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difficult conversations

Hayoung Choi, Byung Woo Jhun, Su-Young Kim, Dae Hun Kim, Hyun Lee, Kyeongman Jeon, O Jung Kwon, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Charles L Daley, Won-Jung Koh
Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease is difficult to treat due to inducible resistance to macrolides. However, 15%-20% of isolates are macrolide susceptible. In 14 patients with macrolide-susceptible M. abscessus lung disease, all isolates had nonfunctional erm(41) gene, and sputum culture conversion rate was achieved in 93% (13/14) following antibiotic therapy.
December 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Ellen Brassil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
Dustin R Masser, Niran Hadad, Hunter Porter, Michael B Stout, Archana Unnikrishnan, David R Stanford, Willard M Freeman
As geroscience research extends into the role of epigenetics in aging and age-related disease, researchers are being confronted with unfamiliar molecular techniques and data analysis methods that can be difficult to integrate into their work. In this review, we focus on the analysis of DNA modifications, namely cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation, through next-generation sequencing methods. While older techniques for modification analysis performed relative quantitation across regions of the genome or examined average genome levels, these analyses lack the desired specificity, rigor, and genomic coverage to firmly establish the nature of genomic methylation patterns and their response to aging...
January 11, 2018: GeroScience
Zachary R Adam, Yayoi Hongo, H James Cleaves, Ruiqin Yi, Albert C Fahrenbach, Isao Yoda, Masashi Aono
Water creates special problems for prebiotic chemistry, as it is thermodynamically favorable for amide and phosphodiester bonds to hydrolyze. The availability of alternative solvents with more favorable properties for the formation of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth may have helped bypass this so-called "water paradox". Formamide (FA) is one such solvent, and can serve as a nucleobase precursor, but it is difficult to envision how FA could have been generated in large quantities or accumulated in terrestrial surface environments...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lukas W Widmer, Sandra Keller, Franziska Tschan, Norbert K Semmer, Eliane Holzer, Daniel Candinas, Guido Beldi
BACKGROUND: Case-irrelevant communication (CIC) is defined as "any conversation" irrelevant to the case. It includes small talk, but also communication related to other work issues besides the actual task. CIC during surgeries is generally seen as distracting, despite a lack of knowledge about the content of CIC and its regulation in terms of adjustments to the situation of CIC. Primary goal of the study was to evaluate CIC content; secondary goal was to evaluate whether surgical teams regulate CIC according to different concentration demands of surgical procedures...
January 9, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Shiho Sairenji, Shigehisa Akine, Tatsuya Nabeshima
In biological systems, there are many signal transduction cascades in which a chemical signal is transferred as a series of chemical events. Such successive reaction systems are advantageous because the efficiency of the functions can be finely controlled by regulatory enzymes at an earlier stage. However, most of artificial responsive molecules developed so far rely on single-step conversion, whose response speeds have been difficult to be controlled by external stimuli. In this context, developing artificial conversion systems that have a regulation step similar to the regulatory enzymes has been anticipated...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Monica E Lemmon, Charlene Gamaldo, Rachel Marie E Salas, Ankita Saxena, Tiana E Cruz, Renee D Boss, Roy E Strowd
OBJECTIVE: To characterize features of medical student exposure to difficult conversations during a neurology core clerkship. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional concurrent nested mixed methods study, and all students rotating through a required neurology clerkship between 2014 and 2015 were enrolled. Data collection included an electronic communication tracker, baseline and end-of-clerkship surveys, and 4 facilitated focus groups. Students were asked to log exposure to patient-clinician conversations about (1) new disability, (2) poor prognosis, (3) prognostic uncertainty (4), terminal diagnosis, and (5) end-of-life care...
January 9, 2018: Neurology
Yuan Yao, Xiaoping Dong, Hongzhi Guan, Qiang Lu
RATIONALE: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) mainly occurs in the elderly, with the peak age of onset ranging from 55 to 75 years. The symptoms of sCJD are not unique, and laboratory tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)14-3-3 protein have low sensitivity or specificity. Therefore, excluding treatable diseases and establishing a diagnosis could be difficult in young patients with suspected sCJD. Recently, real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) has been used in the diagnosis of sCJD, with more than 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
A Bolderston, J Watson, N Woznitza, A Westerink, L Di Prospero, G Currie, C Beardmore, J Hewis
INTRODUCTION: Online Twitter journal clubs are a recent and popular innovation with the potential to increase research awareness and inform practice. The medical radiation sciences' MedRadJournalClub (MJRC) is a Twitter-based event that attracts a global group of participants at the monthly chats. An analysis of a recent MedRadJournalClub discussion evaluated the perceived benefits and limitations of medical radiation practitioners participating in an online journal club. METHODS: The February 2017 chat used for analysis was based on the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences article by Currie et al...
