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Angelica Nakagawa Lima, Ronaldo Junio de Oliveira, Antônio Sérgio Kimus Braz, Maurício Garcia de Souza Costa, David Perahia, Luis Paulo Barbour Scott
There are two different prion conformations: (1) the cellular natural (PrPC ) and (2) the scrapie (PrPSc ), an infectious form that tends to aggregate under specific conditions. PrPC and PrPSc are widely different regarding secondary and tertiary structures. PrPSc contains more and longer β-strands compared to PrPC . The lack of solved PrPSc structures precludes a proper understanding of the mechanisms related to the transition between cellular and scrapie forms, as well as the aggregation process. In order to investigate the conformational transition between PrPC and PrPSc , we applied MDeNM (molecular dynamics with excited normal modes), an enhanced sampling simulation technique that has been recently developed to probe large structural changes...
March 15, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Kentaro Teramura, Tsunehiro Tanaka
Artificial photosynthesis has recently drawn an increasing amount of attention due to the fact that it allows for direct solar-to-chemical energy conversion. However, one of the basic steps of this process, namely the reduction of CO2 by H2 O to afford O2 and CO2 reduction products (CO2 RPs) such as HCOOH, CO, HCHO, CH3 OH, and CH4 , is very difficult to achieve. In contrast to the CO2 reduction in plants and homogenous systems, the reduction of CO2 to CO2 RPs over heterogeneous photocatalysts was challenged by the competing reduction of H+ to H2 ...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Daniel Girma Mulat, Janka Dibdiakova, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: The emerging cellulosic bioethanol industry will generate huge amounts of lignin-rich residues that may be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) to increase the output of energy carriers from the biorefinery plants. The carbohydrates fraction of lignocellulosic biomass is degradable, whereas the lignin fraction is generally considered difficult to degrade during AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biogas production by AD from hydrolysis lignin (HL), prepared by steam explosion (SE) and enzymatic saccharification of birch...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Anne-Marie Reid, Jeremy M Brown, Julie M Smith, Alexandra C Cope, Susan Jamieson
CONTEXT: For medical education researchers, a key concern may be the practicalities of gaining ethical approval where this is a national or local requirement. However, in qualitative studies, where the dynamics of human interaction pervade, ethical considerations are an ongoing process which continues long after approval has been granted. Responding to ethical dilemmas arising 'in the moment' requires a reflexive approach whereby the researcher questions his/her own motivations, assumptions and interests...
March 13, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Ashish Singh, Abhimanyu Kapoor, Rajneesh Kumar Singh, Anand Prakash, Anu Behari, Ashok Kumar, Vinay Kumar Kapoor, Rajan Saxena
Backgrounds/Aims: A residual gallbladder (RGB) following a partial/subtotal cholecystectomy may cause symptoms that require its removal. We present our large study regarding the problem of a RGB over a 15 year period. Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of patients managed for symptomatic RGB from January 2000 to December 2015. Results: A RGB was observed in 93 patients, who had a median age of 45 (25-70) years, and were comprised of 69 (74...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Guoqing Jiang, Dousheng Bai, Ping Chen, Jianjun Qian, Shengjie Jin
BACKGROUND: Liver resection was not formerly recommended in patients with both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal hypertension because of difficult perioperative bleeding control and postoperative liver failure. Splenectomy is a proven method with which to overcome these problems. To investigate the safety and feasibility of synchronous laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection with hepatectomy (LSDH) for treatment of portal hypertension accompanied with HCC, we describe a clinical cohort of 10 patients who underwent a new technique of synchronous LSDH...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Brian P Chalmers, Graham D Pallante, Michael J Taunton, Rafael J Sierra, Robert T Trousdale
BACKGROUND: Revision THA to treat recurrent instability can itself be complicated by recurrent instability, and when this occurs, this problem is difficult to treat. Some patients' THAs will continue to dislocate despite use of a constrained liner. One option in this difficult-to-treat group is conversion to a dual-mobility (DM) construct, but there are few data on this approach. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What were the Harris hip scores in a small group of patients whose constrained liners were converted to DM constructs to treat recurrent dislocation? (2) What were the redislocation, rerevision, and DM construct retention rates in these patients? METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a longitudinally maintained institutional database maintained by individuals other than the treating surgeons to identify patients undergoing conversion of constrained liners to DM constructs in revision THA from 2011 to 2014...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Julia Gray Farber, Mary G Prieur, Christine Roach, Rosemary Shay, Michelle Walter, Drucy Borowitz, Elisabeth P Dellon
