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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728352/the-association-between-physical-activity-and-atrial-fibrillation-applying-heaviside-function-in-survival-analysis-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#1
Yaser Mokhayeri, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Hamid Soori, Soheila Khodakarim
Objectives: Although the effect of physical activity (PA) on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been studied, contradictory results have been reported. These seemingly different results may reflect alternate effects of different types of PA upon AF as well as gender interactions. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of PA types namely total, moderate/vigorous, intentional, as well as walking pace on AF risk, in men and women. Methods: Using the MESA Typical Week Physical Activity Survey, three PA measures and walking pace among 6487 men and women aged 45-84 years were calculated...
June 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727672/cardiac-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-device-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Toufik Mahfood Haddad, Alok Saurav, Aiman Smer, Muhammad S Azzouz, Abhilash Akinapelli, Mark A Williams, Venkata M Alla
PURPOSE: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (EBCR) has been demonstrated to improve functional capacity in heart failure (HF). However, there are limited data on the effect of EBCR in patients with advanced HF and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). This meta-analysis sought to evaluate the effects of EBCR on functional capacity in patients with LVAD. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized studies assessing the impact of EBCR in patients following LVAD implantation compared with standard therapy (ST)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727551/inverse-rendering-and-relighting-from-multiple-color-plus-depth-images
#3
Siying Liu, Minh N Do
We propose a novel relighting approach that takes advantage of multiple color plus depth images acquired from a consumer camera. Assuming distant illumination and Lambertian reflectance, we model the reflected light field in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and lighting. We make use of the noisy depth information together with color images taken under different illumination conditions to refine surface normals inferred from depth. We first perform refinement on the surface normals using the first order spherical harmonics...
July 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727432/controlled-functionalisation-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-mixtures-of-calix-4-arenes-revealed-by-infra-red-spectroscopy
#4
Hennie Valkenier, Volodymyr Malytskyi, Pascale Blond, Maurice Retout, Alice Mattiuzzi, Jonathan Goole, Vincent Raussens, Ivan Jabin, Gilles Bruylants
Labile ligands such as thiols and carboxylates are commonly used to functionalise AuNPs, though little control over the composition is possible when mixtures of ligands are used. It was shown recently that robustly functionalised AuNPs can be obtained through the reductive grafting of calix[4]arenes bearing diazonium groups on the large rim. Here, we report a calix[4]arene-tetra-diazonium decorated by four oligo(ethylene glycol) chains on the small rim, which upon grafting gave AuNPs with excellent stability thanks to the C-Au bonds...
July 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727232/functional-genomic-analysis-of-corals-from-natural-co2-seeps-reveals-core-molecular-responses-involved-in-acclimatization-to-ocean-acidification
#5
C D Kenkel, A Moya, J Strahl, C Humphrey, L K Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2 . In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the pattern of change was highly consistent between replicate populations, likely reflecting the core expression homeostasis response to ocean acidification...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727200/landscape-genetic-analyses-reveal-fine-scale-effects-of-forest-fragmentation-in-an-insular-tropical-bird
#6
Aurélie Khimoun, William Peterman, Cyril Eraud, Bruno Faivre, Nicolas Navarro, Stéphane Garnier
Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest-specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea)...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726909/lysine-based-amino-functionalized-lipids-for-gene-transfection-the-protonation-state-in-monolayers-at-the-air-liquid-interface
#7
Stephanie Tassler, Christian Wölk, Christopher Janich, Bodo Dobner, Gerald Brezesinski
Cationic lipids are considered as non-viral carriers for genetic material used in gene therapy. They have no carcinogenic potential and cause low immune response compared to existing viral systems. The protonation degree of these cationic lipids is a crucial parameter for the binding behavior of polynucleotides (e.g., DNA). Newly synthesized peptide-mimic lysine-based amino-functionalized lipids have been investigated in 2D models as monolayers at the air-liquid interface. Standard surface pressure - area isotherms have been measured to prove the layer stability...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726740/cyclic-peptides-as-novel-therapeutic-microbicides-engineering-of-human-defensin-mimetics
