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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324968/improving-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-cpr-outcomes-using-model-based-optimization
#1
Dieter Bender, Ali Jalali, C Nataraj
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) outcomes are far from optimal as practiced today, and prior work has documented that among probable reasons is the fact that the procedure remains to be fully understood. In an attempt to gain a broader understanding of the CPR physiology and the elemental principles underlying the CPR outcomes, this study proposes a novel approach. The analysis is carried out in three major steps. First, an appropriate cardiovascular system model was adopted and simulated using real CPR data as the input...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324829/interactive-effects-of-an-insecticide-and-a-fungicide-on-different-organism-groups-and-ecosystem-functioning-in-a-stream-detrital-food-web
#2
Mohab Dawoud, Mirco Bundschuh, Willem Goedkoop, Brendan G McKie
Freshwater ecosystems are often affected by cocktails of multiple pesticides targeting different organism groups. Prediction and evaluation of the ecosystem-level effects of these mixtures is complicated by the potential not only for interactions among the pesticides themselves, but also for the pesticides to alter biotic interactions across trophic levels. In a stream microcosm experiment, we investigated the effects of two pesticides targeting two organism groups (the insecticide lindane and fungicide azoxystrobin) on the functioning of a model stream detrital food web consisting of a detritivore (Ispoda: Asellus aquaticus) and microbes (an assemblage of fungal hyphomycetes) consuming leaf litter...
March 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324749/a-phase-i-study-of-sar405838-a-novel-human-double-minute-2-hdm2-antagonist-in-patients-with-solid-tumours
#3
Maja de Jonge, Vincent A de Weger, Mark A Dickson, Marlies Langenberg, Axel Le Cesne, Andrew J Wagner, Karl Hsu, Wei Zheng, Sandrine Macé, Gilles Tuffal, Koruth Thomas, Jan H M Schellens
PURPOSE: In tumours with wild-type TP53, the tumour-suppressive function of p53 is frequently inhibited by HDM2. This phase I, dose-escalating study investigated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SAR405838, an HDM2 inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumours (NCT01636479). METHODS: In dose escalation, patients with any locally advanced/metastatic solid tumour with TP53 mutation prevalence below 40%, or documented as TP53 wild-type, were eligible...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324707/chemical-structure-based-predictive-model-for-the-oxidation-of-trace-organic-contaminants-by-sulfate-radical
#4
Tiantian Ye, Zongsu Wei, Richard Spinney, Chong-Jian Tang, Shuang Luo, Ruiyang Xiao, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Second-order rate constants [Formula: see text] for the reaction of sulfate radical anion (SO4(•-)) with trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) are of scientific and practical importance for assessing their environmental fate and removal efficiency in water treatment systems. Here, we developed a chemical structure-based model for predicting [Formula: see text] using 32 molecular fragment descriptors, as this type of model provides a quick estimate at low computational cost. The model was constructed using the multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324606/sample-preparation-and-choice-of-fluorophores-for-single-and-dual-color-photo-activated-localization-microscopy-palm-with-bacterial-cells
#5
Juri N Bach, Giacomo Giacomelli, Marc Bramkamp
Photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) is one of the light microscopy techniques providing highest resolution. Single photo-activatable or photo-switchable fluorescent molecules are stochastically excited. The point spread function of this event is recorded and the exact fluorophore position is calculated. This chapter describes how bacterial samples can be prepared for PALM to achieve routinely a resolution of ≤30 nm using fluorophores such as mNeonGreen, Dendra2, and PAmCherry. It is also explained how to perform multicolor PALM and combine it with total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy to increase resolution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324120/-biological-mechanisms-of-radiation-effects
#6
S Gruber, W Dörr
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes is inevitable in modern medicine. The therapeutic application of irradiation is highly effective against cancer; however, this implies exposure of normal tissue structures to significant doses of radiation. Diagnostic or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation can result in tissue changes and tumor induction in the long term. Knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects is essential for individualization of the application...
