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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927232/publication-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-experimental-data-with-semantic-web-technology-and-the-application-thereof-to-biomedical-research-of-proteins
#1
Masashi Yokochi, Naohiro Kobayashi, Eldon L Ulrich, Akira R Kinjo, Takeshi Iwata, Yannis E Ioannidis, Miron Livny, John L Markley, Haruki Nakamura, Chojiro Kojima, Toshimichi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data for biological macromolecules archived at the BioMagResBank (BMRB) provide a rich resource of biophysical information at atomic resolution. The NMR data archived in NMR-STAR ASCII format have been implemented in a relational database. However, it is still fairly difficult for users to retrieve data from the NMR-STAR files or the relational database in association with data from other biological databases. FINDINGS: To enhance the interoperability of the BMRB database, we present a full conversion of BMRB entries to two standard structured data formats, XML and RDF, as common open representations of the NMR-STAR data...
May 5, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925436/the-chemical-route-to-a-co2-neutral-world
#2
Johan Martens, Annemie Bogaerts, Norbert De Kimpe, Pierre Jacobs, Guy Marin, Korneel Rabaey, Mark Saeys, Sebastian Verhelst
The excessive CO2 emissions in the atmosphere from anthropogenic activity can be divided into point sources and diffuse sources. The capture of CO2 from flue gases of large industrial installations and its conversion to fuels and chemicals with fast catalytic processes seems technically possible. Some emerging technologies are already being demonstrated on an industrial scale. Others are still being tested on a laboratory or pilot scale. These emerging technologies can be implemented in a time-window ranging from 5 to 20 years...
December 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924866/pressure-induced-nano-crystallization-of-silicate-garnets-from-glass
#3
T Irifune, K Kawakami, T Arimoto, H Ohfuji, T Kunimoto, T Shinmei
Transparent ceramics are important for scientific and industrial applications because of the superior optical and mechanical properties. It has been suggested that optical transparency and mechanical strength are substantially enhanced if transparent ceramics with nano-crystals are available. However, synthesis of the highly transparent nano-crystalline ceramics has been difficult using conventional sintering techniques at relatively low pressures. Here we show direct conversion from bulk glass starting material in mutianvil high-pressure apparatus leads to pore-free nano-polycrystalline silicate garnet at pressures above ∼10 GPa in a limited temperature range around 1,400 °C...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916196/adaptive-activation-of-a-stress-response-pathway-improves-learning-and-memory-through-gs-and-%C3%AE-arrestin-1-regulated-lactate-metabolism
#4
Jun-Hong Dong, Yi-Jing Wang, Min Cui, Xiao-Jing Wang, Wen-Shuai Zheng, Ming-Liang Ma, Fan Yang, Dong-Fang He, Qiao-Xia Hu, Dao-Lai Zhang, Shang-Lei Ning, Chun-Hua Liu, Chuan Wang, Yue Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Fan Yi, Amy Lin, Alem W Kahsai, Thomas Joseph Cahill, Zhe-Yu Chen, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun
BACKGROUND: Stress is a conserved physiological response in mammals. Whereas moderate stress strengthens memory to improve reactions to previously experienced difficult situations, too much stress is harmful. METHODS: We used specific β-adrenergic agonists, as well as β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and arrestin knockout models, to study the effects of adaptive β2AR activation on cognitive function using Morris water maze and object recognition experiments. We used molecular and cell biological approaches to elucidate the signaling subnetworks...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900469/holocene-changes-in-the-trophic-ecology-of-an-apex-marine-predator-in-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#5
Damián G Vales, Luis Cardona, Atilio F Zangrando, Florencia Borella, Fabiana Saporiti, R Natalie P Goodall, Larissa Rosa de Oliveira, Enrique A Crespo
Predators may modify their diets as a result of both anthropogenic and natural environmental changes. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in bone collagen have been used to reconstruct the foraging ecology of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean since the Middle Holocene, a region inhabited by hunter-gatherers by millennia and modified by two centuries of whaling, sealing and fishing. Results suggest that the isotopic niche of fur seals from Patagonia has not changed over the last two millennia (average for the period: δ(13)C2200-0BP = -13...
