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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786859/synergistic-effects-of-abiotic-stresses-in-plants-a-case-study-of-nitrogen-limitation-and-saturating-light-intensity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Itay Cohen, Tal Rapaport, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Under natural conditions, plants are regularly exposed to combinations of stress factors. A common example is the conjunction between nitrogen (N) deficiency and excess light. The combined effect of stress factors is often ignored in studies using controlled conditions, possibly resulting in misleading conclusions. To address this issue, the current study examined the physiological behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana under the effect of varying nitrogen levels and light intensities. The joint influence of low N and excess light had an adverse effect on plant growth, chlorophyll and anthocyanin concentrations, photochemical capacity, and the abundance of proteins involved in carbon assimilation and anti-oxidative metabolism...
May 22, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786745/histone-modifications-in-fatty-acid-synthase-modulated-by-carbohydrate-responsive-element-binding-protein-are-associated-with-non%C3%A2-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Can Cai, Huihong Yu, Guangming Huang, Xuan Du, Xiaoqing Yu, Youping Zhou, Wei Shen
Non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome in the liver and is closely associated with diabetes; however, its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), the hub of glucolipid metabolism, regulates the induction of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, by directly binding to carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) in its promoter. Investigations of histone modifications on NAFLD remain in their infancy...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786670/deubiquitinylase-usp47-promotes-rela-phosphorylation-and-survival-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#3
Lara Naghavi, Martin Schwalbe, Ahmed Ghanem, Michael Naumann
Every year, gastric cancer causes around 819,000 deaths worldwide. The incidence of gastric cancer in the western world is slowly declining, but the prognosis is unpromising. In Germany, the 5-year-survival rate is around 32%, and the average life span after diagnosis is 6 to 9 months. Therapy of gastric cancer patients comprises a gastrectomy and perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy. However, resistance of gastric cancer cells to these agents is widespread; thus, improved chemotherapeutic approaches are required...
May 22, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786646/metabolic-reprogramming-by-3-iodothyronamine-t1am-a-new-perspective-to-reverse-obesity-through-co-regulation-of-sirtuin-4-and-6-expression
#4
Fariba M Assadi-Porter, Hannah Reiland, Martina Sabatini, Leonardo Lorenzini, Vittoria Carnicelli, Micheal Rogowski, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Marco Tonelli, Sandra Ghelardoni, Alessandro Saba, Riccardo Zucchi, Grazia Chiellini
Obesity is a complex disease associated with environmental and genetic factors. 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) has revealed great potential as an effective weight loss drug. We used metabolomics and associated transcriptional gene and protein expression analysis to investigate the tissue specific metabolic reprogramming effects of subchronic T1AM treatment at two pharmacological daily doses (10 and 25 mg/kg) on targeted metabolic pathways. Multi-analytical results indicated that T1AM at 25 mg/kg can act as a novel master regulator of both glucose and lipid metabolism in mice through sirtuin-mediated pathways...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786568/nutritive-support-for-newborns-in-critical-conditions-semi-elemental-formilas-as-a-means-of-enteral-nutrition
#5
Dmytro Shkurupii
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The goal is to increase the efficiency of nutritional support in intensive care of newborns by substantiating the choice of the enteral blend. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted, which included 173 newborns. The main group consisted of 143 patients of intensive care units. The comparison group - 30 virtually healthy newborns. Physical parameters, changes in protein metabolism, serum immunoglobulins, functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system in the development of critical conditions and depending on the type of enteric urine formula were determined...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786448/serum-rbp4-positively-correlates-with-triglyceride-level-but-not-with-bmi-fat-mass-and-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-obese-and-non-obese-individuals
#6
Emilia Korek, Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska-Maciejewska, Hanna Krauss, Małgorzata Łagiedo-Żelazowska, Barbara Kołodziejczak, Paweł Bogdański
PURPOSE: Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been identified as an adipokine possibly involved in the development of impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to test serum RBP4 in healthy non-obese individuals and in patients with well-characterized phenotype: obesity without confounding effects of diabetes, metabolic syndrome or dyslipidemia. Additionally, we examined whether serum RBP4 is associated with anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance and blood lipid parameters...
