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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433683/municipal-wastewater-sludge-as-a-sustainable-bioresource-in-the-united-states
#1
Timothy E Seiple, André M Coleman, Richard L Skaggs
Within the United States and Puerto Rico, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) process 130.5 Gl/d (34.5 Bgal/d) of wastewater, producing sludge as a waste product. Emerging technologies offer novel waste-to-energy pathways through whole sludge conversion into biofuels. Assessing the feasibility, scalability and tradeoffs of various energy conversion pathways is difficult in the absence of highly spatially resolved estimates of sludge production. In this study, average wastewater solids concentrations and removal rates, and site specific daily average influent flow are used to estimate site specific annual sludge production on a dry weight basis for >15,000 POTWs...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426923/potassium-promoted-molybdenum-carbide-as-a-highly-active-and-selective-catalyst-for-co2-conversion-to-co
#2
Marc D Porosoff, Jeffrey W Baldwin, Xi Peng, Giannis Mpourmpakis, Heather D Willauer
The high concentration of CO2 bound in seawater represents a significant opportunity to extract and use this CO2 as a C1 feedstock for synthetic fuels. Through an existing process patented by the U.S. Navy, CO2 and H2 can be concurrently extracted from seawater, then catalytically reacted to produce synthetic fuel. Hydrogenating CO2 directly into liquid hydrocarbons is exceptionally difficult, but by first identifying a catalyst for selective CO production via reverse water-gas shift (RWGS), CO can then be hydrogenated to fuel through Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis...
April 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422916/beware-of-the-interval-cholecystectomy
#3
James Ackerman, Ryan Abegglen, Mark Scaife, Andrew Peitzman, Matthew Rosengart, Wallis Marsh, Kurt Stahlfeld
BACKGROUND *: Despite limited data regarding the indications and effectiveness of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) in the treatment of acute cholecystitis (AC), usage has increased by over 500% since 1994. Many of these patients subsequently undergo interval cholecystectomy (IC), a procedure that has not been rigorously evaluated. This aim of this study was to quantify the morbidity and mortality associated with the IC. METHODS *: We included all consecutive adult patients (>18 years old) who underwent PC and IC from January 2008 to December 2013...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421909/management-of-intra-abdominally-translocated-contraceptive-devices-is-surgery-the-only-way-to-treat-this-problem
#4
Mustafa Gazi Uçar, Fatih Şanlıkan, Tolgay Tuyan Ilhan, Ahmet Göçmen, Çetin Çelik
This study was a multi-centre retrospective review of patients with uterine perforation caused by intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs). A total of 15 patients were registered, in a seven year period. Among them, five were asymptomatic and the rest were symptomatic. Asymptomatic patients were managed conservatively, except in one case in which the patient requested surgery because she also wanted a tubal ligation. Symptomatic patients all underwent surgery. All the surgeries were elective and all the surgical procedures were initiated laparoscopically...
May 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418412/-the-family-s-influence-on-the-oral-health-of-children-a-peek-behind-the-front-door
#5
D Duijster, C van Loveren
The prevention of dental caries seems fairly easy. The disease can largely be avoided by the daily removal of dental plaque using fluoride toothpaste and the control of sugary intakes. Most parents have sufficient knowledge and motivation to adhere to this prevention advice with respect to their children. Actual practice, however, proves quite difficult because parents experience barriers in implementing the advice. This article provides an overview of the most important family-related factors that influence children's oral health behaviour and dental caries experience...
April 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413712/variation-within-mbp-gene-predicts-disease-course-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Yuan Zhou, Steve Simpson, Jac C Charlesworth, Ingrid van der Mei, Robyn M Lucas, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Bruce V Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Prognosis following a first demyelinating event is difficult to predict, with no genetic markers of MS progression currently identified. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major component of the myelin sheath of CNS neurons and may play a central role in demyelinating diseases such as MS. However, genetic variation in MBP has not been implicated in MS onset risk in large genome-wide association studies. We hypothesized that genetic variations in MBP may be a determinant of MS clinical course...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409526/the-impact-of-coat-protein-mediated-virus-resistance-in-applied-plant-pathology-and-basic-research
#7
John A Lindbo, Bryce W Falk
Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399840/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-morbidity-and-functional-outcome-of-endoscopic-transanal-proctectomy-versus-laparoscopic-proctectomy-for-low-lying-rectal-cancer-etap-greccar-11-trial-rationale-and-design
#8
Bernard Lelong, Cécile de Chaisemartin, Helene Meillat, Sandra Cournier, Jean Marie Boher, Dominique Genre, Mehdi Karoui, Jean Jacques Tuech, Jean Robert Delpero
BACKGROUND: Total mesorectal excision is the standard surgical treatment for mid- and low-rectal cancer. Laparoscopy represents a clear leap forward in the management of rectal cancer patients, offering significant improvements in post-operative measures such as pain, first bowel movement, and hospital length of stay. However, there are still some limits to its applications, especially in difficult cases. Such cases may entail either conversion to an open procedure or positive resection margins...
