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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933615/immediate-release-versus-controlled-release-carbamazepine-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Graham Powell, Matthew Saunders, Alexandra Rigby, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used drug for epilepsy that is associated with troublesome adverse events including dizziness, double vision, drowsiness, poor co-ordination and unsteadiness. These adverse events often occur during peaks in drug plasma concentration. These adverse events may limit the daily dose of CBZ that can be tolerated and reduce the chances of seizure control in patients who require high doses. A controlled-release formulation of CBZ delivers the same dose over a longer period of time when compared to a standard immediate-release formulation, thereby reducing post-dose peaks in CBZ plasma concentration and potentially reducing adverse events...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933602/fish-tales-the-use-of-zebrafish-xenograft-human-cancer-cell-models
#2
REVIEW
Yvette Drabsch, B Ewa Snaar-Jagalska, Peter Ten Dijke
Advances in scientific techniques have provided researchers with exceptional new opportunities to identify and monitor changes between different cancer types, during different stages of progression, between individual tumor cells and in the surrounding stroma. The wealth of information that can be obtained from new scientific techniques places additional requirements on the conventional cancer models. New models that could be used to rapidly access the (potential) functional importance of newly identified (epi)genetic and proteomic changes and test the efficacy on emerging (combinatorial) therapies are desperately required...
December 9, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933555/pharmacist-s-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-introduction-and-evaluation-at-elderly-patient-admission
#3
Faiza Rhalimi, Mounir Rhalimi, Alain Rauss
BACKGROUND: The role of the clinical pharmacist within the healthcare system remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe a pharmacist's comprehensive geriatric assessment (pCGA) at admission of elderly patients and to assess its relevance in terms of medication compliance and pharmacist interventions (PIs). METHODS: We conducted a prospective interventional study over 29 months in a 34-bed medical/rehabilitation geriatric ward in a French geriatric hospital...
December 8, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933485/fluid-based-biomarkers-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Lucas T Vu, Robert Bowser
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a highly heterogeneous disease with no effective treatment. Drug development has been hampered by the lack of biomarkers that aid in early diagnosis, demonstrate target engagement, monitor disease progression, and can serve as surrogate endpoints to assess the efficacy of treatments. Fluid-based biomarkers may potentially address these issues. An ideal biomarker should exhibit high specificity and sensitivity for distinguishing ALS from control (appropriate disease mimics and other neurologic diseases) populations and monitor disease progression within individual patients...
December 8, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933369/imaging-mass-spectrometry-in-drug-development-and-toxicology
#5
REVIEW
Oskar Karlsson, Jörg Hanrieder
During the last decades, imaging mass spectrometry has gained significant relevance in biomedical research. Recent advances in imaging mass spectrometry have paved the way for in situ studies on drug development, metabolism and toxicology. In contrast to whole-body autoradiography that images the localization of radiolabeled compounds, imaging mass spectrometry provides the possibility to simultaneously determine the discrete tissue distribution of the parent compound and its metabolites. In addition, imaging mass spectrometry features high molecular specificity and allows comprehensive, multiplexed detection and localization of hundreds of proteins, peptides and lipids directly in tissues...
