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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244650/pharmacotherapy-for-obesity-what-you-need-to-know
#1
Sophie Bersoux, Tina H Byun, Swarna S Chaliki, Kenneth G Poole
Weight-loss drugs are being evaluated for their role in obesity management. This article reviews the available weight-loss drugs, their efficacy and side effects, and their best clinical use.
December 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243903/update-on-current-care-guideline-psoriasis-skin-and-joints
#2
(no author information available yet)
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the skin and joints. Moderate-to-server cases are associated with an independent risk of comorbidity (cardiovascular diseases and diabetes) even after adjusting for risk factors, known to be more prevalent in psoriatics compared to normal population. The systemic underlying inflammation, analogous to that observed in rheumatoid arthritis, calls for a long-term effective treatment. Screening and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors is highly recommended...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243848/analgesic-efficacy-of-preoperative-dexketoprofen-trometamol-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Vicente Esparza-Villalpando, Amaury Pozos-Guillén, David Masuoka-Ito, César Gaitán-Fonseca, Daniel Chavarría-Bolaños
Post-Market Research Clinical evidence supports the use of dexketoprofen trometamol (DEX) to manage acute postoperative pain. However, controversies surround the impact of the use of this drug in preoperative analgesic protocols. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of the preoperative administration of DEX under postoperative pain conditions. Electronic and manual searches were conducted through diverse electronic databases. A systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of the preoperative administration of DEX was performed including Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) published between 2002 and 2017...
December 15, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243843/signaling-cascades-in-thyroid-cancer-increasing-the-armory-of-archers-to-hit-bullseye
#4
Faiza Abdul Rashid, Qaisar Mansoor, Hafsa Aziz, Sobia Tabassum, Waleed O Arfat, George E Naoum, Muhammad Ismail, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
Thyroid cancer is a multifaceted and therapeutically challenging disease and rapidly accumulating experimentally verified findings have considerably improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms which underlie its development. Substantial fraction of information has been added into existing landscape of molecular oncology and we have started to develop a sharper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Wealth of information demystified different intracellular signaling cascades which are frequently deregulated in thyroid cancer...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243841/encapsulation-challenges-the-substantial-issue-in-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-characterization
#5
Sara Daneshmand, Shiva Golmohammadzadeh, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Jebrail Movaffagh, Mehdi Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), as alternative colloidal carriers, have been used for the sustained release of lipophilic drugs with poor water solubility. One of the most important parameters in the characterization of SLNs is entrapment efficiency (EE). Despite the importance of this factor in estimating the drug loading capacity, EE does not always represent the exact percentage of the entrapped drug. Several variables such as the stirring speed and duration and, concentration of surfactant, emulsifier and drug play important roles in determining the final EE...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243830/proceedings-of-the-food-and-drug-administration-s-public-workshop-on-new-red-blood-cell-product-regulatory-science-2016
#6
Jaroslav G Vostal, Paul W Buehler, Monique P Gelderman, Abdu I Alayash, Alan Doctor, James C Zimring, Simone A Glynn, John R Hess, Harvey Klein, Jason P Acker, Philip C Spinella, Angelo D'Alessandro, Bernhard Palsson, Thomas J Raife, Michael P Busch, Timothy J McMahon, Marcos Intaglietta, Harold M Swartz, Michael A Dubick, Sylvain Cardin, Rakesh P Patel, Charles Natanson, John W Weisel, Jennifer A Muszynski, Philip J Norris, Paul M Ness
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a workshop on red blood cell (RBC) product regulatory science on October 6 and 7, 2016, at the Natcher Conference Center on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The workshop was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH; the Department of Defense; the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Department of Health and Human Services; and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. The workshop reviewed the status and scientific basis of the current regulatory framework and the available scientific tools to expand it to evaluate innovative and future RBC transfusion products...
December 15, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243813/antiepileptic-drug-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#7
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Maria Sudell, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices...
