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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923109/generation-of-domain-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-against-human-glutaredoxin3
#1
Xin Dai, Yanqing Li, Xiaohong Sun, Kai Cai, Qinwen Mao, Haibin Xia
Human Glutaredoxin3 (hGLRX3), which encodes a 37.4 kDa protein, possesses an N-terminal Trx homology domain followed by two tandem repeats of Grx domains. GLRX3 is expressed in many tissues and plays important roles in iron metabolism, antioxidant effect, cell proliferation and development, regulation of immune reaction, and tumorigenesis. The mechanisms underlying the biological function of GLRX3 are still not clear. To facilitate the functional research of GLRX3, in this study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against hGLRX3 were produced by using purified prokaryotic recombinant 6His-hGLRX3 fusion protein as the immunogen...
December 6, 2016: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923067/chronological-lifespan-in-yeast-is-dependent-on-the-accumulation-of-storage-carbohydrates-mediated-by-yak1-mck1-and-rim15-kinases
#2
Lu Cao, Yingzhi Tang, Zhenzhen Quan, Zhe Zhang, Stephen G Oliver, Nianshu Zhang
Upon starvation for glucose or any other macronutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of characteristics that are specific to quiescent cells to ensure longevity. Little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence entry and lifespan extension. Using starvation-specific gene reporters, we screened a subset of the yeast deletion library representing the genes encoding 'signaling' proteins. Apart from the previously characterised Rim15, Mck1 and Yak1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators were shown to be necessary for proper quiescence establishment and for extension of chronological lifespan (CLS), suggesting that entry into quiescence requires the integration of starvation signals transmitted via multiple signaling pathways...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922938/skeletal-muscle-mass-is-associated-with-higher-dietary-protein-intake-and-lower-body-fat-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Thaís R Silva, Poli M Spritzer
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between skeletal muscle mass and dietary protein intake, habitual physical activity, body composition, and metabolic variables. METHODS: One hundred three healthy postmenopausal women from southern Brazil (age 55.2 ± 4.9 y, body mass index 27.2 ± 4.6 kg/m) were enrolled. Bone mineral density, %body fat, %trunk fat mass, and appendicular lean mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, and habitual physical activity by pedometer...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922824/impaired-energy-metabolism-of-senescent-muscle-satellite-cells-is-associated-with-oxidative-modifications-of-glycolytic-enzymes
#5
Martín A Baraibar, Janek Hyzewicz, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Carina Prip-Buus, Gillian Butler-Browne, Bertrand Friguet
Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not completely understood. In the present study we have addressed the potential impact of oxidatively modified proteins on the altered metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a modified proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during the replicative senescence of satellite cells...
December 4, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922662/metabolic-reprogramming-and-ampk%C3%AE-1-pathway-activation-by-caulerpin-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#6
Hua Yu, Huiqin Zhang, Mingjun Dong, Zhou Wu, Zhonglei Shen, Yangyang Xie, Zhenfang Kong, Xiaoyu Dai, Binbin Xu
Caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this study, the anticancer property of caulerpin was assessed in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that caulerpin inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and facilitated an early intervention of the mitochondrial function, via inhibiting mitochondrial complex I, accompanied by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and a surge of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922641/ip3-accumulation-and-or-inositol-depletion-two-downstream-lithium-s-effects-that-may-mediate-its-behavioral-and-cellular-changes
#7
Y Sade, L Toker, N Z Kara, H Einat, S Rapoport, D Moechars, G T Berry, Y Bersudsky, G Agam
Lithium is the prototype mood stabilizer but its mechanism is still unresolved. Two hypotheses dominate-the consequences of lithium's inhibition of inositol monophosphatase at therapeutically relevant concentrations (the 'inositol depletion' hypothesis), and of glycogen-synthase kinase-3. To further elaborate the inositol depletion hypothesis that did not decisively determine whether inositol depletion per se, or phosphoinositols accumulation induces the beneficial effects, we utilized knockout mice of either of two inositol metabolism-related genes-IMPA1 or SMIT1, both mimic several lithium's behavioral and biochemical effects...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922609/the-molecular-basis-of-metabolic-cycles-and-their-relationship-to-circadian-rhythms
