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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092909/immune-mediated-neuropathies-following-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-multiple-myeloma-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin, Jacqueline Uy, Honhar Medhavi, Muhammad Salman Faisal, Muzaffar H Qazilbash
Neuropathy is a common finding in patients with multiple myeloma. Several different factors can cause neuropathy in these patients, such as the underlying disease itself, medications used for treatment, or immune-mediated processes. Immune-mediated neuropathies (IMN) consist of a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders. Although IMN is associated with several hematological disorders, it remains a very rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We describe our experiences of 3 patients with multiple myeloma who experienced IMN following autologous HCT (auto-HCT)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092846/status-epilepticus-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-how-to-avoid-misdiagnosis-in-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
Marika Rudler, Clémence Marois, Nicolas Weiss, Dominique Thabut, Vincent Navarro
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) in patients with cirrhosis is a rare but serious situation. Diagnosis may be difficult in emergency presentation, especially when patients present with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Misdiagnosis must be avoided since some anti-epileptic drugs aggravate HE. In this retrospective study, we therefore assessed the frequency of SE in patients with cirrhosis, evaluated the accuracy of diagnosis and determined rates of mortality. METHOD: We reviewed data from all patients hospitalized from 2005 to 2013 in the Hepatology ICU for complications of cirrhosis with an initial diagnosis of SE...
December 27, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092807/application-of-the-dreadd-technique-in-biomedical-brain-research
#3
REVIEW
Grzegorz Dobrzanski, Małgorzata Kossut
The DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) technique is a new chemogenetic approach allowing for selective and remote control of neural activity with a high degree of spatial resolution. Since its discovery in 2007 the DREADD technique was successfully employed into basic research, and together with the optogenetic method provided so far the best tool to influence the activity of the brain circuits and cell populations. The first aim of this review was to concisely describe the technique with regard to such issues like the history of its development, biochemistry as well as modes of the designer receptors delivery and expression...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092725/strontium-ranelate-a-promising-disease-modifying-osteoarthritis-drug
#4
Weiyu Han, Shicai Fan, Xiaochun Bai, Changhai Ding
The articular cartilage and subchondral bone may have potential crosstalk in the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Strontium ranelate (SrR) has the ability to dissociate the bone remodeling process and to change the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. Its effect on subchondral bone makes it a potential disease- modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) in the treatment of OA. The aim of the current review is to summarize up-to-date pharmacological and clinical data of SrR for OA treatment...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092723/pertuzumab-and-breast-cancer-another-piece-in-the-anti-her2-puzzle
#5
Dr Lorenzo Gerratana, Dr Marta Bonotto, Dr Claudia Bozza, Dr Elena Ongaro, Dr Valentina Fanotto, Dr Giacomo Pelizzari, Prof Fabio Puglisi
The mechanism of action of pertuzumab, a recombinant anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody, is complementary to trastuzumab's. On June 8, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration approved the combination of pertuzumab with trastuzumab and docetaxel as first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, pertuzumab is the first drug to be approved in the neoadjuvant setting using a pathological complete response as an endpoint. Areas covered: The review provides insights into the main mechanisms of action of pertuzumab...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092722/synthetic-and-natural-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-agonists-as-candidates-for-the-therapy-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Chek Kun Tan, Yan Zhuang, Walter Wahli
Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the molecular targets of hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs and implicated in a multitude of processes that fine-tune the functions of all organs in vertebrates. As transcription factors they sense endogenous and exogenous lipid signaling molecules and convert these signals into intricate gene responses that impact health and disease. The PPARs act as modulators of cellular, organ, and systemic processes, such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, making them valuable for understanding body homeostasis influenced by nutrition and exercise...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092694/proton-pump-inhibitors-risks-of-long-term-use
#7
REVIEW
Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Stefano Rabitti, Maria Laura Artesiani, Dania Gelli, Marco Montagnani, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Franco Bazzoli
Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs and their use is increasing, in particular for long term treatment, often being over-prescribed and used for inappropriate conditions. In recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards a wide range of adverse effects, and even when a potential underlying biological mechanism is plausible, the clinical evidence of the adverse effect is often weak. Several long term side effects have been investigated ranging from interaction with other drugs, increased risk of infection, reduced intestinal absorption of vitamins and minerals, and more recently kidney damage and dementia...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092467/early-investigational-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis
#8
Matthew E Falagas, Maria Georgiou
Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. Bacteria contribute significantly to such exacerbations. The aim of this review was to explore the potential role of investigational antibiotics in the treatment of these episodes. Areas covered: The available literature in PubMed database, in websites related to investigational drugs and in websites of the producing companies has been searched. The in vitro activity against pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and the pharmacokinetic profile of antibiotics currently under development were taken into consideration for inclusion in the review...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092280/challenges-and-opportunities-to-enhance-global-drug-development-in-neonates
#9
Alexandra M Smith, Jonathan M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the history of neonatal drug development, recent legislative efforts designed to facilitate the study of therapeutic agents in neonates, and future steps necessary to advance drug development. RECENT FINDINGS: Although many federal regulations have been introduced over the past 15 years to encourage pediatric and neonatal drug development, the majority of medications that are used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in neonates...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092215/therapeutic-implications-from-the-pathogenesis-of-raynaud-s-phenomenon
#10
Ariane L Herrick
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) can be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to a number of different diseases/conditions, when vasopasm can be superimposed upon structural vascular abnormality or a hyperviscosity state and may then lead to severe ischaemia with tissue damage. Treatment must be tailored to the individual. Areas covered: This review discusses how increased understanding of the pathogenesis of RP has driven and is driving new approaches to therapy, and how we are now better able to predict which patients presenting with RP are likely to have an underlying disease requiring specific intervention...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092214/treatment-of-delta-hepatitis-today-and-in-the-future-a-review
#11
Ibrahim Halil Bahcecioglu, Abdurrahman Sahin
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective satellite virus and propagates in the presence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg). Approximately 5% of the people who infected with HBV are also infected with HDV. Chronic hepatitis caused by delta is the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis including accelerated fibrosis, liver decompensation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Interferon-based therapies still remain the only treatment option of the hepatitis delta. The beneficiary effects of the interferon-based therapies, however, stop frequently with termination of the given therapy and relapse rate is very high...
January 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092201/evaluation-of-a-steroid-releasing-sinus-implant-for-the-treatment-of-patients-undergoing-frontal-sinus-surgery-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#12
Sean Bury, Ameet Singh
Management of the frontal sinus places great demands on the otolaryngologist. Given that the fronto-ethmoidal region is susceptible to recurrent inflammation, scarring, and stenosis, maintaining long-term patency of the frontal sinus is a difficult challenge. Oral and topical anti-inflammatory therapy, post-operative stenting, and 'home-brew' drug elution have been used for the treatment of the frontal sinus with mixed success. Recently an implant has been approved for post-operative placement into the frontal recess...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092143/human-leucocyte-antigen-adverse-drug-reaction-associations-from-a-perspective-of-ethnicity
#13
REVIEW
G S Ghattaoraya, D Middleton, E J M Santos, R Dickson, A R Jones, A Alfirevic
Whilst immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare, they are potentially life-threatening and present a major problem for clinicians. The underlying mechanisms that cause ADRs are not fully understood although genomewide association studies (GWAS) and case-control investigations have associated human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles as risk factors. There is evidence that a patient's ethnic background can have an impact on their risk of developing an ADR. This review summarizes the evidence related to HLA alleles and ADRs with particular focus on patient ethnicity...