April 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394304/the-diet-and-haemodialysis-dyad-three-eras-four-open-questions-and-four-paradoxes-a-narrative-review-towards-a-personalized-patient-centered-approach
#9
REVIEW
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Maria Rita Moio, Antioco Fois, Andreea Sofronie, Lurlinys Gendrot, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Claudia D'Alessandro, Adamasco Cupisti
The history of dialysis and diet can be viewed as a series of battles waged against potential threats to patients' lives. In the early years of dialysis, potassium was identified as "the killer", and the lists patients were given of forbidden foods included most plant-derived nourishment. As soon as dialysis became more efficient and survival increased, hyperphosphatemia, was identified as the enemy, generating an even longer list of banned aliments. Conversely, the "third era" finds us combating protein-energy wasting...
April 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390671/the-4-th-trimester-a-critical-transition-period-with-unmet-maternal-health-needs
#10
Kristin P Tully, Alison M Stuebe, Sarah B Verbiest
After childbirth, most American women are not scheduled for follow up care for 6 weeks, and this visit is poorly attended. Many new mothers feel unprepared for the common health issues they encounter and are uncertain of whom to contact. To improve care, the 4(th) Trimester Project is bringing together mothers, health care providers, and other stakeholders to explore what families need most from birth to 12 weeks postpartum. Eighty-seven individuals convened in March 2016 in Chapel Hill, NC. Four major topic areas emerged: (1) the intense focus on women's health prenatally is unbalanced by infrequent and late postpartum care; (2) medical practice guidelines often do not align with women's experiences and constraints; (3) validation of women as experts of their infants and elevating their strengths as mothers is necessary to achieve health goals; and (4) mothers need comprehensive care, which is difficult to provide due to numerous system constraints...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390544/obesity-heuristic-reasoning-and-the-organisation-of-communicative-embarrassment-in-diagnostic-radiography
#11
P K Miller, A L Woods, C Sloane, L Booth
This paper, the second of three arising from a broader qualitative study, explores difficulties emerging around radiographer-patient communication regarding obesity in hospital-based encounters, and the situated strategies found by experienced radiographers for handling such situations. Semi-structured interviews with eight clinicians working in plain radiography (mean experience = 21.56 years) were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), so as to highlight the practical, nuanced and real-world experiences of these individuals regarding obesity communication...
May 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387304/bond-cleavage-of-lignin-model-compounds-into-aromatic-monomers-using-supported-metal-catalysts-in-supercritical-water
#12
Aritomo Yamaguchi, Naoki Mimura, Masayuki Shirai, Osamu Sato
More efficient use of lignin carbon is necessary for carbon-efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Conversion of lignin into valuable aromatic compounds requires the cleavage of C-O ether bonds and C-C bonds between lignin monomer units. The catalytic cleavage of C-O bonds is still challenging, and cleavage of C-C bonds is even more difficult. Here, we report cleavage of the aromatic C-O bonds in lignin model compounds using supported metal catalysts in supercritical water without adding hydrogen gas and without causing hydrogenation of the aromatic rings...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382724/spontaneous-weaving-of-graphitic-carbon-networks-synthesized-by-pyrolysis-of-zif-67-crystals
#13
Wei Zhang, Xiangfen Jiang, Xuebin Wang, Yusuf Valentino Kaneti, Yinxiang Chen, Jian Liu, Ji-Sen Jiang, Yusuke Yamauchi, Ming Hu
Three-dimensional (3D) networks of graphitic carbon are promising materials for energy storage and conversion devices because of their high electrical conductivity, which is promoted by the good interconnection between the carbon particles. However, it is still difficult to directly synthesize such carbon networks. Herein, we report the novel synthesis of 3D graphitic carbon networks through the pyrolysis of nanosized ZIF-67 crystals. Interestingly, the unusual effect of downsizing the ZIF-67 crystals and the incorporation of catalytic Co nanoparticles was the spontaneous formation of graphitic networks...