Background Despite the chronic, progressive, and life-threatening nature of cystic fibrosis (CF), there are no guidelines for when and how to communicate prognosis to children with CF. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with young adults with CF, parents of young adults with CF, and multidisciplinary CF health care providers assessed recall of and practices for communicating about prognosis. Recommendations for improvements were also solicited. RESULTS: Young adults with CF recalled learning that life expectancy is limited by CF between the ages of 8 and 16 years, and that CF is a progressive disease between the ages of 7 and 19 years...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Jean Amiral, Maxime Laroche, Jerard Seghatchian
For many years, the importance of fibrinolysis has been recognized, first for its intravascular antithrombotic action, and more recently for its many extravascular activities, associated with matrix degradation and tissue remodeling. In the blood circulation system, fibrinolysis prevents thrombosis, and is associated with various biological and clinical situations: risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases in high risk clinical situations (type II diabetes, hypertension, triglycerides, high BMI, elevated glucose, etc...
February 20, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Zohre Kurt, Marco Minoia, Jim C Spain
Resveratrol is among the best-known secondary plant metabolites because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. It also is an important allelopathic chemical widely credited with protection of plants from pathogens. The ecological role of resveratrol in natural habitats is difficult to establish rigorously because it does not seem to accumulate outside of plant tissue. It is likely that bacterial degradation plays a key role in determining the persistence, and thus the ecological role, of resveratrol in soil...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Maria Letizia Barreca, Nunzio Iraci, Silvia Biggi, Violetta Cecchetti, Emiliano Biasini
Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC ), a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of a wide variety of cell types, into a misfolded conformer (the scrapie form of PrP, or PrPSc ) that accumulates in brain tissues of affected individuals. PrPSc is a self-catalytic protein assembly capable of recruiting native conformers of PrPC , and causing their rearrangement into new PrPSc molecules. Several previous attempts to identify therapeutic agents against prion diseases have targeted PrPSc , and a number of compounds have shown potent anti-prion effects in experimental models...
March 7, 2018: Pathogens
Jianfei Ye, Shudong Zhang, Xiaojun Tian, Guoliang Wang, Lei Zhao, Lulin Ma
Objective Laparoscopic knot-tying and suturing are the most difficult steps in shortening the warm ischemia time and learning curve of laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery. This study was performed to demonstrate the safety, oncological efficacy, and technical tips of sutureless retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery (RPNSS). Methods This retrospective study included 78 cases of RPNSS using a sutureless technique and 126 cases of RPNSS using a single-layer barbed self-retaining suture technique performed from December 2012 to December 2016...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Takehiko Kobayashi, Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Shiomi Yoshida, Yu Kurahara, Naoya Ikegami, Maiko Naito, Shoko Sonobe, Toshiya Maekura, Taisuke Tsuji, Shojiro Minomo, Yoshikazu Inoue, Katsuhiro Suzuki
Background: Among Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections, patients with M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAA) lung disease are difficult to treat and no standard therapy has been established. Few reports have investigated the drug susceptibility of these strains. We retrospectively investigated how in vitro drug susceptibility testing (DST) of MAA affects the induction of sputum conversion using pharmacotherapy. Methods: Patients with MAA lung disease diagnosed and treated between 2010 and 2014 at our hospital were enrolled and divided into Group A (sputum conversion without relapse within 1 year) and Group B (persistent positive cultured or negative conversion with relapse)...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
D Seybold, T A Schildhauer, J Geßmann
BACKGROUND: Bony defect situations are a common problem in revision arthroplasty of the shoulder and are the cause of the complexity of the procedure. Aseptic and septic loosening as well as difficult implant removal can result in humeral and/or glenoid bone loss. PLANNING: A careful preoperative imaging is needed to estimate the extent of the bony defect and to enable precise planning of the bone reconstruction and the required implants. However, the size of the defect needs to be re-evaluated intraoperatively after removal of the implant components and any larger defects have to be addressed appropriately...