November 29, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898889/accuracies-of-genomic-prediction-of-feed-efficiency-traits-using-different-prediction-and-validation-methods-in-an-experimental-nelore-cattle-population
#6
R M O Silva, B O Fragomeni, D A L Lourenco, A F B Magalhães, N Irano, R Carvalheiro, R C Canesin, M E Z Mercadante, A A Boligon, F S Baldi, I Misztal, L G Albuquerque
Animal feeding is the most important economic component of beef production systems. Selection for feed efficiency has not been effective mainly due to difficult and high costs to obtain the phenotypes. The application of genomic selection using SNP can decrease the cost of animal evaluation as well as the generation interval. The objective of this study was to compare methods for genomic evaluation of feed efficiency traits using different cross-validation layouts in an experimental beef cattle population genotyped for a high-density SNP panel (BovineHD BeadChip assay 700k, Illumina Inc...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877107/training-deep-spiking-neural-networks-using-backpropagation
#7
Jun Haeng Lee, Tobi Delbruck, Michael Pfeiffer
Deep spiking neural networks (SNNs) hold the potential for improving the latency and energy efficiency of deep neural networks through data-driven event-based computation. However, training such networks is difficult due to the non-differentiable nature of spike events. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique, which treats the membrane potentials of spiking neurons as differentiable signals, where discontinuities at spike times are considered as noise. This enables an error backpropagation mechanism for deep SNNs that follows the same principles as in conventional deep networks, but works directly on spike signals and membrane potentials...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869228/catalytic-conversion-of-lignin-pyrolysis-model-compound-guaiacol-and-its-kinetic-model-including-coke-formation
#8
Huiyan Zhang, Yun Wang, Shanshan Shao, Rui Xiao
Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h(-1) and partial pressure of 2...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869205/using-instrumental-variables-to-disentangle-treatment-and-placebo-effects-in-blinded-and-unblinded-randomized-clinical-trials-influenced-by-unmeasured-confounders
#9
Elias Chaibub Neto
Clinical trials traditionally employ blinding as a design mechanism to reduce the influence of placebo effects. In practice, however, it can be difficult or impossible to blind study participants and unblinded trials are common in medical research. Here we show how instrumental variables can be used to quantify and disentangle treatment and placebo effects in randomized clinical trials comparing control and active treatments in the presence of confounders. The key idea is to use randomization to separately manipulate treatment assignment and psychological encouragement conversations/interactions that increase the participants' desire for improved symptoms...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855537/communication-in-dementia-care
#10
Elizabeth Chmelik, Reiko Emtman, Anna Borisovskaya, Soo Borson
Dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative illness that affects a growing number of older adults in our country. We discuss ways to improve the management of persons with dementia within current healthcare models. Specifically, we argue that structured communication at regular intervals is essential for dementia care at all phases of illness. We emphasize the need for a single healthcare provider to take on a central role in organizing communication between patient, family and other healthcare providers in the outpatient setting...
November 18, 2016: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852858/mapping-of-functional-subdomains-in-terminal-protein-domain-of-hepatitis-b-virus-polymerase
#11
Daniel N Clark, John M Flanagan, Jianming Hu
: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) encodes a multi-function reverse transcriptase or polymerase (P), which is composed of several domains. The terminal protein (TP) domain is unique to HBV and related Hepadnaviruses and is required for specifically binding to the viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Subsequently, the TP domain is necessary for pgRNA packaging into viral nucleocapsids and the initiation of viral reverse transcription for conversion of the pgRNA to viral DNA. Uniquely, the HBV P protein initiates reverse transcription via a protein priming mechanism using the TP domain as a primer...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852260/can-severe-asthmatic-patients-achieve-asthma-control-a-systematic-approach-in-patients-with-difficult-to-control-asthma-followed-in-a-specialized-clinic
#12
Rodrigo Athanazio, Regina Carvalho-Pinto, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Samia Rached, Klaus Rabe, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in asthma treatment, severe asthma (SA) still results in high morbidity and use of health resources. Our hypothesis was that SA patients would achieve adequate control with a systematic protocol, including oral corticosteroids, budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy and a multidisciplinary approach to improve adherence. METHODS: Non-controlled (NC) SA patients were enrolled to receive 2 weeks of oral corticosteroids and 12 weeks of formoterol + budesonide...
November 16, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847794/clinical-outcomes-of-subtotal-cholecystectomy-performed-for-difficult-cholecystectomy
#13
Minho Shin, Namkyu Choi, Youngsun Yoo, Yooseok Kim, Sungsoo Kim, Seongpyo Mun
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC) can be an alternative surgical technique for difficult cholecystectomies. Surgeons performing LSC sometimes leave the posterior wall of the gallbladder (GB) to shorten the operation time and avoid liver injury. However, leaving the inflamed posterior GB wall is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), LSC, and LSC removing only anterior wall of the GB (LSCA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed between January 2006 to December 2015 and analyzed the outcomes of SLC, LSC, and LSCA...