February 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092098/evaluation-the-ethnopharmacological-studies-in-iran-during-2004-2016-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Zahra Sadeghi, Maryam Akaberi, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Alireza Sobhkhizi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Although Iran has a deep history in herbal medicine and great heritage of ancient medical scholars, few efforts have been made to evaluate ethnopharmacological aspects of medicinal plants in this country. In the present study, the authors have reviewed all important literature about the ethnopharmacological investigations on medicinal plants used in the last decade in Iran. All provinces of Iran were categorized according to a phytogeographical division. Information was collected through bibliographic investigations from scientific journals and books...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091894/mechanisms-of-action-of-surgical-interventions-on-weight-related-diseases-the-potential-role-of-bile-acids
#15
REVIEW
Mohsen Mazidi, Pedro Paulo P de Caravatto, John R Speakman, Ricardo V Cohen
Surgical interventions for weight-related diseases (SWRD) may have substantial and sustainable effect on weight reduction, also leading to a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus than any other medical treatment or lifestyle intervention. The resolution of T2D after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) typically occurs too quickly to be accounted for by weight loss alone, suggesting that these operations have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects however remain unclear...
January 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091879/new-medical-therapies-on-the-horizon-oral-octreotide
#16
REVIEW
Nienke R Biermasz
Somatostatin analog treatment is first line medical treatment in patients with acromegaly. This drug is currently mainly administered by monthly depot preparations of octreotide and lanreotide. With the innovative transient permeability enhancer, a technology enabling the absorption of drug molecules via transient opening of the tight junctions of the gut epithelium, it is possible to achieve therapeutic octreotide levels after oral ingestion. The present review summarized the preclinical work and the recently reported phase I and III study on oral octreotide capsules in patients with acromegaly...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091672/a-rapid-way-to-discover-nonstandard-macrocyclic-peptide-modulators-of-drug-targets
#17
Toby Passioura, Hiroaki Suga
Studies of the fundamental nature of RNA catalysis and the potential mechanism of a shift from the "RNA world" to proteinaceous life lead us to identify a set of ribozymes (flexizymes) capable of promiscuous tRNA acylation. Whilst theoretically and mechanistically interesting in their own right, flexizymes have turned out to have immense practical value for the simple synthesis of tRNAs acylated with unusual amino acids, which in turn can be used for the ribosomal synthesis of peptides containing non-canonical residues...
January 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091407/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-drug-induced-liver-injury
#18
Li-Xia Yang, Cheng-Yuan Liu, Lun-Li Zhang, Ling-Ling Lai, Ming Fang, Chong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Drug is an important cause of liver injury and accounts for up to 40% of instances of fulminant hepatic failure. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is increasing while the diagnosis becomes more difficult. Though many drugs may cause DILI, Chinese herbal medicines have recently emerged as a major cause due to their extensive use in China. We aimed to provide drug safety information to patients and health carers by analyzing the clinical and pathological characteristics of the DILI and the associated drug types...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090799/national-hiv-care-continua-for-key-populations
#19
Somya Gupta, Reuben Granich
We reviewed published national HIV care continua for men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and female sex workers (FSWs) to track progress toward the 90-90-90 target. We searched the Internet, PubMed, surveillance reports, United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS country reports, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief country/regional operational plans, and conference abstracts for the continua and graded them on quality. We found 12 continua for MSM, 7 for PWID, and 5 for FSW from 12 countries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090742/a-novel-scale-linking-potency-and-dosage-to-estimate-anticholinergic-exposure-in-older-adults-the-muscarinic-acetylcholinergic-receptor-antagonist-exposure-scale
#20
Therese T Klamer, Maarten Wauters, Majda Azermai, Carlos Durán, Thierry Christiaens, Monique Elseviers, Robert Vander Stichele
Quantification of the anticholinergic exposure insufficiently or imprecisely incorporates dosage information, leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim was to construct a novel scale, including potency and dosage for the quantification of the anticholinergic exposure in older adults. Potency information was retrieved from a previous systematic review. The dosage range for each drug was delineated in minimal, maintenance and maximal dosage for adults and older adults. Dosage information was collected from authoritative sources and reviewed in an expert panel...
November 7, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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