gartner, Dawn Wilson, Barry Miller, Matthew L Sherman, Kenneth M Attie
INTRODUCTION: ACE-083 is a locally acting follistatin-based therapeutic that binds myostatin and other muscle regulators and has been shown to increase muscle mass and force in neuromuscular disease mouse models. This first-in-human study examined these effects. METHODS: In this phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in healthy postmenopausal women, ACE-083 (50-200 mg) or placebo was administered unilaterally into rectus femoris (RF) or tibialis anterior (TA) muscles as 1 or 2 doses 3 weeks apart...
February 27, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Angela Köninger, Antje Kampmeier, Pawel Mach, Boerge Schmidt, Thomas Strowitzki, Rainer Kimmig, Alexandra Gellhaus
PURPOSE: Follistatin levels increase during the course of pregnancy and may play a role in ovarian arrest, reflected by the simultaneous decrease of anti-mullerian-hormone (AMH) levels. The aim of the study was to investigate AMH and follistatin levels during the hormonal window at the beginning of pregnancy. Since both parameters are described as deregulated in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), subgroup analysis of PCOS patients may additionally elucidate their interplay and effects on ovarian activity...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Nesreen Nabil Omar, Rasha R Rashed, Rania M El-Hazek, Walaa A El-Sabbagh, Engy R Rashed, Mona A El-Ghazaly
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of natural growth factors and is emerging as a treatment modality to mitigate radiotherapy- induced adverse effects. Activin A (ACTA) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, which has been shown to modulate the inflammatory response and macrophages polarization between different phenotypes. The aim of this study is to determine the value of PRP in preventing radiation-induced malignancies in light of the cross-talk between PRP and activin A type II receptors (ActR-IIA)/follistatin (FST) signaling pathways where the inflammatory responses at 2 different time points were evaluated...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Fernanda Bajanca, Laurence Vandel
Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) control transcription during myogenesis. HDACs promote chromatin condensation, inhibiting gene transcription in muscle progenitor cells until myoblast differentiation is triggered and HDACs are released. HATs, namely CBP/p300, activate myogenic regulatory and elongation factors promoting myogenesis. HDAC inhibitors are known to improve regeneration in dystrophic muscles through follistatin upregulation. However, the potential of directly modulating HATs remains unexplored...
December 21, 2017: PLoS Currents
Dian Yosi Arinawati, Keiko Miyoshi, Ayako Tanimura, Taigo Horiguchi, Hiroko Hagita, Takafumi Noma
The conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture system is frequently used to analyze the gene expression with or without extracellular signals. However, the cells derived from primary culture and cell lines frequently deviate the gene expression profile compared to the corresponding in vivo samples, which sometimes misleads the actual gene regulation in vivo. To overcome this gap, we developed the comparative 2D and 3D in vitro culture systems and applied them to the genetic study of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) as a model...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Richard G James, Stephen R Reeves, Kaitlyn A Barrow, Maria P White, Veronika A Glukhova, Candace Haghighi, Dana Seyoum, Jason S Debley
RATIONALE: Bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) from healthy children inhibit human lung fibroblast (HLF) expression of collagen and fibroblast-myofibroblast transition (FMT) while asthmatic BECs do so less effectively, suggesting diminished epithelial-derived regulatory factors contribute to airway remodeling. Preliminary data demonstrated secretion of the activin A-inhibitor FSTL3 by healthy BECs was greater than that by asthmatic BECs. OBJECTIVES: Determine the relative secretion of FSTL3 and activin A by asthmatic and healthy BECs and if FSTL3 inhibits FMT...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Juan Hu, Xi Wang, Yan-Hong Tang, Ying-Guang Shan, Qiang Zou, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Cong-Xin Huang
Inflammation serves a critical role in driving sympathetic neural remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI), and activin A has been implicated as an important mediator of the inflammatory response post‑MI. However, whether activin A impacts sympathetic neural remodeling post‑MI remains unclear. In the present study, the authors assessed the effects of activin A on sympathetic neural remodeling in a rat model of MI. Rats were randomly divided into sham, MI, and MI + follistatin‑300 (FS, activin A inhibitor) groups...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Le Kuai, Jing-Ting Zhang, Yu Deng, Shun Xu, Xun-Zhe Xu, Min-Feng Wu, Dong-Jie Guo, Yu Chen, Ren-Jie Wu, Xing-Qiang Zhao, Hua Nian, Bin Li, Fu-Lun Li
BACKGROUND: Sheng-ji Hua-yu(SJHY) formula is one of the most useful Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of the delayed diabetic wound. However, elucidating the related molecular biological mechanism of how the SJHY Formula affects excessive inflammation in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing is a task urgently needed to be fulfilled. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the effect of antagonisic expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory factors on transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily (activin and follistatin) in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing in vivo, and to characterize the involvement of the activin/follistatin protein expression regulation, phospho-Smad (pSmad2), and Nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-kB) p50 in the diabetic wound healing effects of SJHY formula...
