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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214987/severe-convulsions-and-dysmyelination-in-both-jimpy-and-cx32-47-mice-may-associate-astrocytic-l-channel-function-with-myelination-and-oligodendrocytic-connexins-with-internodal-kv-channels
#1
Y H Gerald Chaban, Ye Chen, Elna Hertz, Leif Hertz
The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K(+) concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal astrocytes to counteract histological abnormalities...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214576/amplified-induced-neural-oscillatory-activity-predicts-musicians-benefits-in-categorical-speech-perception
#2
Gavin M Bidelman
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal musical experience refines neural encoding and confers stronger categorical perception (CP) and neural organization for speech sounds. In addition to evoked brain activity, the human EEG can be decomposed into induced (non-phase-locked) response whose various frequency bands reflect different mechanisms of perceptual-cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to clarify which spectral properties of these neural oscillations are most prone to music-related neuroplasticity and which are linked to behavioral benefits in the categorization of speech...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214264/identification-of-candidate-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-parkinsonism-using-quantitative-proteomics
#3
N K Magdalinou, A J Noyce, R Pinto, E Lindstrom, J Holmén-Larsson, M Holtta, K Blennow, H R Morris, T Skillbäck, T T Warner, A J Lees, I Pike, M Ward, H Zetterberg, J Gobom
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes have significant clinical and pathological overlap, making early diagnosis difficult. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may aid the differentiation of these disorders, but other than α-synuclein and neurofilament light chain protein, which have limited diagnostic power, specific protein biomarkers remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: To study disease mechanisms and identify possible CSF diagnostic biomarkers through discovery proteomics, which discriminate parkinsonian syndromes from healthy controls...
January 31, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214234/reablement-reactivation-rehabilitation-and-restorative-interventions-with-older-adults-in-receipt-of-home-care-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Joanie Sims-Gould, Catherine E Tong, Lutetia Wallis-Mayer, Maureen C Ashe
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the impact of reablement, reactivation, rehabilitation, and restorative (4R) programs for older adults in receipt of home care services. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: We searched the following electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), SPORTDiscus and The Cochrane Library and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials that describe original data on the impact of home-based rehabilitative care and were written in English...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213784/microglia-in-the-primate-macula-specializations-in-microglial-distribution-and-morphology-with-retinal-position-and-with-aging
#5
Janani Singaravelu, Lian Zhao, Robert N Fariss, T Michael Nork, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the principal resident immune cell in the retina, play constitutive roles in immune surveillance and synapse maintenance, and are also associated with retinal disease, including those occurring in the macula. Perspectives on retinal microglia function have derived largely from rodent models and how these relate to the macula-bearing primate retina is unclear. In this study, we examined microglial distribution and cellular morphology in the adult rhesus macaque retina, and performed comparative characterizations in three retinal locations along the center-to-periphery axis (parafoveal, macular, and the peripheral retina)...
