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Piotr T Filipczak, Cynthia L Thomas, Wenshu Chen, Andrew Salzman, Jacob D McDonald, Yong Lin, Steven A Belinsky
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multi-organ disorder characterized by the development of neoplastic lesions in kidney, lung, brain, heart and skin. It is caused by an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor genes coding the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in hyperactivation of mTOR- and Raf/MEK/MAPK-dependent signaling that stimulates tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Despite its oncogenic effect, cells with TSC deficiency were more sensitive to oxidative stress and dependent on mitochondrial metabolism, providing a rationale for a new therapeutic approach...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Research
Z W Zhang, G J Ma, J Zhao, S G Markell, L L Qi
A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population...
September 27, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Qiong He, Ling Tong, Lingyun Huang, Jing Liu, Yinran Chen, Jianwen Luo
Elastography provides tissue mechanical information to differentiate normal and disease states. Nowadays, axial displacement and strain are usually estimated in clinical practice whereas lateral estimation is rarely used given that its accuracy is typically one order of magnitude worse than that of axial estimation. To improve the performance of lateral estimation, spatial angular compounding of multiple axial displacements along ultrasound beams transmitting in different steering angles was previously proposed...
August 18, 2016: Ultrasonics
Rebecca L Stephens, Maura Sabatos-DeVito, J Steven Reznick
Individual differences in early attention are associated with later social, cognitive, and emotional development, and attentional deficits in the first year are associated with risk for developmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The First Year Inventory (FYI; Baranek, Watson, Crais, & Reznick, 2003) was developed to identify 12-month-olds at risk for an ASD diagnosis. The current study identifies FYI items that reflect aspects of early attention that might predict future typical and atypical social, cognitive, and emotional development...
August 8, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Raisa Z Freidlin, Harsh K Agarwal, Sandeep Sankineni, Anna M Brown, Francesca Mertan, Marcelino Bernardo, Dagane Daar, Maria Merino, Deborah Citrin, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey
PURPOSE: The aim of this proof-of-concept work is to propose an unsupervised framework that combines multiple parameters, in "positive-if-all-positive" manner, from different models to localize tumors. METHODS: A voxel-by-voxel analysis of the DW-MRI images of whole prostate was performed to obtain parametric maps for D*, D, f, and K using the IVIM and kurtosis models. Ten patients with moderate or high-risk prostate cancer were included in study. The mean age and serum PSA for these 10 patients were 65years (range 54-78) and 21...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Alyssa M Tutunjian, Nikolay Bugaev, Janis L Breeze, Sandra S Arabian, Reuven Rabinovici
BACKGROUND: Given potential safety risks when admitting injured patients to nonsurgical services (NSS), the American College of Surgeons mandates trauma centers justification. However, evidence supporting this requirement is lacking. METHODS: Adult patients cleared for admission to a NSS at a level 1 trauma center between 2012 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographic, injury, and outcome characteristics were compared between nonsurgical (NSA) and surgical admission patients and analyzed for predictive value...
June 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Alexander I Ivannikov, Artem M Khailov, Sergey P Orlenko, Valeri G Skvortsov, Valeri F Stepanenko, Kassym Sh Zhumadilov, Benjamin B Williams, Ann B Flood, Harold M Swartz
The aim of the study is to determine the average intensity and variation of the native background signal amplitude (NSA) and of the solar light-induced signal amplitude (LSA) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of tooth enamel for different kinds of teeth and different groups of people. These values are necessary for determination of the intensity of the radiation-induced signal amplitude (RSA) by subtraction of the expected NSA and LSA from the total signal amplitude measured in L-band for in vivo EPR dosimetry...
July 13, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Esmaeil Alizadeh, Nader Meskin, Khashayar Khorasani
High operational and maintenance costs represent as major economic constraints in the wind turbine (WT) industry. These concerns have made investigation into fault diagnosis of WT systems an extremely important and active area of research. In this paper, an immune system (IS) inspired methodology for performing fault detection and isolation (FDI) of a WT system is proposed and developed. The proposed scheme is based on a self nonself discrimination paradigm of a biological IS. Specifically, the negative selection mechanism [negative selection algorithm (NSA)] of the human body is utilized...
June 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
A Tucker, O Diamond, S McDonald, A Johnston, M Neil, D Kealey, P Archbold
INTRODUCTION: The Variable angle Martin Plate (MP) is designed to offer patient-specific adaption for the treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures. Its proposed benefits include optimization of lag screw placement, plate shaft congruence and reduced risk of failure. Often its use has been criticized as representing a poor reduction of the fracture. The purpose of this study was to assess for a poorer quality of reduction, and compare functional outcomes and mortality, using a MP to that of a fixed angle Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) in a matched cohort of patients...
June 11, 2016: Injury
Jae Young Park, Young Choi, Byung Chae Cho, Sang Young Moon, Chin Youb Chung, Kyoung Min Lee, Ki Hyuk Sung, Soon-Sun Kwon, Moon Seok Park
Progression of hip displacement is common in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to investigate the rate of progression of hip displacement in patients with CP by assessing changes in radiographic indices according to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level during hip surveillance. We analyzed the medical records of patients with CP aged < 20 years who underwent at least 6 months interval of serial hip radiographs before any surgical hip intervention, including reconstructive surgery...
July 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Kerstin Reidy, Christoph Heidt, Stefan Dierauer, Hanspeter Huber
BACKGROUND: Hip reconstructive surgery in cerebral palsy (CP) patients necessitates either femoral varus derotational osteotomy (VDRO) or pelvic osteotomy, or both. The purpose of this study is to review the results of a moderate varisation [planned neck shaft angle (NSA) of 130°] in combination with pelvic osteotomy for a consecutive series of patients. METHODS: Patients with CP who had been treated at our institution for hip dysplasia, subluxation or dislocation with VDRO in combination with pelvic osteotomy between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed...
