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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809621/cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-mortality-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Abdullahi Mudi, Caroline Dickens, Cecil Levy, Daynia Ballot
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its progression is determined by the presence of single or multiple cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of CVRFs in children with CKD and their association with mortality in children on chronic dialysis. METHODS: This comparative cross-sectional study recruited children aged 5 - 18 years with all stages of CKD...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783055/usual-choline-intakes-are-associated-with-egg-and-protein-food-consumption-in-the-united-states
#2
Taylor C Wallace, Victor L Fulgoni
Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005-2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U...
August 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782989/longitudinal-modelling-of-the-exposure-of-young-uk-patients-with-pku-to-acesulfame-k-and-sucralose
#3
J Aaron O'Sullivan, Sandrine Pigat, Cian O'Mahony, Michael J Gibney, Aideen I McKevitt
Artificial sweeteners are used in protein substitutes intended for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism (Phenylketonuria, PKU) to improve the variety of medical foods available to patients and ensure dietary adherence to the prescribed course of dietary management. These patients can be exposed to artificial sweeteners from the combination of free and prescribed foods. Young children have a higher risk of exceeding acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for additives than adults due to higher food intakes per kg body weight...
August 7, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760436/impact-of-the-structure-and-dose-of-protein-intake-on-clinical-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-critically-ill-children-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Daniela B Hauschild, Julia C Ventura, Nilesh M Mehta, Yara M F Moreno
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the effects of structure/type and total amount of protein intake on protein balance and clinical outcomes in critically ill children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature on Embase, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences. A partial gray literature search was undertaken and the reference lists of the selected articles were searched manually...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750066/cross-modulation-of-pathogen-specific-pathways-enhances-malnutrition-during-enteric-co-infection-with-giardia-lamblia-and-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#5
Luther A Bartelt, David T Bolick, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Glynis L Kolling, Gregory L Medlock, Edna I Zaenker, Jeffery Donowitz, Rose Viguna Thomas-Beckett, Allison Rogala, Ian M Carroll, Steven M Singer, Jason Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
Diverse enteropathogen exposures associate with childhood malnutrition. To elucidate mechanistic pathways whereby enteric microbes interact during malnutrition, we used protein deficiency in mice to develop a new model of co-enteropathogen enteropathy. Focusing on common enteropathogens in malnourished children, Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), we provide new insights into intersecting pathogen-specific mechanisms that enhance malnutrition. We show for the first time that during protein malnutrition, the intestinal microbiota permits persistent Giardia colonization and simultaneously contributes to growth impairment...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749076/serum-and-gene-expression-levels-of-ct-1-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-after-a-lifestyle-intervention-in-obese-children
#6
A Marti, L Morell-Azanza, T Rendo-Urteaga, S García-Calzón, A Ojeda-Rodríguez, N Martín-Calvo, M J Moreno-Aliaga, J A Martínez, M C Azcona-San Julián
BACKGROUND: Inflammation related molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) are highly expressed in obese individuals and could partly explain some comorbidities associated to obesity. In obese children, lifestyle interventions are able to lower inflammation and reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. The aim of the present work was to study changes in inflammation-related molecules serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcript levels after a 10-week lifestyle intervention in obese children and asses their potential association with glucose metabolism...
July 27, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733963/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-angiopoietin-like-protein-4-levels-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#7
Z A Sadeghabadi, M Nourbakhsh, M Alaee, B Larijani, M Razzaghy-Azar
PURPOSE: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is highly expressed in adipose tissue and functions as transcriptional regulator of metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), a central player in various aspects of energy homoeostasis, is induced by PPARγ. The aim of this study was to evaluate ANGPTL4 plasma levels and PPARγ gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of children and adolescents with obesity and their association with metabolic parameters...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732066/inhibition-of-pulmonary-%C3%AE-carotene-15-15-oxygenase-expression-by-glucocorticoid-involves-ppar%C3%AE
#8
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. A balance between the actions of retinoids and glucocorticoids (GCs) promotes normal lung development and, in particular, alveolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731302/lead-ii-binding-in-metallothioneins
#9
Daisy L Wong, Maureen E Merrifield-MacRae, Martin J Stillman
Heavy metal exposure has long been associated with metallothionein (MT) regulation and its functions. MT is a ubiquitous, cysteine-rich protein that is involved in homeostatic metal response for the essential metals zinc and copper, as well as detoxification of heavy metals; the most commonly proposed being cadmium. MT binds in vivo to a number of metals in addition to zinc, cadmium and copper, such as bismuth. In vitro, metallation with a wide range of metals (especially mercury, arsenic, and lead) has been reported using a variety of analytical methods...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731294/the-bioinorganic-chemistry-of-lead-in-the-context-of-its-toxicity
#10
Wolfgang Maret
Owing to its abundance on earth and its multiple uses by humans, lead (Pb) is a major toxicant that has threatened human health for millennia and continues to do so. There is no safe level of exposure, necessitating a nuanced approach to its control in the food we consume, the water we drink, and the air we breathe. Turnover in soft tissues is within days. In contrast, lead accumulates in bone and turns over with a half-life of about 30 years, though it can be mobilized from bone under physiological and pathophysiological conditions of bone resorption...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728946/serum-galectin-1-levels-are-positively-correlated-with-body-fat-and-negatively-with-fasting-glucose-in-obese-children
#11
Sezer Acar, Ahu Paketçi, Tuncay Küme, Hale Tuhan, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Korcan Demir, Ece Böber, Ayhan Abacı
Galectin-1, a recently identified peptide, is primarily released from the adipose tissue. Although galectin-1 was shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect, its specific function is not clearly understood. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum galectin-1 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters in childhood obesity. A total of 45 obese children (mean age: 12.1±3.1years) and 35 normal-weight children (mean age: 11.8±2.2years) were enrolled. Clinical [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat and blood pressure] and biochemical [glucose, insulin, lipids, galectin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leptin levels] parameters were assessed...