February 2018: Radiography
Hanne K Mæhre, Lars Dalheim, Guro K Edvinsen, Edel O Elvevoll, Ida-Johanne Jensen
The reported protein content of foods depends on the analytical method used for determination, making a direct comparison between studies difficult. The aim of this study was to examine and compare protein analytical methods. Some of these methods require extraction preceding analysis. The efficacy of protein extraction differs depending on food matrices and thus extraction yield was determined. Overall, most analytical methods overestimated the protein contents. The inaccuracies were linked to indirect measurements, i...
January 1, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Anna Byszewski, Barbara Power, Linda Lee, Glara Gaeun Rhee, Bob Parson, Frank Molnar
Background: For persons with dementia (PWD), driving becomes very dangerous. Physicians in Canada are legally responsible to report unfit drivers and then must disclose that decision to their patients. That difficult discussion is fraught with challenges: physicians want to maintain a healthy relationship; patients often lack insight into their cognitive loss and have very strong emotional reactions to the loss of their driving privileges. All of which may stifle the exchange of accurate information...
December 2017: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
Eva Charlotte Winnebeck, Dorothee Fischer, Tanya Leise, Till Roenneberg
The temporal dynamics that characterize sleep are difficult to capture outside the sleep laboratory. Therefore, longitudinal studies and big-data approaches assessing sleep dynamics are lacking. Here, we present the first large-scale analysis of human sleep dynamics in real life by making use of longitudinal wrist movement recordings of >16,000 sleep bouts from 573 subjects. Through non-linear conversion of locomotor activity to "Locomotor Inactivity During Sleep" (LIDS), movement patterns are exposed that directly reflect ultradian sleep cycles and replicate the dynamics of laboratory sleep parameters...
December 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Sarah Graham, Richard Dayton Smith, Heather Ann Carlson
Water molecules are an important factor in protein-ligand binding. Upon binding of a ligand with a protein's surface, waters can either be displaced by the ligand or may be conserved and possibly bridge interactions between the protein and ligand. Depending on the specific interactions made by the ligand, displacing waters can yield a gain in binding affinity. The extent to which binding affinity may increase is difficult to predict, as the favorable displacement of a water molecule is dependent on the site-specific interactions made by the water and the potential ligand...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Wengao Zhao, Guiming Zhong, Jian Zheng, Jianming Zheng, Junhua Song, Zhengliang Gong, Zheng Chen, Guorui Zheng, Zheng Jiang, Yong Yang
In this work, we firstly report the composite of CuNi2(PO4)2/C (CNP/C) can be employed as the high capacity conversion-typed cathode material for rechargeable Li ion batteries (LIBs), delivering a reversible capacity as high as 306 mAhg-1 at a current density of 20 mA g-1. Furthermore, CNP/C also presents good rate performance and reasonable cycling stability based on a non-traditional conversion reaction mode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterizations show that CNP is reduced to form Cu/Ni and Li3PO4 during discharging process, which is reversed in the following charging process, demonstrating that a reversible conversion reaction mechanism occurs...
December 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Geoffrey L House, Matthew W Hahn
With advances in sequencing technology, research in the field of landscape genetics can now be conducted at unprecedented spatial and genomic scales. This has been especially evident when using sequence data to visualize patterns of genetic differentiation across a landscape due to demographic history, including changes in migration. Two recent model-based visualization methods that can highlight unusual patterns of genetic differentiation across a landscape, SpaceMix and EEMS, are increasingly used. While SpaceMix's model can infer long-distance migration, EEMS' model is more sensitive to short-distance changes in genetic differentiation, and it is unclear how these differences may affect their results in various situations...