August 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Devendra Pathrot, Rehan Ul Haq, Aditya N Aggarwal, Mahindra Nagar, Shuchi Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Intramedullary devices have increasingly become popular and are widely used for fixation of unstable intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. These implants have been designed taking into consideration of the anthropometry of the western population which varies from those of other ethnic groups. This study was carried out to assess the geometry of proximal femur for the placement of short cephalomedullary nails in our subset of patients and suggest suitable design modifications based on these parameters...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
David W Roberts, Yavuz Saglam, Adriana De La Rocha, Brigid N Frasquillo, Kirsten Tulchin-Francis, Harry K W Kim
BACKGROUND: Congenital coxa vara (CCV) is a rare hip condition with few long-term studies. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes after operative and nonoperative treatment of CCV, assess reliability of radiographic parameters, and investigate risk factors for recurrence after surgery. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of all CCV patients treated at 1 institution from 1980 to 2010. In addition, patients were recalled for additional follow-up x-rays, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and gait analysis...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Jun Yuan, Yu Wu, Ji-yong Li, Xi Chen, Li Zhang, Yu-feng Liu, Sheng-xiong Tong, Fang-fang Deng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of dexmedetomidine combined electrical stimulation on cognitive function of neurosurgical diseases patients treated by extracerebral intervention. METHODS: Totally 122 patients with neurosurgical diseases who underwent selective intervention were randomly assigned to the observation group and the control group, 61 cases in each group. Patients in the control group recieved anesthesia by dexmedetomidine. Those in the observation group received electrical stimulation at Baihui (DU20), Yintang ( EX-HN3), and Neiguan (PC6) before dexmedetomidine anesthesia...
March 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Sarah Meyer, Nele De Bruyn, Lena Krumlinde-Sundholm, Andre Peeters, Hilde Feys, Vincent Thijs, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Longitudinal information regarding the prevalence of upper limb somatosensory deficits and the association with motor impairment and activity limitations is scarce. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to map the extent and distribution of somatosensory deficits, and to determine associations over time between somatosensory deficits and motor impairment and activity limitations. METHODS: We recruited 32 participants who were assessed 4 to 7 days after stroke, and reassessed at 6 months...
July 2016: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Albert d'Heurle, James McCarthy, David Klimaski, Keith Stringer
BACKGROUND: Guided growth has long been used in the lower extremities but has not been applied to varus or valgus deformity in the hip, as may occur in children with cerebral palsy or developmental dysplasia of the hip. The purpose of this study was to determine if screw, plate, or drilling techniques decreased the femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) and articular trochanteric disease (ATD), as well as describe growth plate structural changes with each method. METHODS: Twelve 8-week-old lambs underwent proximal femoral hemiepiphysiodesis (IACUC approved) using either a screw (n=4), plate (n=4), or drilling procedure (n=4)...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Alexander Ciritsis, Daniel Truhn, Nienke L Hansen, Jens Otto, Christiane K Kuhl, Nils A Kraemer
OBJECT: In MRI, implants and devices can be delineated via susceptibility artefacts. To discriminate susceptibility voids from proton-free structures, different positive contrast techniques were implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pulse sequence-based positive contrast technique (PCSI) and a post-processing susceptibility gradient mapping algorithm (SGM) for visualization of iron loaded mesh implants in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five patients with iron-loaded MR-visible inguinal hernia mesh implants were examined at 1...
2016: PloS One
S Schiavone, M Neri, E Mhillaj, M G Morgese, S Cantatore, M Bove, I Riezzo, P Tucci, C Pomara, E Turillazzi, V Cuomo, L Trabace
Recent evidence points towards a role of oxidative stress in suicidality. However, few studies were carried out on the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in subjects with suicidal behaviour. We have previously demonstrated that the NADPH oxidase NOX2-derived oxidative stress has a major role in the development of neuropathological alterations observed in an animal model of psychosis. Here, we investigated the possible increase in NOX2 in post mortem brain samples of subjects who died by asphyctic suicide (AS) compared with controls (CTRL) and subjects who died by non-suicidal asphyxia (NSA)...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Yaoping Liu, Lingqian Zhang, Wengang Wu, Meiping Zhao, Wei Wang
Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of proteins on surface is a critical issue in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidics, which may either considerably decrease the efficiency of a continuous flow reaction or cause a large background noise in a heterogeneous sensing. This work introduced a new method to restrain NSA of protein by caulking PDMS with Parylene C, i.e., forming a Parylene C-caulked PDMS (pcPDMS) surface. The caulking depth of Parylene C inside PDMS matrix was characterized by laser scanning confocal microscopy based on a detectable autofluorescence intensity difference between Parylene C and PDMS after being annealed at 270 °C for 2 h in nitrogen...
March 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Thomas Oduntan Adekoya-Cole, Olasode Israel Akinmokun, Kofoworola O Soyebi, Omachoko Emmanuel Oguche
BACKGROUND: Most of the available orthopaedic implants were designed and manufactured based on data from Western population whose skeletal dimensions are different from those of Africans. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the value of the neck-shaft angle (NSA) of Nigerians living in Lagos for the purpose of adequate planning, preparation, and pre-operative selection of orthopaedic implants for surgeries involving the femoral neck and stocking of orthopaedic implants in hospitals located in resource poor countries like Nigeria...
January 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
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