February 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213525/conformational-profiling-of-the-at1-angiotensin-ii-receptor-reflects-biased-agonism-g-protein-coupling-and-cellular-context
#6
Dominic Devost, Rory Sleno, Darlaine Petrin, Alice Zhang, Yuji Shinjo, Rakan Okde, Junken Aoki, Asuka Inoue, Terence E Hebert
Here, we report the design and use of GPCR-based biosensors to monitor ligand-mediated conformational changes in receptors in intact cells. These biosensors use Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) with Renilla luciferase (RlucII) as an energy donor, placed at the distal end of the receptor C-tail and the small fluorescent molecule FlAsH, as an energy acceptor, its binding site inserted at different positions throughout the intracellular loops and carboxy-terminal tail of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213432/targeting-cancer-cells-with-bet-bromodomain-inhibitors
#7
Yali Xu, Christopher R Vakoc
Cancer cells are often hypersensitive to the targeting of transcriptional regulators, which may reflect the deregulated gene expression programs that underlie malignant transformation. One of the most prominent transcriptional vulnerabilities in human cancer to emerge in recent years is the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins, which are coactivators that link acetylated transcription factors and histones to the activation of RNA polymerase II. Despite unclear mechanisms underlying the gene specificity of BET protein function, small molecules targeting these regulators preferentially suppress the transcription of cancer-promoting genes...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213119/the-heterogeneity-of-the-left-dorsal-premotor-cortex-evidenced-by-multimodal-connectivity-based-parcellation-and-functional-characterization
#8
Sarah Genon, Andrew Reid, Hai Li, Lingzhong Fan, Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Christian Grefkes, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Tianzi Jiang, Katrin Amunts, Simon B Eickhoff
Despite the common conception of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) as a single brain region, its diverse connectivity profiles and behavioral heterogeneity argue for a differentiated organization of the PMd. A previous study revealed that the right PMd is characterized by a rostro-caudal and a ventro-dorsal distinction dividing it into five subregions: rostral, central, caudal, ventral and dorsal. The present study assessed whether a similar organization is present in the left hemisphere, by capitalizing on a multimodal data-driven approach combining connectivity-based parcellation (CBP) based on meta-analytic modeling, resting-state functional connectivity, and probabilistic diffusion tractography...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212963/clinician-reported-outcome-assessments-of-treatment-benefit-report-of-the-ispor-clinical-outcome-assessment-emerging-good-practices-task-force
#9
John H Powers, Donald L Patrick, Marc K Walton, Patrick Marquis, Stefan Cano, Jeremy Hobart, Maria Isaac, Spiros Vamvakas, Ashley Slagle, Elizabeth Molsen, Laurie B Burke
A clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) assessment is a type of clinical outcome assessment (COA). ClinRO assessments, like all COAs (patient-reported, observer-reported, or performance outcome assessments), are used to 1) measure patients' health status and 2) define end points that can be interpreted as treatment benefits of medical interventions on how patients feel, function, or survive in clinical trials. Like other COAs, ClinRO assessments can be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. A ClinRO assessment is conducted and reported by a trained health care professional and requires specialized professional training to evaluate the patient's health status...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212935/dissecting-biochemical-peculiarities-of-the-atpase-activity-of-tcsub2-a-component-of-the-mrna-export-pathway-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#10
Ize de Aguiar Bittencourt, Mariana Serpeloni, Priscila Mazzochi Hiraiwa, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil de Souza, Andréa Rodrigues Ávila
The RNA helicase DEAD-box protein Sub2 (yeast)/UAP56 (mammals) is conserved across eukaryotes and is essential for mRNA export in trypanosomes. Despite the high conservation of Sub2 in lower eukaryotes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, the low conservation of other mRNA export factors raises questions regarding whether the mode of action of TcSub2 is similar to that of orthologs from other eukaryotes. Mutation of the conserved K87 residue of TcSub2 abolishes ATPase activity, showing that its ATPase domain is functional...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212877/defining-outcomes-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-gucy2d-mutations
#11
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Shreyasi Choudhury, Sharon B Schwartz, Elise Heon, Gerald A Fishman, Shannon E Boye
PURPOSE: To determine outcome measures for a clinical trial of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with mutations in the GUCY2D gene. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: 28 patients with GUCY2D-LCA (ages 2-59) were studied clinically and with chromatic full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), pupillometry, and the NEI Visual Function Questionnaire. RESULTS: FST permitted quantitation of cone and rod sensitivity in these patients with severe visual impairment...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212858/refractive-index-and-thickness-determination-in-langmuir-monolayers-of-myelin-lipids
#12
Julio M Pusterla, Antonio A Malfatti-Gasperini, Ximena E Puentes-Martinez, Leide P Cavalcanti, Rafael G Oliveira
Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface are widely used as biomembrane models and for amphiphilic molecules studies in general. Under controlled intermolecular organization (lateral molecular area), surface pressure, surface potential, reflectivity (R) and other magnitudes can be precisely determined on these planar monomolecular films. However, some physical parameters such as the refractive index of the monolayer (n) still remain elusive. The refractive index is very relevant because (in combination with R) it allows for the determination of the thickness of the film...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212802/smooth-muscle-phenotypic-diversity-effect-on-vascular-function-and-drug-responses
#13
S A Fisher
At its simplest resistance to blood flow is regulated by changes in the state of contraction of the vascular smooth muscle (VSM), a function of the competing activities of the myosin kinase and phosphatase determining the phosphorylation and activity of the myosin ATPase motor protein. In contrast, the vascular system of humans and other mammals is incredibly complex and highly regulated. Much of this complexity derives from phenotypic diversity within the smooth muscle, reflected in very differing power outputs and responses to signaling pathways that regulate vessel tone, presumably having evolved over the millennia to optimize vascular function and its control...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212522/taking-up-the-cudgels-for-the-traditional-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-detection-assays-and-their-use-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#14
REVIEW
Andreas Daiber, Matthias Oelze, Sebastian Steven, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Thomas Münzel
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS such as H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular functions (e.g. differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis), initiate and catalyze adaptive stress responses. In contrast, excessive formation of RONS caused by impaired break-down by cellular antioxidant systems and/or insufficient repair of the resulting oxidative damage of biomolecules may lead to appreciable impairment of cellular function and in the worst case to cell death, organ dysfunction and severe disease phenotypes of the entire organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211988/intrathecal-enzyme-replacement-therapy-reverses-cognitive-decline-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i
#15
Igor Nestrasil, Elsa Shapiro, Alena Svatkova, Patricia Dickson, Agnes Chen, Amy Wakumoto, Alia Ahmed, Edward Stehel, Sarah McNeil, Curtis Gravance, Elizabeth Maher
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease that seriously affects the brain. Severity of neurocognitive symptoms in attenuated MPS subtype (MPS IA) broadly varies partially, due to restricted permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which limits treatment effects of intravenously applied α-L-iduronidase (rhIDU) enzyme. Intrathecal (IT) rhIDU application as a possible solution to circumvent BBB improved brain outcomes in canine models; therefore, our study quantifies effects of IT rhIDU on brain structure and function in an MPS IA patient with previous progressive cognitive decline...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#16
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211157/unravelling-intravertebral-integration-modularity-and-disparity-in-felidae-mammalia
#17
Marcela Randau, Anjali Goswami
Morphological integration and modularity, which describe the relationships among morphological attributes and reflect genetic, developmental, and functional interactions, have been hypothesized to be major influences on trait responses to selection and thus morphological evolution. The mammalian presacral vertebral column shows little variation in vertebral count and therefore specialization for function occurs primarily through modification of vertebral shape. However, vertebral shape has been suggested to be under strong control from developmental canalization, although this has never been explicitly tested...
February 17, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211052/life-history-strategy-determines-constraints-on-immune-function
#18
Benjamin J Parker, Seth M Barribeau, Alice M Laughton, Lynn H Griffin, Nicole M Gerardo
1)Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2)Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211036/unconscious-phantasy-as-a-structural-principle-and-organizer-of-mental-life-the-evolution-of-a-concept-from-freud-to-klein-and-some-of-her-successors
#19
Heinz Weiss
Starting with Freud's discovery of unconscious phantasy as a means of accessing his patients' internal world, the author discusses the evolution of the concept in the work of Melanie Klein and some of her successors. Whereas Freud sees phantasy as a wish fulfilling imagination, dominated by primary process functioning and kept apart from reality testing, Klein understands phantasies as a structural function and organizer of mental life. From their very beginnings they involve object relations and gradually evolve from primitive body-near experiences to images and symbolic representations...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210762/-impact-assessment-of-inadequate-hospital-disaster-management-reflection-based-on-a%C3%A2-risk-model
#20
E Pfenninger, H Güzelel
BACKGROUND: According to legal regulations alarm and emergency plans have to be developed and kept current in hospitals. However, often neither the hospital administration, nor the medical employees and nursing staff pay the necessary attention to these alarm and evacuation plans. In particular, risks and consequences - including financial ones - due to insufficient planning, are not adequately considered. OBJECTIVES: Risks in hospitals are assessed based on a risk analysis...
February 16, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
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