July 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727775/adolescent-health-in-rural-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-co-occurrence-of-infectious-diseases-malnutrition-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors
#12
Marie Alicke, Justice K Boakye-Appiah, Inusah Abdul-Jalil, Andrea Henze, Markus van der Giet, Matthias B Schulze, Florian J Schweigert, Frank P Mockenhaupt, George Bedu-Addo, Ina Danquah
In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#13
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714487/screening-mentally-retarded-children-for-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#14
N K Shreevastava, A S Pandey
BACKGROUND: Most inborn errors of metabolism result in mental retardation and death due to accumulation of abnormal metabolites in the tissues. The presence of abnormal metabolites in the urine of mentally retarded individuals has been used worldwide for detection of inborn errors of metabolism. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of inborn error of metabolism in mentally retarded children. METHODS: Random urine samples were collected from mentally retarded children at two institutes in Kathmandu, and also from 60 normal children from Duwakot, Nepal after obtaining consent from their parents...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704425/in-vitro-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-metabolic-biomarkers-for-the-combination-of-temozolomide-with-pi3k-inhibition-in-paediatric-glioblastoma-cells
#15
Nada M S Al-Saffar, Alice Agliano, Lynley V Marshall, L Elizabeth Jackson, Geetha Balarajah, Jasmin Sidhu, Paul A Clarke, Chris Jones, Paul Workman, Andrew D J Pearson, Martin O Leach
Recent experimental data showed that the PI3K pathway contributes to resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) in paediatric glioblastoma and that this effect is reversed by combination treatment of TMZ with a PI3K inhibitor. Our aim is to assess whether this combination results in metabolic changes that are detectable by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, potentially providing metabolic biomarkers for PI3K inhibition and TMZ combination treatment. Using two genetically distinct paediatric glioblastoma cell lines, SF188 and KNS42, in vitro 1H-NMR analysis following treatment with the dual pan-Class I PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 resulted in a decrease in lactate and phosphocholine (PC) levels (P<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704105/role-of-the-polymorphisms-of-uncoupling-protein-genes-in-childhood-obesity-and-their-association-with-obesity-related-disturbances
#16
Ali Gul, Ömer Ateş, Samet Özer, Tuba Kasap, Emel Ensari, Osman Demir, Ergün Sönmezgöz
BACKGROUND: Obesity, one of the most common disorders observed in clinical practice, has been associated with energy metabolism-related protein genes such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs). Herein, we evaluated UCPs as candidate genes for obesity and its morbidities. METHODS: A total of 268 obese and 185 nonobese children and adolescents were enrolled in this study. To determine dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, laboratory tests were derived from fasting blood samples...
July 13, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697391/nutrients-in-one-carbon-metabolism-and-urinary-arsenic-methylation-in-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-2003-2004
#17
Margaret Kurzius-Spencer, Vanessa da Silva, Cynthia A Thomson, Vern Hartz, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Jefferey L Burgess, Mary Kay O'Rourke, Robin B Harris
Exposure to inorganic arsenic (inAs), a potent toxicant, occurs primarily through ingestion of food and water. The efficiency with which it is methylated to mono and dimethyl arsenicals (MMA and DMA) affects toxicity. Folate, vitamins B12 and B6 are required for 1C metabolism, and studies have found that higher levels of these nutrients increase methylation capacity and are associated with protection against adverse health effects from inAs, especially in undernourished populations. Our aim was to determine whether 1C-related nutrients are associated with greater inAs methylation capacity in a general population sample with overall adequate nutrition and low levels of As exposure...
July 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696212/compound-heterozygous-slc19a3-mutations-further-refine-the-critical-promoter-region-for-biotin-thiamine-responsive-basal-ganglia-disease
#18
Whitney Whitford, Isobel Hawkins, Emma Glamuzina, Francessa Wilson, Andrew Marshall, Fern Ashton, Donald R Love, Juliet Taylor, Rosamund Hill, Klaus Lehnert, Russell G Snell, Jessie C Jacobsen
Mutations in the gene SLC19A3 result in thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 2, also known as biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD). This neurometabolic disease typically presents in early-childhood with progressive neurodegeneration, including confusion, seizures, and dysphagia, advancing to coma and death. Treatment is possible via supplement of biotin and/or thiamine, with early treatment resulting in significant life-long improvements. Here we report two siblings who received a refined diagnosis of BTBGD following whole genome sequencing...
July 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677866/increased-incidence-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-male-rat-offspring-exposed-to-fluoxetine-during-fetal-and-neonatal-life-involves-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-augmented-de-novo-hepatic-lipogenesis
#19
Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway
Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676625/liver-x-receptor-gene-expression-is-enhanced-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hyperpnoea-syndrome-and-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-is-correlated-with-severity-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-osahs
#20
Xin-Hua Ye, Hong Chen, Qin Yu, Qing-Ling Zhu
BACKGROUND Liver X receptor (LXR) is a nuclear receptor presenting in macrophages; it works indispensably in lipid metabolism control and also negatively regulates the expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages. There are many LXR-related studies in adults with metabolic syndrome but rare reports in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of LXR, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) genes in obese children with OSAHS compared with obese children without OSAHS and non-obese children...
July 5, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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