December 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243579/recent-development-of-coumarin-derivatives-as-potential-antiplasmodial-and-antimalarial-agents
#8
Xin-Liang Hu, Chuan Gao, Zhi Xu, Ming-Liang Liu, Lian-Shun Feng, Guang-De Zhang
Malaria still remains one of the leading deadliest diseases throughout the world, leading to around 1 million deaths annually. The emergence and spread of growing resistance to the first-line antimalarials, alarming the serious problem in malaria control and demanding the need for new drugs more potent than earlier with improved absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profiles. Coumarins, which exhibited various biological properties, also displayed potential in vitro antiplasmodial and in vivo antimalarial activities...
December 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243577/recent-developments-of-coumarin-hybrids-as-anti-fungal-agents
#9
Xin-Liang Hu, Zhi Xu, Ming-Liang Liu, Lian-Shun Feng, Guang-De Zhang
Fungi place a huge burden on global healthcare systems attributed to the fact that fungal infections are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality rates in patients who received stem cell transplantation, antineoplastic chemotherapy, organ transplants or suffered human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Unfortunately, almost none of the representative anti-fungal agents currently used in clinical therapy are ideal in terms of efficacy, anti-fungal spectrum or safety. Moreover, the rapid development of resistance to existing anti-fungal drugs has further aggravated the mortality and spread of fungi, creating an urgent need of novel anti-fungal agents...
December 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243575/nanomedicine-strategies-for-sustained-controlled-and-targeted-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Tian-Jun Ma, Jie Gao, Yan Liu, Jian-Hua Zhuang, Chuan Yin, Peng Li, Lei Mao, Jin Xu, Yi-Xin Xu, Yan-Peng Li, Zhong-Xin Zhao, You Yin
Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. The current drugs for AD can only ameliorate the symptoms rather than reverse or prevent the progress of AD. On the other hand, blood-brain barrier (BBB), as a natural barrier, significantly impedes drug delivery from the blood circulation into the brain. Nanomedicine can be a safe, effective and promising approach to treat AD. Objective This review summarizes the recent nanomedicine research in this area, including the use of liposomes and nanoparticles (NPs), to provide new approach for targeted treatment of AD...
December 15, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243538/antineoplastic-agents-exacerbating-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-red-flags-to-avoid-permanent-disability
#11
M J Ibañez-Juliá, G Berzero, G Reyes-Botero, T Maisonobe, T Lenglet, M Slim, S Louis, A Balaguer, M Sanson, E Le Guern, P Latour, D Ricard, T Stojkovic, D Psimaras
BACKGROUND: Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common form of hereditary neuropathy. Due to the high prevalence of mild and undiagnosed forms, patients with CMT disease may be exposed to severe neurotoxicity following the administration of neurotoxic chemotherapies. The aim of this report is to alert oncologists to the potential to precipitate severe irreversible peripheral neuropathies when administering neurotoxic compounds to undiagnosed CMT patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective research in the OncoNeuroTox database was performed (2010-2016), searching for patients with the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and CMT disease...
December 15, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243491/immunogenicity-of-therapeutic-protein-products-current-considerations-for-anti-drug-antibody-assay-in-japan
#12
Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Hiroko Shibata, Kazuko Nishimura, Jun Hosogi, Muneo Aoyama, Kazuhiro Nishimiya, Yoshiro Saito
Immunogenicity assessment is an important issue for ensuring the safety and efficacy of therapeutic protein products. Although the reliability of the anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay is one of the key points, there are some difficulties in assessing its validity because the analytes are polyclonal antibodies with variable and unknown characteristics. To elucidate the points to consider for the ADA assay, a Japanese research group was established that discusses the issues raised on the immunogenicity assessment...
December 15, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243370/neurological-nutritional-and-alcohol-consumption-factors-underlie-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-alcoholism
#13
Rosemary Fama, Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Cheshire Hardcastle, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr
Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al...