#8
REVIEW
Annarita Falanga, Ersilia Nigro, Margherita Gabriella De Biasi, Aurora Daniele, Giancarlo Morelli, Stefania Galdiero, Olga Scudiero
Cyclic peptides are receiving significant attention thanks to their antimicrobial activity and high serum stability, which is useful to develop and design novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides appear to be key components of innate defences against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Among the others, defensins possess a strong microbicidial activity. Defensins are cationic and amphipathic peptides with six cysteine residues connected by three disulfide bonds found in plants, insects, and mammals; they are divided in three families: α-, β-, and θ-defensins...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726381/impact-of-the-metallic-crystalline-structure-on-the-properties-of-nanocrystals-and-their-mesoscopic-assemblies
#9
Marie-Paule Pileni
The spontaneous assembly of uniform-sized globular entities into ordered arrays is a universal phenomenon observed for objects with diameters spanning a broad range of length scales. These extend from the atomic scale (10(-8) cm), through molecular and macromolecular scales with proteins, synthetic low polymers, and colloidal crystals (∼10(-6) cm), to the wavelength of visible light (∼10(-5) cm). The associated concepts of sphere packing have had an influence in diverse fields ranging from pure geometrical analysis to architectural models or ideals...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726229/monitoring-and-modeling-4-chlorophenol-biodegradation-kinetics-by-phenol-acclimated-activated-sludge-by-using-open-respirometry
#10
Cintia C Lobo, Nora C Bertola, Edgardo M Contreras, Noemí E Zaritzky
The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanisms, stoichiometry, and stability of 4-chlorophenol (4CP) biodegradation kinetics by phenol-acclimated activated sludge using open respirometry. While the removal of 4CP was higher than 98%, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged between 69 and 79% due to the accumulation of an intermediate metabolite. The value obtained from respirometric profiles for the stoichiometric ratio of O2 to 4CP (YO2/4CP) was 1.95 ± 0.04 mol of oxygen consumed per mol of 4CP removed...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725419/tree-species-diversity-promotes-aboveground-carbon-storage-through-functional-diversity-and-functional-dominance
#11
Sylvanus Mensah, Ruan Veldtman, Achille E Assogbadjo, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Thomas Seifert
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has increasingly been debated as the cornerstone of the processes behind ecosystem services delivery. Experimental and natural field-based studies have come up with nonconsistent patterns of biodiversity-ecosystem function, supporting either niche complementarity or selection effects hypothesis. Here, we used aboveground carbon (AGC) storage as proxy for ecosystem function in a South African mistbelt forest, and analyzed its relationship with species diversity, through functional diversity and functional dominance...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725412/corticosterone-a-costly-mediator-of-signal-honesty-in-sand-lizards
#12
Willow R Lindsay, Erik Wapstra, Bengt Silverin, Mats Olsson
The mechanisms underlying honest signal expression remain elusive and may involve the integration of social and physiological costs. Corticosterone is a socially modulated metabolic hormone that mediates energy investment and behavior and may therefore function to deter dishonest signal expression. We examined the relationship between corticosterone and green badge coloration in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), hypothesizing that physiological and behavioral costs resulting from elevated baseline glucocorticoids function in maintenance of honest signal expression...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725204/history-of-childhood-maltreatment-and-college-academic-outcomes-indirect-effects-of-hot-execution-function
#13
Marilyn C Welsh, Eric Peterson, Molly M Jameson
College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF). Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively "cool" EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional or motivational valence) and "hot" EF tasks that emphasize performance under more emotionally arousing conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725191/bilateral-reflex-fluctuations-during-rhythmic-movement-of-remote-limb-pairs
#14
Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, E Paul Zehr