December 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
Beatriz Martín-Luengo, Yury Shtyrov, Karlos Luna, Andriy Myachykov
Research on conversational exchanges shows that people attempt to optimise their responses' relevance when they definitely know the correct answer (e.g., "What time is it?"). However, such certainty is often unavailable while speakers may still be under social pressure to provide an answer. We investigated how social context influences the informativeness level when answering questions under uncertainty. In three experiments, participants answered difficult general-knowledge questions placed in different social contexts (formal vs...
December 27, 2017: Memory
Jaehag Jung, Seung Hoon Lee, Mira Park, Ji Hye Youn, Sang Hoon Shin, Ho Shin Gwak, Heon Yoo
When distant metastases are discovered, it is important to determine receptor profiles of these lesions through histologic examination. However, brain metastasis sites are difficult to reach to be routinely biopsied. The purpose of this study was to determine expression profiles of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) and the existence of discordance between primary breast cancer and brain metastasis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Sonja J Prohaska, Sarah J Berkemer, Fabian Gärtner, Thomas Gatter, Nancy Retzlaff, Christian Höner Zu Siederdissen, Peter F Stadler
Clusters of paralogous genes such as the famous HOX cluster of developmental transcription factors tend to evolve by stepwise duplication of its members, often involving unequal crossing over. Gene conversion and possibly other mechanisms of concerted evolution further obfuscate the phylogenetic relationships. As a consequence, it is very difficult or even impossible to disentangle the detailed history of gene duplications in gene clusters. In this contribution we show that the expansion of gene clusters by unequal crossing over as proposed by Walter Gehring leads to distinctive patterns of genetic distances, namely a subclass of circular split systems...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Alexandra R Harris, Jessica X Yuan, Jennifer M Munson
The tumor microenvironment is important in promoting treatment resistance of tumor cells via multiple mechanisms. However, studying this interaction often proves difficult. In vivo animal models are costly, time-consuming, and often fail to adequately predict human response to treatment. Conversely, testing drug response on human tumor cells in vitro in 2D cell culture excludes the important contribution of stromal cells and biophysical forces seen in the in vivo tumor microenvironment. Here, we present tissue-engineered models of both human brain and breast tumor microenvironments incorporating key stromal cell populations for assessing multiple mechanisms of therapeutic response using flow cytometry...
December 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Stephen C Mack, Kristian W Pajtler, Lukas Chavez, Konstantin Okonechnikov, Kelsey C Bertrand, Xiuxing Wang, Serap Erkek, Alexander Federation, Anne Song, Christine Lee, Xin Wang, Laura McDonald, James J Morrow, Alina Saiakhova, Patrick Sin-Chan, Qiulian Wu, Kulandaimanuvel Antony Michaelraj, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Marina Ryzhova, Livia Garzia, Laura Donovan, Stephen Dombrowski, Daniel C Factor, Betty Luu, Claudia L L Valentim, Ryan C Gimple, Andrew Morton, Leo Kim, Briana C Prager, John J Y Lee, Xiaochong Wu, Jennifer Zuccaro, Yuan Thompson, Borja L Holgado, Jüri Reimand, Susan Q Ke, Adam Tropper, Sisi Lai, Senthuran Vijayarajah, Sylvia Doan, Vaidehi Mahadev, Ana Fernandez Miñan, Susanne N Gröbner, Matthias Lienhard, Marc Zapatka, Zhiqin Huang, Kenneth D Aldape, Angel M Carcaboso, Peter J Houghton, Stephen T Keir, Till Milde, Hendrik Witt, Yan Li, Chao-Jun Li, Xiu-Wu Bian, David T W Jones, Ian Scott, Sheila K Singh, Annie Huang, Peter B Dirks, Eric Bouffet, James E Bradner, Vijay Ramaswamy, Nada Jabado, James T Rutka, Paul A Northcott, Mathieu Lupien, Peter Lichter, Andrey Korshunov, Peter C Scacheri, Stefan M Pfister, Marcel Kool, Michael D Taylor, Jeremy N Rich
Genomic sequencing has driven precision-based oncology therapy; however, the genetic drivers of many malignancies remain unknown or non-targetable, so alternative approaches to the identification of therapeutic leads are necessary. Ependymomas are chemotherapy-resistant brain tumours, which, despite genomic sequencing, lack effective molecular targets. Intracranial ependymomas are segregated on the basis of anatomical location (supratentorial region or posterior fossa) and further divided into distinct molecular subgroups that reflect differences in the age of onset, gender predominance and response to therapy...
December 20, 2017: Nature
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