December 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933367/antipsychotic-inductors-of-brain-hypothermia-and-torpor-like-states-perspectives-of-application
#6
REVIEW
Yury S Tarahovsky, Irina S Fadeeva, Natalia P Komelina, Maxim O Khrenov, Nadezhda M Zakharova
Hypothermia and hypometabolism (hypometabothermia) normally observed during natural hibernation and torpor, allow animals to protect their body and brain against the damaging effects of adverse environment. A similar state of hypothermia can be achieved under artificial conditions through physical cooling or pharmacological effects directed at suppression of metabolism and the processes of thermoregulation. In these conditions called torpor-like states, the mammalian ability to recover from stroke, heart attack, and traumatic injuries greatly increases...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933338/progress-in-research-and-application-of-hiv-1-tat-derived-cell-penetrating-peptide
#7
REVIEW
Le Zou, Qilin Peng, Ping Wang, Boting Zhou
Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (TAT) is encoded by HIV-1. It is a peptide rich in basic amino acids and belongs to the protein transduction domain family. It has been found that HIV-1 TAT and its core peptide segment TAT47-57 play an important role in promoting the cellular uptake of coupled bioactive macromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and drug molecules. HIV-1 TAT can also significantly increase the soluble expression of extrinsic proteins...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933140/mitigating-pharmaceutical-waste-exposures-policy-and-program-considerations
#8
EDITORIAL
Eric D Amster
Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932985/pregnane-x-receptor-pxr-mediated-gene-repression-and-cross-talk-of-pxr-with-other-nuclear-receptors-via-coactivator-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Petr Pavek
Pregnane X receptor is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor (NR) that mainly controls inducible expression of xenobiotics handling genes including biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. Nowadays it is clear that PXR is also involved in regulation of intermediate metabolism through trans-activation and trans-repression of genes controlling glucose, lipid, cholesterol, bile acid, and bilirubin homeostasis. In these processes PXR cross-talks with other NRs. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cross-talk is often mediated by competing for common coactivators or by disruption of coactivation and activity of other transcription factors by the ligand-activated PXR...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932945/monoaminergic-and-histaminergic-strategies-and-treatments-in-brain-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Dubravka Svob Strac, Montse Sole, Mercedes Unzeta, Keith F Tipton, Dorotea Mück-Šeler, Irene Bolea, Laura Della Corte, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Anna Stasiak, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The monoaminergic systems are the target of several drugs for the treatment of mood, motor and cognitive disorders as well as neurological conditions. In most cases, advances have occurred through serendipity, except for Parkinson's disease where the pathophysiology led almost immediately to the introduction of dopamine restoring agents. Extensive neuropharmacological studies first showed that the primary target of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytic drugs were specific components of the monoaminergic systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932857/vogt-koyanagi-harada-syndrome-current-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Abeir Baltmr, Sue Lightman, Oren Tomkins-Netzer
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome is a cause of noninfectious panuveitis, leading to significant vision loss in many patients. It is an autoimmune disease occurring in genetically susceptible individuals and clinically presents as bilateral panuveitis with serous retinal detachments and hyperemic, swollen optic discs, which are associated with neurological and auditory manifestations. Early diagnosis and prompt and adequate treatment with immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs) may halt disease progression and prevent recurrences and vision loss...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932801/dna-encoded-chemistry-enabling-the-deeper-sampling-of-chemical-space
#12
Robert A Goodnow, Christoph E Dumelin, Anthony D Keefe
DNA-encoded chemical library technologies are increasingly being adopted in drug discovery for hit and lead generation. DNA-encoded chemistry enables the exploration of chemical spaces four to five orders of magnitude more deeply than is achievable by traditional high-throughput screening methods. Operation of this technology requires developing a range of capabilities including aqueous synthetic chemistry, building block acquisition, oligonucleotide conjugation, large-scale molecular biological transformations, selection methodologies, PCR, sequencing, sequence data analysis and the analysis of large chemistry spaces...
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932224/unmet-needs-in-parkinson-s-disease-new-horizons-in-a-changing-landscape
#13
K Ray Chaudhuri, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Teus van Laar
The success of levodopa and other classes of drugs have meant that most people with Parkinson's disease enjoy a good quality of life for many years. However, despite the availability of several drugs and formulations that can be used as monotherapy and in combination, there are a number of disease features that the current therapies are unable to address. The disease continues to progress despite treatment, patients suffer from a myriad of motor and non-motor symptoms, and a neuroprotective therapy is urgently required...