The modulation of spinal cord excitability during rhythmic limb movement reflects the neuronal coordination underlying actions of the arms and legs. Integration of network activity in the spinal cord can be assessed by reflex variability between the limbs, an approach so far very little studied. The present work addresses this question by eliciting Hoffmann (H-) reflexes in both limbs to assess if common drive onto bilateral pools of motoneurons influence spinal cord excitability simultaneously or with a delay between sides...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725190/reliability-of-eeg-interactions-differs-between-measures-and-is-specific-for-neurological-diseases
#15
Yvonne Höller, Kevin Butz, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Elisabeth Schmid, Andreas Uhl, Arne C Bathke, Georg Zimmermann, Santino O Tomasi, Raffaele Nardone, Wolfgang Staffen, Peter Höller, Markus Leitinger, Julia Höfler, Gudrun Kalss, Alexandra C Taylor, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Eugen Trinka
Alterations of interaction (connectivity) of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725021/bovine-milk-derived-exosomes-from-colostrum-are-enriched-with-proteins-implicated-in-immune-response-and-growth
#16
Monisha Samuel, David Chisanga, Michael Liem, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Sushma Anand, Ching-Seng Ang, Christopher G Adda, Ellen Versteegen, Markandeya Jois, Suresh Mathivanan
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by multiple cell types into the extracellular space. They contain cell-state specific cargos which often reflects the (patho)physiological condition of the cells/organism. Milk contains high amounts of exosomes and it is unclear whether their cargo is altered based on the lactation stage of the organism. Here, we isolated exosomes from bovine milk that were obtained at various stages of lactation and examined the content by quantitative proteomics. Exosomes were isolated by OptiPrep density gradient centrifugation from milk obtained from cow after 24, 48 and 72 h post calving...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724892/sexual-and-non-sexual-social-preferences-in-male-and-female-white-eyed-bulbuls
#17
Bekir Kabasakal, Miroslav Poláček, Aziz Aslan, Herbert Hoi, Ali Erdoğan, Matteo Griggio
While the function of ornaments shaped by sexual selection is to attract mates or drive off rivals, these signals may also evolve through social selection, in which the social context affects the fitness of signallers and receivers. Classical 'mate choice' experiments often reveal preferences for ornaments, but few studies have considered whether these are strictly sexual or reflect general social preferences. Indeed, an alternative possibility is that ornaments evolve through 'non-sexual social selection' (hereafter 'social selection')...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724741/body-height-and-immune-efficacy-testing-body-stature-as-a-signal-of-biological-quality
#18
Bogusław Pawłowski, Judyta Nowak, Barbara Borkowska, Daria Augustyniak, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
According to the good genes hypothesis and energy allocation theory, human adult body height may reflect biological quality. An important aspect of this quality is immune system functioning (ISF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ISF and body height in healthy people. The ISF was determined by several important innate (total complement and lysozyme activity, neutrophil function) and adaptive immune parameters (lymphocytes, IgA and IgG, and response to the flu vaccine). Overall, 96 males and 97 females were subjected to flu vaccination, and of these, 35 males and 34 females were subjected to tetanus...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724643/a-review-of-the-characteristics-of-dietary-fibers-relevant-to-appetite-and-energy-intake-outcomes-in-human-intervention-trials
#19
Kaisa S Poutanen, Pierre Dussort, Alfrun Erkner, Susana Fiszman, Kavita Karnik, Mette Kristensen, Cyril Fm Marsaux, Sophie Miquel-Kergoat, Saara P Pentikäinen, Peter Putz, Joanne L Slavin, Robert E Steinert, David J Mela
Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized.Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans.Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724592/vascular-development-in-very-young-conifer-seedlings-theoretical-hydraulic-capacities-and-potential-resistance-to-embolism
#20
Megan L Miller, Daniel M Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Conifers have the highest rates of mortality during their first year, often attributed to water stress; yet, this tree life stage is the least studied in terms of hydraulic properties. Previous work has revealed correlations between xylem anatomy to both hydraulic transport capacity and resistance to hydraulic dysfunction. In this study, we compared xylem anatomical and plant functional traits of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Larix occidentalis, and Pinus ponderosa seedlings over the first 10 wk of growth to evaluate potential maximum hydraulic capabilities and resistance to drought-induced embolism...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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