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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103636/limited-excessive-voluntary-alcohol-drinking-leads-to-liver-dysfunction-in-mice
#1
Scott A Wegner, Katherine A Pollard, Viktor Kharazia, David Darevsky, Luz Perez, Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Allison Xu, Dorit Ron, Laura E Nagy, Frederic Woodward Hopf
BACKGROUND: Liver damage is a serious and sometimes fatal consequence of long-term alcohol intake, which progresses from early-stage fatty liver (steatosis) to later-stage steatohepatitis with inflammation and fibrosis/necrosis. However, very little is known about earlier stages of liver disruption that may occur in problem drinkers, those who drink excessively but are not dependent on alcohol. METHODS: We examined how repeated binge-like alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice altered liver function, as compared with a single binge-intake session and with repeated moderate alcohol consumption...
January 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103400/the-sufbc2-d-complex-is-required-for-the-biogenesis-of-all-major-classes-of-plastid-fe-s-proteins
#2
Xueyun Hu, Yukako Kato, Akihiro Sumida, Ayumi Tanaka, Ryouichi Tanaka
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins play crucial roles in plastids, participating in photosynthesis and other metabolic pathways. Fe-S clusters are thought to be assembled on a scaffold complex composed of SUFB, SUFC and SUFD proteins. However, several additional proteins provide putative scaffold functions in plastids, and, therefore, the contribution of SUFB, C and D proteins to overall Fe-S assembly still remains unclear. In order to gain insights regarding Fe-S cluster biosynthesis in plastids, we analyzed the complex composed of SUFB, C and D in Arabidopsis by blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
January 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103301/differences-in-beef-quality-between-angus-bos-taurus-taurus-and-nellore-bos-taurus-indicus-cattle-through-a-proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-approach
#3
Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues, Mario Luiz Chizzotti, Camilo Elber Vital, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Edvaldo Barros, Karina Costa Busato, Rafael Aparecido Gomes, Márcio Machado Ladeira, Taiane da Silva Martins
Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103132/functional-gains-in-energy-and-cell-metabolism-after-tspo-gene-insertion
#4
Guo-Jun Liu, Ryan J Middleton, Winnie Wai-Ying Kam, David Y Chin, Claire R Hatty, Ronald H Y Chan, Richard B Banati
Recent loss-of-function studies in tissue-specific as well as global Tspo (Translocator Protein 18 kDa) knockout mice have not confirmed its long assumed indispensability for the translocation of cholesterol across the mitochondrial inter-membrane space, a rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis. Instead, recent studies in global Tspo knockout mice indicate that TSPO may play a more fundamental role in cellular bioenergetics, which may include the indirect down-stream regulation of transport or metabolic functions...
January 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103056/age-related-changes-to-vascular-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-relationship-between-oxidative-stress-receptor-expression-and-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation
#5
Kana Maruyama, Satomi Kagota, John J McGuire, Hirokazu Wakuda, Noriko Yoshikawa, Kazuki Nakamura, Kazumasa Shinozuka
Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is expressed in vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide (NO) - cyclic GMP-mediated vasodilation in response to 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide (2fLIGRLO), a PAR2-activating peptide, is impaired in aortas from aged SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr (SHRSP.ZF) rats with metabolic syndrome. Here we investigated mechanisms linking PAR2's vascular effects to phenotypic characteristics of male SHRSP.ZF rats at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of age. We found vasodilation responses to either 2fLIGRLO or enzyme-mediated PAR2 activation by trypsin were sustained until 20 weeks and lessened at 30 weeks...
