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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223134/rapid-soil-formation-after-glacial-retreat-shaped-by-spatial-patterns-of-organic-matter-accrual-in-microaggregates
#1
Steffen A Schweizer, Carmen Hoeschen, Steffen Schlüter, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Carsten W Mueller
Global change contributes to the retreat of glaciers at unprecedented rates. The deglaciation facilitates biogeochemical processes on glacial deposits with initiating soil formation as an important driver of evolving ecosystems. The underlying mechanisms of soil formation and the association of soil organic matter (SOM) with mineral particles remain unclear, although further insights are critical to understand carbon sequestration in soils. We investigated the microspatial arrangement of SOM coatings at intact soil microaggregate structures during various stages of ecosystem development from 15 to >700 years after deglaciation in the proglacial environment of the Damma glacier (Switzerland)...
December 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222818/task-related-effective-connectivity-reveals-that-the-cortical-rich-club-gates-cortex-wide-communication
#2
Mario Senden, Niels Reuter, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rainer Goebel, Gustavo Deco, Matthieu Gilson
Higher cognition may require the globally coordinated integration of specialized brain regions into functional networks. A collection of structural cortical hubs-referred to as the rich club-has been hypothesized to support task-specific functional integration. In the present paper, we use a whole-cortex model to estimate directed interactions between 68 cortical regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging activity for four different tasks (reflecting different cognitive domains) and resting state. We analyze the state-dependent input and output effective connectivity (EC) of the structural rich club and relate these to whole-cortex dynamics and network reconfigurations...
December 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222787/nerve-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-2-the-quail-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay
#3
Philip Lazarovici, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Dikla Haham, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I Lelkes
The avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a simple, highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane, which performs multiple functions during embryonic development. Therefore, the models of chicken and quail assays represent robust experimental platforms to study angiogenesis, which reflects perturbation of the entire vascular tree. This experimental approach, when combined with fractal morphometry, is sensitive to changes in vascular branching pattern and density. Nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin promoting angiogenesis in CAM models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222526/numerical-value-biases-sound-localization
#4
Edward J Golob, Jörg Lewald, Stephan Getzmann, Jeffrey R Mock
Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9)...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221819/cerebellar-alterations-in-a-model-of-down-syndrome-the-role-of-the-dyrk1a-gene
#5
Susana García-Cerro, Verónica Vidal, Sara Lantigua, Maria Teresa Berciano, Miguel Lafarga, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro, Noemí Rueda, Carmen Martínez-Cué
Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by a marked reduction in the size of the brain and cerebellum. These changes play an important role in the motor alterations and cognitive disabilities observed in this condition. The Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, the most commonly used model of DS, reflects many DS phenotypes, including alterations in cerebellar morphology. One of the genes that is overexpressed in both individuals with DS and TS mice is DYRK1A/Dyrk1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which has been implicated in the altered cerebellar structural and functional phenotypes observed in both populations...
December 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221318/lung-densitometry-why-how-and-when
#6
REVIEW
Mario Mascalchi, Gianna Camiciottoli, Stefano Diciotti
Lung densitometry assesses with computed tomography (CT) the X-ray attenuation of the pulmonary tissue which reflects both the degree of inflation and the structural lung abnormalities implying decreased attenuation, as in emphysema and cystic diseases, or increased attenuation, as in fibrosis. Five reasons justify replacement with lung densitometry of semi-quantitative visual scales used to measure extent and severity of diffuse lung diseases: (I) improved reproducibility; (II) complete vs. discrete assessment of the lung tissue; (III) shorter computation times; (IV) better correlation with pathology quantification of pulmonary emphysema; (V) better or equal correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT)...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221090/study-of-the-momentum-resolved-plasmonic-field-energy-of-bloch-like-surface-plasmon-polaritons-from-periodic-nanohole-array
#7
Z L Cao, H C Ong