#8
REVIEW
Jane Mellor
Metabolic cycles result from the partitioning of oxidative and reductive metabolism into rhythmic phases of gene expression and oscillating post-translational protein modifications. Relatively little is known about how these switches in gene expression are controlled, although recent studies have suggested that transcription itself may play a central role. This review explores the molecular basis of the metabolic and gene-expression oscillations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as how they relate to other biological time-keeping mechanisms, such as circadian rhythms...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922495/toxic-and-endocrine-myopathies
#9
Hans D Katzberg, Charles D Kassardjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of toxic and endocrine myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Early detection and expeditious correction of metabolic disturbances in endocrinopathies such as Cushing syndrome, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, and acromegaly can minimize and prevent neurologic complications including myopathy. Recently proposed mechanisms of injury in patients with critical illness myopathy include inhibition of protein synthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative stress, and disruption of intramuscular calcium homeostasis, which can cause a myosin-loss myopathy...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922115/perilipin-5-fine-tunes-lipid-oxidation-to-metabolic-demand-and-protects-against-lipotoxicity-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Claire Laurens, Virginie Bourlier, Aline Mairal, Katie Louche, Pierre-Marie Badin, Etienne Mouisel, Alexandra Montagner, André Marette, Angelo Tremblay, John S Weisnagel, Hervé Guillou, Dominique Langin, Denis R Joanisse, Cedric Moro
Lipid droplets (LD) play a central role in lipid homeostasis by controlling transient fatty acid (FA) storage and release from triacylglycerols stores, while preventing high levels of cellular toxic lipids. This crucial function in oxidative tissues is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a LD protein whose mechanistic and causal link with lipotoxicity and insulin resistance has raised controversies. We investigated here the physiological role of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle upon various metabolic challenges...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922098/comparison-of-432-pseudomonas-strains-through-integration-of-genomic-functional-metabolic-and-expression-data
#11
Jasper J Koehorst, Jesse C J van Dam, Ruben G A van Heck, Edoardo Saccenti, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Maria Suarez-Diez, Peter J Schaap
Pseudomonas is a highly versatile genus containing species that can be harmful to humans and plants while others are widely used for bioengineering and bioremediation. We analysed 432 sequenced Pseudomonas strains by integrating results from a large scale functional comparison using protein domains with data from six metabolic models, nearly a thousand transcriptome measurements and four large scale transposon mutagenesis experiments. Through heterogeneous data integration we linked gene essentiality, persistence and expression variability...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922066/de-novo-transcriptome-characterization-of-dracaena-cambodiana-and-analysis-of-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-accumulation-during-formation-of-dragon-s-blood
#12
Jia-Hong Zhu, Tian-Jun Cao, Hao-Fu Dai, Hui-Liang Li, Dong Guo, Wen-Li Mei, Shi-Qing Peng
Dragon's blood is a red resin mainly extracted from Dracaena plants, and has been widely used as a traditional medicine in East and Southeast Asia. The major components of dragon's blood are flavonoids. Owing to a lack of Dracaena plants genomic information, the flavonoids biosynthesis and regulation in Dracaena plants remain unknown. In this study, three cDNA libraries were constructed from the stems of D. cambodiana after injecting the inducer. Approximately 266.57 million raw sequencing reads were de novo assembled into 198,204 unigenes, of which 34,873 unique sequences were annotated in public protein databases...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922054/first-insight-into-the-proteome-landscape-of-the-porcine-short-posterior-ciliary-arteries-key-signalling-pathways-maintaining-physiologic-functions
#13
Caroline Manicam, Natarajan Perumal, Norbert Pfeiffer, Franz H Grus, Adrian Gericke