October 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102545/-rice-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-oscpk17-targets-plasma-membrane-intrinsic-protein-and-sucrose-phosphate-synthase-and-is-required-for-a-proper-cold-stress-response
#6
M Cecília Almadanim, Bruno M Alexandre, Margarida T G Rosa, Helena Sapeta, António E Leitão, José C Ramalho, TuKiet T Lam, Sónia Negrão, Isabel A Abreu, M Margarida Oliveira
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102207/drosophila-fit-is-a-protein-specific-satiety-hormone-essential-for-feeding-control
#8
Jinghan Sun, Chang Liu, Xiaobing Bai, Xiaoting Li, Jingyun Li, Zhiping Zhang, Yunpeng Zhang, Jing Guo, Yan Li
Protein homeostasis is critical for health and lifespan of animals. However, the mechanisms for controlling protein feeding remain poorly understood. Here we report that in Drosophila, protein intake-induced feeding inhibition (PIFI) is specific to protein-containing food, and this effect is mediated by a fat body (FB) peptide named female-specific independent of transformer (FIT). Upon consumption of protein food, FIT expression is greatly elevated. Secreted FIT peptide in the fly haemolymph conveys this metabolic message to the brain, thereby promoting the release of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (DILP2) and suppressing further protein intake...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102119/glutathione-and-glutathione-transferase-omega-1-as-key-posttranslational-regulators-in-macrophages
#9
Mark M Hughes, Anne F McGettrick, Luke A J O'Neill
Macrophage activation during phagocytosis or by pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4, leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS act as a microbicidal defense mechanism, promoting clearance of infection, allowing for resolution of inflammation. Overproduction of ROS, however, overwhelms our cellular antioxidant defense system, promoting oxidation of protein machinery, leading to macrophage dysregulation and pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as atherosclerosis...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101967/host-related-factors-explaining-interindividual-variability-of-carotenoid-bioavailability-and-tissue-concentrations-in-humans
#10
Torsten Bohn, Charles Desmarchelier, Lars O Dragsted, Charlotte S Nielsen, Wilhelm Stahl, Ralph Rühl, Jaap Keijer, Patrick Borel
Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life-style habits (e.g. smoking), gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms that govern carotenoid metabolism. These are expected to explain interindividual differences that contribute to carotenoid uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and therefore possibly also their association with disease risk...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101936/quantitative-itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-rice-grains-to-assess-high-night-temperature-stress
#11
Hong-Yu Zhang, Gang Lei, Hui-Wen Zhou, Chao He, Jiang-Lin Liao, Ying-Jin Huang
Rice yield and quality are adversely affected by increasing global surface temperature, and are strongly attributed to high night temperature (HNT) than high daytime temperature. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the heat-tolerant characteristics of rice remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the proteomes of heat-tolerant and -sensitive lines of rice at early milky stage using an iTRAQ method. We have identified 38 differentially expressed proteins between the two lines, of which 32 proteins have been functionally annotated in NCBI and/or the UniProt database...
January 19, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101851/importance-of-radioactive-labelling-to-elucidate-inositol-polyphosphate-signalling
#12
REVIEW
Miranda S C Wilson, Adolfo Saiardi
Inositol polyphosphates, in their water-soluble or lipid-bound forms, represent a large and multifaceted family of signalling molecules. Some inositol polyphosphates are well recognised as defining important signal transduction pathways, as in the case of the calcium release factor Ins(1,4,5)P3, generated by receptor activation-induced hydrolysis of the lipid PtdIns(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C. The birth of inositol polyphosphate research would not have occurred without the use of radioactive phosphate tracers that enabled the discovery of the "PI response"...
February 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101847/off-target-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-the-p2x7-receptor-antagonist-az11645373
#13
Olga V Oskolkova, Viktoria Godschachner, Valery N Bochkov
We have found that a well-characterized P2X7 receptor antagonist AZ11645373 blocked production of pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 in endothelial cells treated with OxPAPC. The effect was not due to toxicity of AZ11645373 as documented by cellular metabolic activity assay. The mechanism of inhibition by AZ11645373 was apparently independent of the P2X7 receptor because this receptor was not involved in induction of IL-8 under our experimental conditions. In support of this notion, two P2X7 agonists ATP and BzATP did not upregulate IL-8...
January 19, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101822/lupinus-albus-conglutin-gamma-modifies-the-gene-expressions-of-enzymes-involved-in-glucose-hepatic-production-in-vivo
#14
Ana E González-Santiago, Belinda Vargas-Guerrero, Pedro M García-López, Alma L Martínez-Ayala, José A Domínguez-Rosales, Carmen M Gurrola-Díaz
Lupinus albus seeds contain conglutin gamma (Cγ) protein, which exerts a hypoglycemic effect and positively modifies proteins involved in glucose homeostasis. Cγ could potentially be used to manage patients with impaired glucose metabolism, but there remains a need to evaluate its effects on hepatic glucose production. The present study aimed to analyze G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions in two experimental animal models of impaired glucose metabolism. We also evaluated hepatic and renal tissue integrity following Cγ treatment...