The angular surface plasmon mediated fluorescence from a two-dimensional Au nanohole array has been studied by reflectivity spectroscopy and Fourier-space photoluminescence microscopy. By using the rate equation model and temporal coupled mode theory, we determine the momentum-dependent coupling rate of light emitters to (-1,0) Bloch-like surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the first Brillouin zone. The rate increases gradually when the SPPs propagate away from the Γ-X direction and split into two at the Γ-M point where two coupled modes are formed...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220991/assessing-uncertainties-in-scattering-correction-algorithms-for-reflective-tube-absorption-measurements-made-with-a-wet-labs-ac-9
#8
Nicole D Stockley, Rüdiger Röttgers, David McKee, Ina Lefering, James M Sullivan, Michael S Twardowski
In situ absorption measurements collected with a WET Labs ac-9 employing a reflective tube approach were scatter corrected using several possible methods and compared to reference measurements made by a PSICAM to assess performance. Overall, two correction methods performed best for the stations sampled: one using an empirical relationship between the ac-9 and PSICAM to derive the scattering error (ε) in the near-infrared (NIR), and one where ε was independently derived from concurrent measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF)...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220984/plasma-nanotexturing-of-silicon-surfaces-for-photovoltaics-applications-influence-of-initial-surface-finish-on-the-evolution-of-topographical-and-optical-properties
#9
Guillaume Fischer, Etienne Drahi, Martin Foldyna, Thomas A Germer, Erik V Johnson
Using a plasma to generate a surface texture with feature sizes on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers ("nanotexturing") is a promising technique being considered to improve efficiency in thin, high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. This study investigates the evolution of the optical properties of silicon samples with various initial surface finishes (from mirror polish to various states of micron-scale roughness) during a plasma nanotexturing process. It is shown that during said process, the appearance and growth of nanocone-like structures are essentially independent of the initial surface finish, as quantified by the auto-correlation function of the surface morphology...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220727/the-health-impacts-of-weekday-traffic-a-health-risk-assessment-of-pm2-5-emissions-during-congested-periods
#10
Weeberb J Requia, Christopher D Higgins, Matthew D Adams, Moataz Mohamed, Petros Koutrakis
Little work has accounted for congestion, using data that reflects driving patterns, traffic volume, and speed, to examine the association between traffic emissions and human health. In this study, we performed a health risk assessment of PM2.5 emissions during congestion periods in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA), Canada. Specifically, we used a micro-level approach that combines the Stochastic User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment Algorithm with a MOVES emission model to estimate emissions considering congestion conditions...
December 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220155/superchiral-plasmonic-phase-sensitivity-for-fingerprinting-of-protein-interface-structure
#11
Ryan Tullius, Geoffrey W Platt, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Adrian J Lapthorn, Vincent M Rotello, Graeme Cooke, Laurence D Barron, Alexander O Govorov, Affar Shahid Karimullah, Malcolm Kadodwala
The structure adopted by biomaterials, such as proteins, at interfaces is a crucial parameter in a range of important biological problems. It is a critical property in defining the functionality of cell / bacterial membranes, biofilms (i.e. in antibiotic resistant infections) and the exploitation of immobilised enzymes in biocatalysis. The intrinsically small quantities of materials at interfaces precludes the application of conventional spectroscopic phenomena routinely used for (bio)structural analysis due to a lack of sensitivity...
December 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220105/less-fibrosis-in-elderly-subjects-supplemented-with-selenium-and-coenzyme-q10-a-mechanism-behind-reduced-cardiovascular-mortality
#12
Urban Alehagen, Jan Aaseth, Jan Alexander, Erland Svensson, Peter Johansson, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: In an intervention study where 221 healthy elderly persons received selenium and coenzyme Q10 as a dietary supplement, and 222 received placebo for 4 years we observed improved cardiac function and reduced cardiovascular mortality. As fibrosis is central in the aging process, we investigated the effect of the intervention on biomarkers of fibrogenic activity in a subanalysis of this intervention study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present subanalysis 122 actively treated individuals and 101 controls, the effect of the treatment on eight biomarkers of fibrogenic activity were assessed...
December 8, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219846/organic-inorganic-hybrid-optical-foils-with-strong-visible-reflection-excellent-near-infrared-shielding-ability-and-high-transparency
#13
Yijie Zhou, Aibin Huang, Huaijuan Zhou, Shidong Ji, Ping Jin
Research on functional flexible films has been attracting widespread attention especially those foils which could be designed artificially on the base of the practical requirements. In this work, foil with high visible reflection and strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by simple wet chemical methods. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils under polymer melting temperature to obtain photonic crystal film with strong reflection in visible region to block blue ray...