April 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377569/supersonically-spray-coated-colloidal-quantum-dot-ink-solar-cells
#14
Hyekyoung Choi, Jong-Gun Lee, Xuan Dung Mai, Matthew C Beard, Sam S Yoon, Sohee Jeong
Controlling the thickness of quantum dot (QD) films is difficult using existing film formation techniques, which employ pre-ligand-exchanged PbS QD inks, because of several issues: 1) poor colloidal stability, 2) use of high-boiling-point solvents for QD dispersion, and 3) limitations associated with one-step deposition. Herein, we suggest a new protocol for QD film deposition using electrical double-layered PbS QD inks, prepared by solution-phase ligand exchange using methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). The films are deposited by the supersonic spraying technique, which facilitates the rapid evaporation of the solvent and the subsequent deposition of the PbS QD ink without requiring a post-deposition annealing treatment for solvent removal...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375305/scalable-process-for-mitigation-of-laser-damaged-potassium-dihydrogen-phosphate-crystal-optic-surfaces-with-removal-of-damaged-antireflective-coating
#15
S Elhadj, W A Steele, D S VanBlarcom, R A Hawley, K I Schaffers, P Geraghty
We investigate an approach for the recycling of laser-damaged large-aperture deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals used for optical switching (KDP) and for frequency conversion (DKDP) in megajoule-class high-power laser systems. The approach consists of micromachining the surface laser damage sites (mitigation), combined with multiple soaks and ultrasonication steps in a coating solvent to remove, synergistically, both the highly adherent machining debris and the laser-damage-affected antireflection coating...
March 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374635/listeners-processing-of-a-given-reduced-word-pronunciation-variant-directly-reflects-their-exposure-to-this-variant-evidence-from-native-listeners-and-learners-of-french
#16
Sophie Brand, Mirjam Ernestus
In casual conversations, words often lack segments. This study investigates whether listeners rely on their experience with reduced word pronunciation variants during the processing of single segment reduction. We tested three groups of listeners in a lexical decision experiment with French words produced either with or without word-medial schwa (e.g., /ʀəvy/ and /ʀvy/ for revue). Participants also rated the relative frequencies of the two pronunciation variants of the words. If the recognition accuracy and reaction times (RTs) for a given listener group correlate best with the frequencies of occurrence holding for that given listener group, recognition is influenced by listeners' exposure to these variants...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373483/single-molecule-sequencing-resolves-the-detailed-structure-of-complex-satellite-dna-loci-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Daniel E Khost, Danna G Eickbush, Amanda M Larracuente
Highly repetitive satellite DNA (satDNA) repeats are found in most eukaryotic genomes. SatDNAs are rapidly evolving and have roles in genome stability and chromosome segregation. Their repetitive nature poses a challenge for genome assembly and makes progress on the detailed study of satDNA structure difficult. Here, we use single-molecule sequencing long reads from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to determine the detailed structure of all major autosomal complex satDNA loci in Drosophila melanogaster, with a particular focus on the 260-bp and Responder satellites...
April 3, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369536/the-influence-of-physique-on-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-idealised-external-photon-exposures-a-comparison-of-doses-for-chinese-male-phantoms-with-10th-50th-and-90th-percentile-anthropometric-parameters
#18
Wei Lv, Hengda He, Qian Liu
For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364384/speaking-up-how-patient-and-physician-voices-shaped-a-trial-to-improve-goals-of-care-discussions
#19
Rachel Solomon, Cardinale Smith, Jay Kallio, Amy Fenollosa, Barbara Benerofe, Laurence Jones, Kerin Adelson, Jason P Gonsky, Carolyn Messner, Nina A Bickell
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer benefit from early goals-of-care (GoC) conversations, but few facilitators are known. OBJECTIVE: We describe the process and outcomes of involving patient and physician stakeholders in the design and development of a trial, funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), to enhance oncologists' communication skills and their propensity to facilitate productive, meaningful GoC discussions with patients with advanced cancer...
March 31, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362423/ice-generation-and-the-heat-and-mass-transfer-phenomena-of-introducing-water-to-a-cold-bath-of-brine
#20
Xiao Yun, Giuseppe L Quarini
We demonstrate a method for the study of the heat and mass transfer and of the freezing phenomena in a subcooled brine environment. Our experiment showed that, under the proper conditions, ice can be produced when water is introduced to a bath of cold brine. To make ice form, in addition to having the brine and water mix, the rate of heat transfer must bypass that of mass transfer. When water is introduced in the form of tiny droplets to the brine surface, the mode of heat and mass transfer is by diffusion...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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