November 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843214/retroperitoneoscopic-nephrectomy-for-benign-nonfunctioning-kidneys-training-and-outcome
#14
Yusuf Saifee, Ramya Nagarajan, Syed Javed Qadri, Amlan Sarmah, Suresh Kumar, Bipin Chandra Pal, Pranjal Modi
INTRODUCTION: Between the two techniques of laparoscopic nephrectomy, retroperitoneoscopy has certain distinct advantages over transperitoneal access but may be a more difficult technique to learn. We present our experience of training novices in retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy with a good outcome, making it a standard of care for nephrectomy at our institute. METHODS: The aim of this study was to report the initial experience, learning curve, and outcome of retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy by novices under a mentored approach...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829942/safety-and-usefulness-of-needle-guided-resection-of-levator-muscles-in-laparoscopic-abdominoperineal-resection-for-low-rectal-cancer
#15
Takehito Yamamoto, Akiyoshi Kanazawa, Hiroyuki Matsubara, Takuya Okamoto
INTRODUCTION: During laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) for low rectal cancer, it is difficult to resect the levator muscles and remove a cylindrical specimen without venturing close to the rectal wall to ensure negative circumferential resection margins (CRM). To solve this problem, we developed a needle-guided, laparoscopic, abdominoperineal resection (LAPR) technique. AIM: To present the safety and superiority of our technique, "needle-guided LAPR"...
2016: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816617/uterine-suspension-with-adjustable-sutures-for-difficult-laparoscopic-myomectomy
#16
Kuo-Hu Chen, Kok-Min Seow, Li-Ru Chen
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess whether transabdominal uterine suspension with adjustable sutures (USAS) is beneficial when performed concomitantly with laparoscopic myomectomy in patients with unfavorably localized leiomyomas in whom uterine manipulators are not an option. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: A university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients (N = 158) with posterior deep intramural, intraligamental, or cervical leiomyomas; 81 patients underwent USAS (suspension group), and 77 patients did not (control group) concomitantly with laparoscopic myomectomy...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816330/men-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-end-of-life-planning
#17
David Abbott, Helen Prescott, Karen Forbes, James Fraser, Anirban Majumdar
There is very limited evidence about the views of men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and end of life issues including death and dying. Studies have shown the physiological and psychological benefits of talking about and planning for end of life. Despite policy documents and guidance in the UK about end of life planning, there is consensus on the need for improvement. The study reported here is a qualitative one with 15 men with DMD (aged 20-45 years). Participants could not recall any significant conversations with clinicians about end of life and assumed that clinicians were reluctant to discuss the issue...
September 28, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815753/pediatric-ethics-and-communication-excellence-peace-rounds-decreasing-moral-distress-and-patient-length-of-stay-in-the-picu
#18
Lucia Wocial, Veda Ackerman, Brian Leland, Brian Benneyworth, Vinit Patel, Yan Tong, Mara Nitu
This paper describes a practice innovation: the addition of formal weekly discussions of patients with prolonged PICU stay to reduce healthcare providers' moral distress and decrease length of stay for patients with life-threatening illnesses. We evaluated the innovation using a pre/post intervention design measuring provider moral distress and comparing patient outcomes using retrospective historical controls. Physicians and nurses on staff in our pediatric intensive care unit in a quaternary care children's hospital participated in the evaluation...
November 4, 2016: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810647/investigating-the-feasibility-of-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-enhance-fluency-in-people-who-stutter
#19
Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins, Riikka Möttönen
Developmental stuttering is a disorder of speech fluency affecting 1% of the adult population. Long-term reductions in stuttering are difficult for adults to achieve with behavioural therapies. We investigated whether a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could improve fluency in people who stutter (PWS). In separate sessions, either anodal TDCS (1mA for 20min) or sham stimulation was applied over the left inferior frontal cortex while PWS read sentences aloud. Fluency was induced during the stimulation period by using choral speech, that is, participants read in unison with another speaker...
October 31, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807397/risk-factors-for-difficult-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-in-acute-cholecystitis
#20
Satoshi Hayama, Kazuto Ohtaka, Yasuhito Shoji, Tatsunosuke Ichimura, Miri Fujita, Naoto Senmaru, Satoshi Hirano
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Factors that contribute to difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in acute cholecystitis (AC) that would affect the performance of early surgery remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify such risk factors. METHODS: One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent LC for AC were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were categorized into early surgery and delayed surgery. Factors predicting difficult LC were analyzed for each group...
October 2016: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
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