March 21, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323995/renin-phenotypes-characterize-vascular-disease-autonomous-aldosteronism-and-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activity
#7
Gregory L Hundemer, Rene Baudrand, Jenifer M Brown, Gary Curhan, Gordon H Williams, Anand Vaidya
Context: Mild cases of autonomous aldosterone secretion may go unrecognized using current diagnostic criteria for primary aldosteronism (PA). Objective: To investigate whether the inability to stimulate renin serves as a biomarker for unrecognized autonomous aldosterone secretion and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation. Participants: 663 normotensive and mildly hypertensive participants, who were confirmed to not have PA using current guideline criteria and were on no antihypertensive medications...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323682/relationship-of-cognitive-function-to-motor-symptoms-and-mood-disorders-in-patients-with-isolated-dystonia
#8
Jennifer A Foley, R Saman Vinke, Patricia Limousin, Lisa Cipolotti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of dystonia symptoms to cognitive function by comparing cognitive performance in patients with focal (cervical) and generalized dystonia subtypes and examining the differential contributions of severity of symptoms and mood disorders to cognition. BACKGROUND: Studies of the nonmotor syndrome in isolated dystonia have reported evidence of cognitive dysfunction, but the cause of this impairment remains unclear. Several studies have suggested that poor cognitive performance reflects the distracting effects of the motor symptoms and/or a mood disorder...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323608/from-doctors-stories-to-doctors-stories-and-back-again
#9
Marcia Day Childress
Stories have always been central to medicine, but during the twentieth century bioscience all but eclipsed narrative's presence in medical practice. In Doctors' Stories, published in 1991, Kathryn Montgomery excavated medicine's narrative foundations and functions to reveal new possibilities for how to conceive and characterize medicine. Physicians' engagement with stories has since flourished, especially through the narrative medicine movement, although in the twenty-first century this has been challenged by the health care industry's business-minded and data-driven clinical systems...
March 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#10
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319897/dialysis-membrane-enforced-microelectrode-array-measurement-of-diverse-gut-electrical-activity
#11
Naoko Iwata, Takumi Fujimura, Chiho Takai, Kei Odani, Shin Kawano, Shinsuke Nakayama
A variety of electrical activities occur depending on the functional state in each section of the gut, but the application of microelectrode array (MEA) is rather limited. We thus developed a dialysis membranes-enforced technique to investigate diverse and complex spatio-temporal electrical activity in the gut. Muscle sheets isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice along with a piece of dialysis membrane were woven over and under the strings to fix them to the anchor rig, and mounted on an 8×8 MEA (inter-electrode distance=150µm)...
March 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319674/assessment-of-circulating-betatrophin-concentrations-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Onur Erol, Mustafa Kemal Özel, Hamit Yaşar Ellidağ, Tayfun Toptaş, Aysel Uysal Derbent, Necat Yılmaz
The aims of the current study were to investigate the betatrophin levels in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to explore the relationships between these levels and antropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. The study population consisted of 50 lean (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2)) women diagnosed with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria, and 60 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls without any features of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Before recruitment, glucose tolerance was evaluated in all of the subjects using the 2-h 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test, and only those exhibiting normal glucose tolerance were enrolled...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319374/mechanisms-of-energy-transfer-and-enhanced-stability-of-carbidonitride-phosphors-for-solid-state-lighting
#13
Christopher Grieco, Kurt F Hirsekorn, Andrew T Heitsch, Alan C Thomas, Mark H McAdon, Britt A Vanchura, Michael M Romanelli, Lora L Brehm, Anne Leugers, Anatoliy Sokolov, John B Asbury
Phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (pcLEDs) produce white light through the use of phosphors that convert blue light emitted from the LED chip into green and red wavelengths. Understanding the mechanisms of degradation of the emission spectra and quantum yields of the phosphors used in pcLEDs is of critical importance to fully realize the potential of solid state lighting as an energy efficient technology. Toward this end, time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to identify the mechanistic origins of enhanced stability and luminescence efficiency that can be obtained from a series of carbidonitride red phosphors with varying degree of substitutional carbon...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319168/targeting-chronic-cardiac-remodeling-with-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Janine C Deddens, Dries A Feyen, Peter-Paul Zwetsloot, Maike A Brans, Sailay Siddiqi, Linda W van Laake, Pieter A Doevendans, Joost P Sluijter
BACKGROUND: Translational failure for cardiovascular disease is a substantial problem involving both high research costs and an ongoing lack of novel treatment modalities. Despite the progress already made, cell therapy for chronic heart failure in the clinical setting is still hampered by poor translation. We used a murine model of chronic ischemia/reperfusion injury to examine the effect of minimally invasive application of cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) in cardiac remodeling and to improve clinical translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318875/feasibility-of-pet-for-the-management-of-coronary-artery-disease-comparison-between-cfr-and-ffr
#15
REVIEW
Osamu Manabe, Masanao Naya, Nagara Tamaki
Myocardial perfusion imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) allows both qualitative and quantitative measurement. The quantitative myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve (CFR) are reliable indices for evaluating functional severity, influenced by both epicardial stenosis and microvascular disease. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) also reflects physiological stenosis, which measures the pressure differences across a coronary artery stenosis during maximum hyperemia. Discordance between CFR and FFR has been noticed in estimating the functional significance of coronary stenosis...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318835/improvement-in-mismatch-negativity-generation-during-d-serine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-correlation-with-symptoms
#16
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Migyung Lee, Nayla Lehrfeld, Karen A Nolan, Constance Shope, Eva Petkova, Gail Silipo, Daniel C Javitt
BACKGROUND: Deficits in N-methyl-d-aspartate-type (NMDAR) function contribute to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The efficacy of NMDAR agonists in the treatment of persistent symptoms of schizophrenia has been variable, potentially reflecting limitations in functional target engagement. We recently demonstrated significant improvement in auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) with once-weekly treatment with d-serine, a naturally occurring NMDAR glycine-site agonist. This study investigates effects of continuous (daily) NMDAR agonists in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318498/false-memory-for-context-and-true-memory-for-context-similarly-activate-the-parahippocampal-cortex
#17
Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317835/reducing-cascading-failure-risk-by-increasing-infrastructure-network-interdependence
#18
Mert Korkali, Jason G Veneman, Brian F Tivnan, James P Bagrow, Paul D H Hines
Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317533/genetics-of-vitiligo
#19
REVIEW
Richard A Spritz, Genevieve H L Andersen
Vitiligo reflects simultaneous contributions of multiple genetic risk factors and environmental triggers. Genomewide association studies have discovered approximately 50 genetic loci contributing to vitiligo risk. At many vitiligo susceptibility loci, the relevant genes and DNA sequence variants are identified. Many encode proteins involved in immune regulation, several play roles in cellular apoptosis, and others regulate functions of melanocytes. Although many of the specific biologic mechanisms need elucidation, it is clear that vitiligo is an autoimmune disease involving a complex relationship between immune system programming and function, aspects of the melanocyte autoimmune target, and dysregulation of the immune response...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317488/association-between-periodontal-health-status-and-cognitive-abilities-the-role-of-cytokine-profile-and-systemic-inflammation
#20
Marta Sochocka, Maciej Sobczyński, Aleksandra Sender-Janeczek, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Olga Błachowicz, Tomasz Tomczyk, Marek Ziętek, Jerzy Leszek
BACKGROUND: Contemporary neurobiology, periodontal medicine, and immunology are now focusing on the relationship between chronic periodontitis and systemic diseases, that also include Alzheimer's disease (AD). However a causative relationship between dementia and periodontitis has yet to be confirmed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether periodontal health status and cognitive abilities are correlated with the relative changes in systemic measures of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as a reflection of systemic inflammation...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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