March 7, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Brian K P Goh, Lip-Seng Lee, Ser-Yee Lee, Pierce K H Chow, Chung-Yip Chan, Adrian K H Chiow
BACKGROUND: Presently, the adoption of laparoscopic hepatectomy is rapidly increasingly worldwide. However, the application of robotic hepatectomy (RH) remains limited and its role remains undefined today. METHODS: A retrospective review of 43 consecutive patients who underwent RH at two institutions in the Singapore Health Services Group. RESULTS: Forty-three consecutive patients underwent 48 resections during the study period. Seven (16...
March 7, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Binghao Li, Yang Zeng, Patrick M Reeves, Chongzhao Ran, Qiuyan Liu, Xiying Qu, Yingying Liang, Zhao Liu, Jianping Yuan, Pierre R Leblanc, Zhaoming Ye, Ann E Sluder, Jeffrey A Gelfand, Timothy A Brauns, Huabiao Chen, Mark C Poznansky
AMD3100 (plerixafor), a CXCR4 antagonist, has been demonstrated to suppress tumor growth and modulate intratumoral T-cell trafficking. However, the effect of AMD3100 on immunomodulation remains elusive. Here, we explored immunomodulation and antitumor efficacy of AMD3100 in combination with a previously developed mesothelin-targeted, immune-activating fusion protein, VIC-008, in two syngeneic, orthotopic models of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in immunocompetent mice. We showed that combination therapy significantly suppressed tumor growth and prolonged animal survival in two mouse models...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
V Regász, V Boháč, J Rychnovský
AIM: To present a case of a woman diagnosed with intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus. TYPE OF STUDY: Case report. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Středomoravská nemocniční a.s., Přerov Hospital. CASE REPORT: A 39-year old woman was referred to our unit with uterine fibroids, dysfunctional uterine bleeding and anaemia. Abdominal hysterectomy was performed. The histopathological analysis diagnosed the presence of intravenous leiomyomatosis...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
Takeo Nakayama
 Evidence-based medicine (EBM) can be defined as "the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and a patient's unique values and circumstances". However, even with the best research evidence, many uncertainties can make clinical decisions difficult. As the social requirement of respecting patient values and preferences has been increasingly recognized, shared decision making (SDM) and consensus development between patients and clinicians have attracted attention. SDM is a process by which patients and clinicians make decisions and arrive at a consensus through interactive conversations and communications...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Christos D Karkos, Maria Mitka, Ioannis Pliatsios, Efthalia Xanthopoulou, Ioakeim T Giagtzidis, Christina T Papadimitriou, Konstantinos O Papazoglou
Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) after previous endovascular repair (EVAR) may require endograft explantation and replacement with a prosthetic surgical graft. Recent reports have suggested that total endograft removal during late surgical conversion in the non-ruptured setting may not be necessary and that preserving functional parts of the endograft may improve results. Similar techniques may be used for ruptured cases diminishing the magnitude of an already difficult and complex procedure. We describe the successful treatment of a ruptured AAA after previous EVAR with complete endograft preservation by combining transmural endograft fixation with sutures, proximal aortic neck banding and sac plication...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Kaori Kohzuma, Kouki Hikosaka
Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is the most important photoprotective system in higher plants. NPQ can be divided into several steps according to the timescale of relaxation of chlorophyll fluorescence after reaching a steady state (i.e., the fast phase, qE; middle phase, qZ or qT; and slow phase, qI). The dissipation of excess energy as heat during the xanthophyll cycle, a large component of NPQ, is detectable during the fast to middle phase (sec to min). Although thermal dissipation is primarily investigated using indirect methods such as chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, such analyses require dark adaptation or the application of a saturating pulse during measurement, making it difficult to continuously monitor this process...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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