May 22, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785918/proteomic-analysis-of-the-effects-of-lutein-on-mammary-gland-metabolism-in-dairy-cows
#7
Caihong Wang, Chong Wang, Jianxin Liu, Hongyun Liu
The aim of the research reported in this Research Communication was to identify differentially expressed proteins in dairy cows with normal and lutein diet and to elucidate the mechanisms of lutein-induced effects on bovine mammary gland metabolism using a comparative proteomic approach. Thirty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified from mammary gland of control diet-fed and lutein diet-fed dairy cows. Among these proteins, 15 were upregulated and 18 were downregulated in the lutein group. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed that increased blood flow, depressed glycolysis, enhanced lactose anabolism, decreased fatty acid oxidation and up-regulated beta lactoglobulin expression were connected with lutein addition...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785915/the-effects-of-a-synthetic-analogue-of-the-bovine-appeasing-pheromone-on-milk-yield-and-composition-in-valdostana-dairy-cows-during-the-move-from-winter-housing-to-confined-lowland-pastures
#8
Maria Cristina Osella, Alessandro Cozzi, Claudio Spegis, Germano Turille, Andrea Barmaz, Céline Lafont Lecuelle, Eva Teruel, Cécile Bienboire-Frosini, Camille Chabaud, Laurent Bougrat, Patrick Pageat
This Research Communication describes the effects of a synthetic analogue of the Bovine Appeasing Pheromone (BAP) on milk parameters in Valdostana dairy cows during the first turning out from tie-stalls to confined lowland pastures around the farms. Thirty healthy lactating Valdostana cows were enroled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 15) and control group (CG, n = 15). The two groups were separately housed in the same farm and managed outside in two different pens...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785905/hepatic-sirt3-expression-declines-postpartum-in-dairy-goats
#9
Lei Liu, Li Yao, Tao Peng, Lixin Wen, Wenjie Cai, Xinglin Jia, Jianhua He
The experiments reported in this research communication aimed to plot the expression pattern of Sirt3, a master regulator of energy metabolism and antioxidation defence, in the liver of dairy goats during perinatal period. Ten healthy dairy goats in late pregnancy were chosen, and needle biopsy was applied to collect liver samples at 1-week intervals. Protein levels of hepatic Sirt3 were analysed by western-blotting. Serum enzyme activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels were measured, and their correlation with Sirt3 mRNA levels was also estimated...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785900/insulin-suppresses-the-ampk-signaling-pathway-to-regulate-lipid-metabolism-in-primary-cultured-hepatocytes-of-dairy-cows
#10
Xinwei Li, Yu Li, Hongyan Ding, Jihong Dong, Renhe Zhang, Dan Huang, Lin Lei, Zhe Wang, Guowen Liu, Xiaobing Li
Dairy cows with type II ketosis display hepatic fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia, but the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of lipid metabolism by insulin in cow hepatocytes. In vitro, cow hepatocytes were treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 nm insulin in the presence or absence of AICAR (an AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) activator). The results showed that insulin decreased AMPKα phosphorylation. This inactivation of AMPKα increased the gene and protein expression levels of carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785637/frzb1-rs2242070-polymorphisms-is-associated-with-brick-tea-type-skeletal-fluorosis-in-kazakhs-but-not-in-tibetans-china
#11
Yanmei Yang, Qiaoshi Zhao, Yang Liu, Xiaona Liu, Yanru Chu, Huazhu Yan, Yumei Fan, Simeng Huo, Limei Wang, Qun Lou, Ning Guo, Dianjun Sun, Yanhui Gao
Skeletal fluorosis is a metabolic bone and joint disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones. Compared with Kazakhs, Tibetans are more likely to develop moderate and severe brick tea type skeletal fluorosis, although they have similar fluoride exposure. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in frizzled-related protein (FRZB) have been associated with osteoarthritis, but their association with the risk of skeletal fluorosis has not been reported. In this paper, we investigated the association of three SNPs (rs7775, rs2242070 and rs9288087) in FRZB1with brick tea type skeletal fluorosis risk in a cross-sectional case-control study conducted in Sinkiang and Qinghai, China...
May 21, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785615/molecular-characterization-of-proton-beam-induced-mutations-in-soybean-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#12
Woon Ji Kim, Jaihyunk Ryu, Juhyun Im, Sang Hun Kim, Si-Yong Kang, Jeong-Hee Lee, Sung-Hwan Jo, Bo-Keun Ha
Proton beam irradiation is a next-generation technique to develop mutant crop varieties. The mutagenic effects and molecular mechanisms of radiation are important multi-disciplinary research subjects. This study was conducted to investigate the types of mutations induced in the soybean genome by proton beam irradiation. In total, 22 plants, including 10 M2 plants treated with proton beam irradiation at 118 and 239 Gy, each, and two wild-type plants (Daepung) were sequenced by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785565/supplementation-strategies-for-nellore-female-calves-in-creep-feeding-to-improve-the-performance-nutritional-and-metabolic-responses
#13
Daniel Mageste de Almeida, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Leandro Soares Martins, David Esteban Contreras Marquez, Faider Castaño Villadiego, Felipe Velez Saldarriaga, Román Maza Ortega, Deilen Paff Sotelo Moreno, Sidnei Antônio Lopes, Manuela Acevedo Cardozo, Mário Fonseca Paulino
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation strategy on performance, nutritional and metabolic characteristics of Nellore suckling female calves, on grazing Urochloa decumbens during the rainy-dry transition period. Forty-four Nellore female calves, averaging 147.6 ± 1.34 kg (4 months), were used. A single supplement 20% of crude protein of dry matter was provided, consisting of daily supplement at 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6% of body weight. A positive linear effect (P < 0...
May 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785501/improving-the-acetic-acid-tolerance-and-fermentation-of-acetobacter-pasteurianus-by-nucleotide-excision-repair-protein-uvra
#14
Yu Zheng, Jing Wang, Xiaolei Bai, Yangang Chang, Jun Mou, Jia Song, Min Wang
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widely used in acetic acid fermentation due to their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high tolerance against acetic acid. In Acetobacter pasteurianus, nucleotide excision repair protein UvrA was up-regulated 2.1 times by acetic acid when compared with that without acetic acid. To study the effects of UvrA on A. pasteurianus acetic acid tolerance, uvrA knockout strain AC2005-ΔuvrA, uvrA overexpression strain AC2005 (pMV24-uvrA), and the control strain AC2005 (pMV24), were constructed...