January 18, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101778/eight-novel-mut-loss-of-function-missense-mutations-in-chinese-patients-with-isolated-methylmalonic-academia
#15
Lian-Shu Han, Zhuo Huang, Feng Han, Yu Wang, Zhu-Wen Gong, Xue-Fan Gu
BACKGROUND: Isolated methylmalonic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder mostly caused by mutations in the methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MCM) gene (MUT). This study aimed to verify whether missense mutations in MUT in Chinese patients affect the stability and enzymatic activity of MCM. METHODS: Eight Chinese patients were identified with novel mutations. Plasmids carrying the wild-type and mutated MUT cDNA were constructed and transfected into HEK293T cells for functional analyses...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101752/the-impact-of-hydrocortisone-treatment-on-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-release-in-porcine-endotoxemic-shock
#16
E Söderberg, M Eriksson, A Larsson, M Lipcsey
BACKGROUND: A key feature of sepsis is systemic inflammatory activation that could be counteracted by steroids. In this experimental model of systemic inflammation, we sought to investigate whether septic neutrophil activation, evaluated by the plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated protein (NGAL), is modulated by the timing of hydrocortisone treatment. METHODS: Sixteen anesthetized pigs were allocated to one of four equally sized groups. Three of these groups received endotoxin at 2 μg × kg(-1) × h(-1) for 6 h so as to induce endotoxemic shock...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101358/novel-predictive-biomarkers-for-cervical-cancer-prognosis
#17
Pablo Moreno-Acosta, Schyrly Carrillo, Oscar Gamboa, Alfredo Romero-Rojas, Jinneth Acosta, Monica Molano, Joseph Balart-Serra, Martha Cotes, Chloé Rancoule, Nicolas Magné
High hypoxic, glycolytic and acidosis metabolisms characterize cervical cancer tumors and have been described to be involved in chemoradioresistance mechanisms. Based on these observations, the present study assessed four selected novel biomarkers on the prognosis of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. A total of 66 patients with stage IIB/IIIB cervical cancer were retrospectively included. The protein expression levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) and hexokinase 1 (HKII) were investigated by immunohistochemistry on tumor biopsies, hemoglobin was measured and the disease outcome was monitored...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101337/adipocyte-lipolysis-links-obesity-to-breast-cancer-growth-adipocyte-derived-fatty-acids-drive-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#18
Seher Balaban, Robert F Shearer, Lisa S Lee, Michelle van Geldermalsen, Mark Schreuder, Harrison C Shtein, Rose Cairns, Kristen C Thomas, Daniel J Fazakerley, Thomas Grewal, Jeff Holst, Darren N Saunders, Andrew J Hoy
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased recurrence and reduced survival of breast cancer. Adipocytes constitute a significant component of breast tissue, yet their role in provisioning metabolic substrates to support breast cancer progression is poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we show that co-culture of breast cancer cells with adipocytes revealed cancer cell-stimulated depletion of adipocyte triacylglycerol. Adipocyte-derived free fatty acids were transferred to breast cancer cells, driving fatty acid metabolism via increased CPT1A and electron transport chain complex protein levels, resulting in increased proliferation and migration...
2017: Cancer & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101242/screening-and-analysis-of-breast-cancer-genes-regulated-by-the-human-mammary-microenvironment-in-a-humanized-mouse-model
#19
Mingjie Zheng, Jue Wang, Lijun Ling, Dandan Xue, Shui Wang, Yi Zhao
Tumor microenvironments play critical regulatory roles in tumor growth. Although mouse cancer models have contributed to the understanding of human tumor biology, the effectiveness of mouse cancer models is limited by the inability of the models to accurately present humanized tumor microenvironments. Previously, a humanized breast cancer model in severe combined immunodeficiency mice was established, in which human breast cancer tissue was implanted subcutaneously, followed by injection of human breast cancer cells...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101192/c-peptide-exhibits-a-late-induction-effect-on-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-high-glucose-stimulated-rat-mesangial-cells
#20
Junxia Wang, Yanning Li, Mingzhi Xu, Dandan Li, Yu Wang, Jinsheng Qi, Kunyu He
Insufficient matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 is considered to be a contributor of extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in diabetic nephropathy (DN). C-peptide can reverse fibrosis, thus exerting a beneficial effect on DN. Whether C-peptide induces MMP-9 and MMP-2 to reverse ECM accumulation is not clear. In the present study, in order to determine ECM metabolism, rat mesangial cells were treated with high glucose (HG) and C-peptide intervention, then the early and late effects of C-peptide on HG-affected MMP-9 and MMP-2 were evaluated...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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