Short posterior ciliary arteries (sPCA) provide the major blood supply to the optic nerve head. Emerging evidence has linked structural and functional anomalies of sPCA to the pathogenesis of several ocular disorders that cause varying degrees of visual loss, particularly anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and glaucoma. Although the functional relevance of this vascular bed is well-recognized, the proteome of sPCA remains uncharacterized. Since the porcine ocular system closely resembles that of the human's and is increasingly employed in translational ophthalmic research, this study characterized the proteome of porcine sPCA employing the mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922005/wrn-regulates-pathway-choice-between-classical-and-alternative-non-homologous-end-joining
#14
Raghavendra A Shamanna, Huiming Lu, Jessica K de Freitas, Jane Tian, Deborah L Croteau, Vilhelm A Bohr
Werner syndrome (WS) is an accelerated ageing disorder with genomic instability caused by WRN protein deficiency. Many features seen in WS can be explained by the diverse functions of WRN in DNA metabolism. However, the origin of the large genomic deletions and telomere fusions are not yet understood. Here, we report that WRN regulates the pathway choice between classical (c)- and alternative (alt)-nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. It promotes c-NHEJ via helicase and exonuclease activities and inhibits alt-NHEJ using non-enzymatic functions...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921402/developing-a-rat-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-improved-survival
#15
Li-Juan Shen, Shu Lu, Yong-Hua Zhou, Lan Li, Qing-Min Xing, Yong-Liang Xu
To compare the continuous infusion and intermittent bolus injection administration protocols of doxorubicin (Dox) under the same cumulative dose (12 mg/kg), and establish a rat dilated cardiomyopathy model with improved survival, a total of 150 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: a control group, administered with normal saline; a Dox 1 group, administration twice a week at 1 mg/kg; a Dox 2, administration once a week at 2 mg/kg. Mortality rates in the Dox 1 and Dox 2 groups were 22% and 48%, respectively (P<0...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921261/attempting-to-compensate-for-reduced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-with-nitrate-supplementation-cannot-overcome-metabolic-dysfunction-but-rather-has-detrimental-effects-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-muscle
#16
Cara A Timpani, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ainsley Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Kulmira Nurgali, Andrew C Betik, Nigel Stepto, Alan Hayes, Glenn K McConell, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water...
December 5, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921082/global-role-of-cyclic-amp-signaling-in-ph-dependent-responses-in-candida-albicans
#17
Jeffrey M Hollomon, Nora Grahl, Sven D Willger, Katja Koeppen, Deborah A Hogan
Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921077/data-of-the-interacting-protein-networks-and-nucleotide-metabolism-pathways-related-to-ndk-and-nt5
#18
Dan Zhang, Wen Ma, Yu He, Gu He, Peng Zhang, Hongxia Zhu, Ningzhi Xu, Shufang Liang
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Antibacterial mechanism of daptomycin antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus based on a quantitative bacterial proteome analysis" (Ma et al., 2016) [1]. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) and 5'-nucleotidase (NT5) are two proteins related to bacterial growth. Here, a bioinformatics analysis was presented to explore NDK and NT5-invovled in the interacting protein network and purine metabolism.
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920755/finding-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-shigella-flexneri-through-proteome-exploration
#19
Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Md Arif Khan, Abu Hashem, Md Monirul Islam, Mohammad Neaz Morshed, Chaman Ara Keya, Md Salimullah
Background:Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease "shigellosis." S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920508/impact-of-whole-body-electromyostimulation-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-older-women-with-sarcopenic-obesity-the-randomized-controlled-formosa-sarcopenic-obesity-study
#20
Katharina Wittmann, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Franz Jakob, Michael Lell, Klaus Engelke, Wolfgang Kemmler
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is characterized by a combination of low muscle and high fat mass with an additive negative effect of both conditions on cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. METHODS: The study was conducted in an ambulatory university setting. Seventy-five community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were randomly allocated to either 6 months of WB-EMS application with (WB-EMS&P) or without (WB-EMS) dietary supplementation (150 kcal/day, 56% protein) or a non-training control group (CG)...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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