December 15, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243331/a-5-year-retrospective-audit-of-prescribing-by-a-critical-care-outreach-team
#14
Mark Wilson
UK prescribing legislation changes made in 2006 and 2012 enabled appropriately qualified nurses to prescribe any licensed medication, and all controlled drugs in schedule 2-5 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001, for any medical condition within their clinical competence. Critical Care Outreach nurses who are independent nurse prescribers are ideally placed to ensure that acutely ill patients receive treatment without delay. The perceived challenge was how Critical Care Outreach nurses would be able to safely prescribe for a diverse patient group...
December 15, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243299/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-children-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#15
Hai-Yin Jiang, Chun-Ting Peng, Xue Zhang, Bing Ruan
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the relationship between antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the children is conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between fetal exposure to antidepressant drugs and the subsequent development of ADHD. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify relevant cohort studies published from inception until October 2017...
December 15, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243229/mirabegron-potential-off-target-effects-and-uses-beyond-the-bladder
#16
REVIEW
Nodi Dehvari, Edilson Dantas da Silva Junior, Tore Bengtsson, Dana S Hutchinson
The ®3 -adrenoceptor was initially an attractive target by several pharmaceutical companies due to its high expression in rodent adipose tissue, where its activation resulted in decreased adiposity and improved metabolic outputs (such as glucose handling) in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, several drugs acting at the β3 -adrenoceptor failed in clinical trials. This was thought to be due to their lack of efficacy at the human receptor. Recently mirabegron, a ®3 -adrenoceptor agonist with human efficacy, was approved in North America, Europe, Japan and Australia for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243171/ipscs-based-generation-of-vascular-cells-reprogramming-approaches-and-applications
#17
REVIEW
Diana Klein
Recent advances in the field of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) research have opened a new avenue for stem cell-based generation of vascular cells. Based on their growth and differentiation potential, human iPSCs constitute a well-characterized, generally unlimited cell source for the mass generation of lineage- and patient-specific vascular cells without any ethical concerns. Human iPSCs-derived vascular cells are perfectly suited for vascular disease modeling studies because patient-derived iPSCs possess the disease-causing mutation, which might be decisive for full expression of the disease phenotype...
December 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243113/effect-of-ugt2b7-genotypes-on-plasma-concentration-of-valproic-acid-a-meta-analysis
#18
Ping Wang, Xiao-Qian Lin, Wen-Ke Cai, Gui-Li Xu, Meng-Di Zhou, Mei Yang, Gong-Hao He
PURPOSE: Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. Recently, increasing evidence suggested that polymorphisms in UGT2B7 gene were associated with VPA pharmacokinetics, but results remained controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise evaluation between C802T, C161T, and G211T polymorphisms and plasma concentration of VPA. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library databases were searched for eligible studies...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242724/longitudinal-decline-of-striatal-subregional-18f-fp-cit-uptake-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Changhwan Sung, Jai Hyuen Lee, Jungsu S Oh, Minyoung Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Sun Ju Chung, Chong Sik Lee, Jae Seung Kim
Purpose: Dopamine transporter imaging is suggested to be a useful imaging biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD) progression and monitoring drug effects. We investigated the longitudinal decline characteristics of striatal [18F]FP-CIT uptake in PD. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 35 PD patients and 9 non-PD patients. All patients underwent [18F]FP-CIT PET at the initial diagnosis and follow-up. PET images were spatially normalized and analyzed with eight striatal and one occipital VOI templates...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242710/retreatment-options-following-hcv-direct-acting-antiviral-failure
#20
Autumn Zuckerman, Cody A Chastain, Susanna Naggie
Despite the excellent efficacy of direct acting antivirals (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), treatment failures do occur. Until recently, retreatment decisions after DAA failure were influenced by the number of available agents, concerns about HCV drug resistance, and lack of data regarding retreatment. Recommended treatment approaches previously depended on limited clinical trials and expert opinion. In this article, we review the current state of the evidence for HCV retreatment after DAA failure. Based on recent clinical trial data, most patients who fail HCV treatment with DAA agents now have excellent retreatment options...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
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