December 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219825/ending-the-epidemic-critical-role-of-primary-hiv-infection
#14
H A B Prins, A Verbon, C A B Boucher, C Rokx
Early identification and immediate treatment of individuals newly infected with HIV is important for two reasons: it benefits the long-term health of the infected patient, and it reduces onward HIV transmission. Primary HIV infection (PHI) reflects the period following HIV acquisition during which viraemia bursts until the establishment of a stable plasma HIV-RNA level approximately six months post infection. During this period, patients are particularly contagious and are often unaware of the infection. As a consequence, PHI disproportionally affects onward transmission...
October 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219729/drought-stress-responses-in-maize-are-diminished-by-piriformospora-indica
#15
Wenying Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Xu, Aiai Wang, Lan Huang, Hewei Du, Lijuan Qiu, Ralf Oelmüller
As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000)...
December 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219028/ambulatory-pulse-pressure-brain-neuronal-fiber-integrity-and-cerebral-blood-flow-in-older-adults
#16
Takashi Tarumi, Binu P Thomas, Ciwen Wang, Li Zhang, Jie Liu, Marcel Turner, Jonathan Riley, Nikita Tangella, Kyle B Womack, Diana R Kerwin, C Munro Cullum, Hanzhang Lu, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, David C Zhu, Rong Zhang
Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) reflects the end-organ vascular stress in daily life; however, its influence on brain neuronal fiber integrity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the associations among ABP, white matter (WM) neuronal fiber integrity, and CBF in older adults. We tested 144 participants via ABP monitoring and diffusion tensor imaging. The total level and pulsatile indices of CBF were measured by phase-contrast MRI and transcranial Doppler, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219006/distribution-and-quantitative-analysis-of-cidea-and-cidec-in-broiler-chickens-accounting-for-differential-fat-deposition-between-strains
#17
J Huang, L Huang, Q Zeng, E Huang, H Liang, Q Wei, X Xie, J Ruan
1. Differences in the expression of CIDEa and CIDEc in 20 different tissues were examined. Both CIDEa and CIDEc mRNA transcripts were predominantly but variably expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) but were also expressed at moderate levels in the kidney and liver and at lower levels in the ovary. Interestingly, among white adipose tissue types, both CIDEa and CIDEc were expressed at the lowest levels in hWAT (heart coronary white adipose tissue). 2. To better understand the roles of CIDEa and CIDEc in the fat deposition of broiler chickens, the differences in lipid droplet size and mRNA levels of CIDEa and CIDEc between lean-type and fat-type broiler chicken lines was studied...
December 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218932/-research-progress-of-bixie
#18
REVIEW
Chong Chen, Chen-Hong Zeng, Si-Qi Zhang, Li Wei
The Dioscorea hypoglauca rhizome and D. spongiosa rhizome in "China Pharmacopoeia" are often used as Bixie in clinically, with the function of removing dampness, clearing away turbidness and dispelling wind to remove pain, and has been widely used in stranguria marked by chyluria, joint stiffness and rheumatic arthralgia. It has obvious curative effect and broad application prospect. However, in recent years the progress of research is slow for its miscellaneous sources, chaotic varieties and lack of relevant quality assessment...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218630/differential-reactivity-of-closely-related-zinc-ii-binding-metallothioneins-from-the-plant-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Hasan T Imam, Claudia A Blindauer
The dynamics of metal binding to and transfer from metalloproteins involved in metal homeostasis are important for understanding cellular distribution of metal ions. The dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana has two type 4 seed-specific metallothionein homologues, MT4a and MT4b, with likely roles in zinc(II) homeostasis. These two metallothioneins are 84% identical, with full conservation of all metal-binding cysteine and histidine residues. Yet, differences in their spatial and temporal expression patterns suggested divergence in their biological roles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217684/retrieval-demands-adaptively-change-striatal-old-new-signals-and-boost-subsequent-long-term-memory
#20
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaption. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor vs...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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