January 29, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Thiago Cabral, Luiz H Lima, Luiz Guilherme M Mello, Júlia Polido, Éverton P Correa, Akiyoshi Oshima, Jimmy Duong, Pedro Serracarbassa, Caio V Regatieri, Vinit B Mahajan, Rubens Belfort
Purpose: To evaluate the expression of 19 angiogenic biomarkers in the aqueous humor before and after intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design: Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Participants: Twenty-three eyes of 23 treatment-naïve patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to neovascular AMD. Methods: Eyes were diagnosed with CNV secondary to neovascular AMD and were treated with 3 monthly IVBs...
January 2018: Ophthalmology Retina
Yan Liu, Xiaojie Tan, Wenbin Liu, Xi Chen, Xiaomei Hou, Dan Shen, Yibo Ding, Jianhua Yin, Ling Wang, Hongwei Zhang, Yongwei Yu, Jianguo Hou, Timothy C Thompson, Guangwen Cao
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the expression of follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) was significantly down-regulated in metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, we aimed to characterize the role of FSTL1 in the development of ccRCC. METHODS: The effects of FSTL1 on cell activity and cell cycle were investigated in ccRCC cell lines with altered FSTL1 expression. Gene expression microarray assays were performed to identify the major signaling pathways affected by FSTL1 knockdown...
January 22, 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer
Hanneke N Monsuur, Lenie J van den Broek, Pieter Koolwijk, Frank B Niessen, Susan Gibbs
Abnormal cutaneous wound healing can lead to formation of fibrotic hypertrophic scars. Although several clinical risk factors have been described, the cross-talk between different cell types resulting in hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether endothelial cells (EC) may play a role in skin fibrosis, e.g. hypertrophic scar formation after full-thickness skin trauma. Using a collagen/elastin matrix, we developed an in vitro fibrosis model to study the interaction between EC and dermal fibroblasts or adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Thomas R Cotton, Gerhard Fischer, Xuelu Wang, Jason C McCoy, Magdalena Czepnik, Thomas B Thompson, Marko Hyvönen
Myostatin, a key regulator of muscle mass in vertebrates, is biosynthesised as a latent precursor in muscle and is activated by sequential proteolysis of the pro-domain. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which pro-myostatin remains latent, we have determined the structure of unprocessed pro-myostatin and analysed the properties of the protein in its different forms. Crystal structures and SAXS analyses show that pro-myostatin adopts an open, V-shaped structure with a domain-swapped arrangement. The pro-mature complex, after cleavage of the furin site, has significantly reduced activity compared with the mature growth factor and persists as a stable complex that is resistant to the natural antagonist follistatin...
January 12, 2018: EMBO Journal
Mitsuru Seki, Jeffery C Powers, Sonomi Maruyama, Maria A Zuriaga, Chia-Ling Wu, Clara Kurishima, Lydia Kim, Jesse Johnson, Anthony Poidomani, Tao Wang, Eric Muñoz, Sudarsan Rajan, Joon Y Park, Kenneth Walsh, Fabio A Recchia
BACKGROUND: FSTL1 (follistatin-like protein 1) is an emerging cardiokine/myokine that is upregulated in heart failure (HF) and is found to be cardioprotective in animal models of cardiac injury. We tested the hypothesis that circulating FSTL1 can affect cardiac function and metabolism under baseline physiological conditions and in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: FSTL1 was acutely (10 minutes) or chronically (2 weeks) infused to attain clinically relevant blood levels in conscious dogs with cardiac tachypacing-induced HF...
January 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
Mohamed Ashry, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, Jason G Knott, Nabil A Hemeida, Omaima M Kandil, Refaat S Ragab, George W Smith
BACKGROUND: TGF-β signaling pathways regulate several crucial processes in female reproduction. AKT is a non-SMAD signaling pathway regulated by TGF-β ligands essential for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse, but its regulatory role in bovine early embryonic development is not well established. Previously, we demonstrated a stimulatory role for follistatin (a binding protein for specific members of TGF-β superfamily) in early bovine embryonic development...
January 8, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Baihui Zhao, Xiujun Han, Qing Meng, Qiong Luo
AIMS: To determine whether maternal serum markers in the early-second trimester are useful for prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 876 singleton pregnancies were recruited in the present study. Blood samples were collected during 16-20 gestational weeks. GDM women were diagnosed by OGTT during 24-28 gestational weeks. Fifty-six cases of GDM and 73 healthy cases were selected. Maternal serum concentrations of placental protein 13 (PP13), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), myostatin and follistatin (FST) were detected at 16-20 weeks' gestation...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"