December 5, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932180/liver-transplant-recipient-with-tumefactive-demyelinating-lesions-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
D-L Wan, K-W Ren, L-L Zhang, B Wang, Z L Zhai, X-Y Zhang, Y-C Yang, S-S Zheng
Tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs) that may resemble brain neoplasms or abscesses are uncommon but noteworthy. A solid knowledge of how to distinguish TDLs from malignancy or infection is a key step to avoid unnecessary medical or surgical interventions. Almost all the intracranial demyelination diseases after liver transplantation (LT) refer to central pontine myelinolysis or extrapontine myelinolysis; TDLs after LT have never been reported. In 2005, a 45-year-old Chinese male underwent orthotopic LT due to "acute on chronic liver failure" in our hospital...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932157/belatacept-and-eculizumab-for-treatment-of-calcineurin-inhibitor-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-after-kidney-transplantation-case-report
#15
J Merola, P S Yoo, J Schaub, J D Smith, M I Rodriguez-Davalos, E Tichy, D C Mulligan, W Asch, R Formica, M Kashgarian, S Kulkarni
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after kidney transplantation is an uncommon and challenging cause of graft dysfunction and is associated with early graft loss. An idiosyncratic endothelial reaction to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has been implicated as a frequent cause of TMA. This reaction is marked by uncontrolled activation of complement and subsequent cellular destruction. Usual therapy consists of withdrawal of the inciting drug and plasmapheresis to minimize levels of circulating complement. Recently, eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody to complement component C5, has been used for the treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931886/neurobiological-after-effects-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#16
REVIEW
G Cirillo, G Di Pino, F Capone, F Ranieri, L Florio, V Todisco, G Tedeschi, K Funke, V Di Lazzaro
BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have evaluated the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques for the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Positive results led to approval of NIBS for some of these conditions by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA. The therapeutic effects of NIBS have been related to bi-directional changes in cortical excitability with the direction of change depending on the choice of stimulation protocol. Although after-effects are mostly short lived, complex neurobiological mechanisms related to changes in synaptic excitability bear the potential to further induce therapy-relevant lasting changes...
November 17, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931836/erythropoietin-and-thrombopoietin-mimetics-natural-alternatives-to-erythrocyte-and-platelet-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Usha Gutti, Satya Ratan Pasupuleti, Itishri Sahu, Aneesh Kotipalli, Ram Babu Undi, Ravinder Kandi, Raja Gopal Venakata Saladi, Ravi Kumar Gutti
Erythropoietin (EPO) and thrombopoietin (TPO) plays a major role in the regulation of hematopoietic development. Though, blood transfusion was the most widely used method to treat low blood count, over the years with advancements in recombinant technology and drug designing, the EPO and TPO mimetics are dominating the therapeutics industry. On the other hand, the recombinant human EPO and TPO are associated either with reduced half-life or immune reactions. The restoration of alternate medicine in recent years has the hope to overcome limitations associated with recombinant technology, to treat various disorder including blood diseases, with low to no side effects...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931835/management-of-patients-with-recurrent-advanced-cervical-cancer-beyond-first-line-platinum-regimens-where-do-we-stand-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Stergios Boussios, Esmeralda Seraj, George Zarkavelis, Dimitrios Petrakis, Aristomenes Kollas, Aikaterini Kafantari, Abraam Assi, Konstantina Tatsi, Nicholas Pavlidis, George Pentheroudakis
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Despite advances in screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, a significant number of women present with or develop advanced disease. Palliative platinum-based chemotherapy (CT) is the standard first-line treatment for metastatic/recurrent cervical cancer. The prognosis remains poor and effective second line options are urgently needed. METHODS: We searched the English-language medical literature as well as relevant guideline databases, published from January 1981 to December 2015 and identified publications related to cervical cancer and its therapies...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931828/targeting-mtor-pathway-in-gynecological-malignancies-biological-rationale-and-systematic-review-of-published-data
#19
REVIEW
Loay Kassem, Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: mTOR inhibitors are widely used in different malignancies with several trials testing their efficacy and safety in gynecological malignancies. We aimed to review the current evidence that support the expansion of using such drugs in the treatment of advanced gynecological cancers. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review of literature has been conducted to include prospective trials that used everolimus, temsirolimus or ridaforolimus in the management of gynecological cancers and have available efficacy and toxicity results...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931774/neonatal-venlafaxine-discontinuation-syndrome-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Jonathon Holland, Richard Brown
During pregnancy, the developing fetal brain may be exposed to a range of psychotropic medications. The serotonin-noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine is one such drug, when used as a maternal antidepressant. Here we review the discontinuation phenomenon that may follow in exposed neonates following birth. Adults who abruptly stop taking venlafaxine can experience withdrawal symptoms. Venlafaxine and its metabolites cross the placenta and so the newborn can be exposed to this risk, as well as potential toxicity...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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