May 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785273/gene-regulation-associated-with-sexual-development-and-female-fertility-in-different-isolates-of-trichoderma-reesei
#15
Christoph Dattenböck, Doris Tisch, Andre Schuster, Alberto Alonso Monroy, Wolfgang Hinterdobler, Monika Schmoll
Background: Trichoderma reesei is one of the most frequently used filamentous fungi in industry for production of homologous and heterologous proteins. The ability to use sexual crossing in this fungus was discovered several years ago and opens up new perspectives for industrial strain improvement and investigation of gene regulation. Results: Here we investigated the female sterile strain QM6a in comparison to the fertile isolate CBS999.97 and backcrossed derivatives of QM6a, which have regained fertility (FF1 and FF2 strains) in both mating types under conditions of sexual development...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785272/abdominal-obesity-in-type-1-diabetes-associated-with-gender-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-complications-and-difficulties-achieving-treatment-targets-a-cross-sectional-study-at-a-secondary-care-diabetes-clinic
#16
Eva O Melin, Hans O Thulesius, Magnus Hillman, Mona Landin-Olsson, Maria Thunander
Background: Abdominal obesity is linked to cardiovascular diseases in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The primary aim was to explore associations between abdominal obesity and cardiovascular complications, metabolic and inflammatory factors. The secondary aim was to explore whether achieved recommended treatment targets differed between the obese and non-obese participants. Methods: Cross sectional study of 284 T1D patients (age 18-59 years, men 56%), consecutively recruited from one secondary care specialist diabetes clinic in Sweden...
2018: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785246/modulating-metabolism-to-improve-cancer-induced-muscle-wasting
#17
REVIEW
Fabio Penna, Riccardo Ballarò, Marc Beltrá, Serena De Lucia, Paola Costelli
Muscle wasting is one of the main features of cancer cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome frequently occurring in oncologic patients. The onset of cachexia is associated with reduced tolerance and response to antineoplastic treatments, eventually leading to clinical conditions that are not compatible with survival. Among the mechanisms underlying cachexia, protein and energy dysmetabolism play a major role. In this regard, several potential treatments have been proposed, mainly on the basis of promising results obtained in preclinical models...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785210/adipose-tissue-derived-cytokines-and-their-correlations-with-clinical-characteristics-in-vietnamese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Nguyen Linh Toan, Nguyen Van Hoan, Doan Viet Cuong, Nguyen Viet Dung, Phan The Dung, Ngo Thu Hang, Do Thi Huyen Dieu, Dang Thanh Chung, Ho Anh Son, Pham Xuan Phong, George Binh Lenon, Doan Van De, Hoang Van Tong
Background: Adipokines are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigates the levels of leptin, resistin, visfatin, secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and their correlations with clinical parameters of overweight and T2DM. Methods: We recruited overweight 50 patients with T2DM, 88 non-overweight patients with T2DM, 29 overweight and 100 non-overweight individuals devoid of T2DM for this study...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785025/an-immune-beige-adipocyte-communication-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling
#19
Heejin Jun, Hui Yu, Jianke Gong, Juan Jiang, Xiaona Qiao, Eric Perkey, Dong-Il Kim, Margo P Emont, Alexander G Zestos, Jung-Sun Cho, Jianfeng Liu, Robert T Kennedy, Ivan Maillard, X Z Shawn Xu, Jun Wu
Beige adipocytes have recently been shown to regulate energy dissipation when activated and help organisms defend against hypothermia and obesity. Prior reports indicate that beige-like adipocytes exist in adult humans and that they may present novel opportunities to curb the global epidemic in obesity and metabolic illnesses. In an effort to identify unique features of activated beige adipocytes, we found that expression of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit (Chrna2) was induced in subcutaneous fat during the activation of these cells and that acetylcholine-producing immune cells within this tissue regulated this signaling pathway via paracrine mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785012/multiplex-assessment-of-protein-variant-abundance-by-massively-parallel-sequencing
#20
Kenneth A Matreyek, Lea M Starita, Jason J Stephany, Beth Martin, Melissa A Chiasson, Vanessa E Gray, Martin Kircher, Arineh Khechaduri, Jennifer N Dines, Ronald J Hause, Smita Bhatia, William E Evans, Mary V Relling, Wenjian Yang, Jay Shendure, Douglas M Fowler
Determining the pathogenicity of genetic variants is a critical challenge, and functional assessment is often the only option. Experimentally characterizing millions of possible missense variants in thousands of clinically important genes requires generalizable, scalable assays. We describe variant abundance by massively parallel sequencing (VAMP-seq), which measures the effects of thousands of missense variants of a protein on intracellular abundance simultaneously. We apply VAMP-seq to quantify the abundance of 7,801 single-amino-acid variants of PTEN and TPMT, proteins in which functional variants are clinically actionable...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
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