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Raquel Xavier, Joana L Santos, Ana Veríssimo
Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest jawed vertebrates and are also reported to be the hosts of some of the most basal lineages of Cestoda and Aporocotylidae (Digenea) parasites. Recently a phylogenetic analysis of the coccidia (Apicomplexa) infecting marine vertebrates revealed that the lesser spotted dogfish harbours parasite lineages basal to Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and the group formed by Schellackia Reichenow, 1919, Lankesterella Ames, 1923, Caryospora Leger, 1904 and Isospora Schneider, 1881. In the present study we have found additional lineages of coccidian parasites infecting the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus Mitchill and the blue shark Prionace glauca Linnaeus...
March 16, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Ana Paula Barbosa Martins, Leonardo Manir Feitosa, Rosangela Paula Lessa, Zafira Silva Almeida, Michelle Heupel, Wagner Macedo Silva, Ligia Tchaicka, Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes
Increasing fishing effort has caused declines in shark populations worldwide. Understanding biological and ecological characteristics of sharks is essential to effectively implement management measures, but to fully understand drivers of fishing pressure social factors must be considered through multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. The present study aimed to use fisher and trader knowledge to describe the shark catch and product supply chain in Northeastern Brazil, and evaluate perceptions regarding the regional conservation status of shark species...
2018: PloS One
Francesco Ferretti, David Curnick, Keli Liu, Evgeny V Romanov, Barbara A Block
Scientific monitoring has recorded only a recent fraction of the oceans' alteration history. This biases our understanding of marine ecosystems. Remote coral reef ecosystems are often considered pristine because of high shark abundance. However, given the long history and global nature of fishing, sharks' vulnerability, and the ecological consequences of shark declines, these states may not be natural. In the Chagos archipelago, one of the remotest coral reef systems on the planet, protected by a very large marine reserve, we integrated disparate fisheries and scientific survey data to reconstruct baselines and long-term population trajectories of two dominant sharks...
March 2018: Science Advances
Shang Yin Vanson Liu, Shoou Jeng Joung, Chi-Ju Yu, Hua-Hsun Hsu, Wen-Pei Tsai, Kwang Ming Liu
The megamouth shark ( Megachasma pelagios ) was described as a new species in 1983. Since then, only ca . 100 individuals have been observed or caught. Its horizontal migration, dispersal, and connectivity patterns are still unknown due to its rarity. Two genetic markers were used in this study to reveal its genetic diversity and connectivity pattern. This approach provides a proxy to indirectly measure gene flow between populations. Tissues from 27 megamouth sharks caught by drift nets off the Hualien coast (eastern Taiwan) were collected from 2013 to 2015...
2018: PeerJ
Robert M Dores, Michelle Scuba-Gray, Bridgette McNally, Perry Davis, Akiyoshi Takahashi
Previous studies on bony vertebrate MC2R orthologs (i.e., ray finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) have shown that these MC2R orthologs have an obligatory requirement for interaction with bony vertebrate MRAP1 orthologs to a) allow for the trafficking of the MC2R ortholog to the plasma membrane; and b) to allow activation by ACTH, but not by any MSH-sized ligand. In addition, previous studies have found that co-expression of teleost and mammalian MC4R orthologs with corresponding MRAP2 has positive effects on sensitivity to stimulation by αMSH or ACTH...
March 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nicholas L Payne, Carl G Meyer, James A Smith, Jonathan D R Houghton, Adam Barnett, Bonnie J Holmes, Itsumi Nakamura, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Mark A Royer, Daniel M Coffey, James M Anderson, Melanie R Hutchinson, Katsufumi Sato, Lewis G Halsey
The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
L M Crowe, O O'brien, T H Curtis, S M Leiter, R D Kenney, P Duley, S D Kraus
Cetorhinus maximus aggregations recorded during extensive aerial survey efforts off the north-eastern United States between 1980 and 2013 included aggregations centring on sightings with group sizes of at least 30 individuals. These aggregations occurred in summer and autumn months and included aggregation sizes of up to 1398 individuals, the largest aggregation ever reported for this species. The aggregations were associated with sea surface temperatures of 13-24° C and chlorophyll-a concentrations of 0·4-2·6 mg m-3 and during one aggregation, a high abundance of zooplankton prey was present...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Ryo Nozu, Kiyomi Murakumo, Nagisa Yano, Rina Furuyama, Rui Matsumoto, Makio Yanagisawa, Keiichi Sato
Captive breeding in aquaria is a useful means for ex situ preservation of threatened elasmobranch species. To promote captive breeding, it is important to determine the female reproductive status. However, information regarding reproductive status in female elasmobranchs is limited. Here, we used zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, as a model for elasmobranch reproduction in captivity. We investigated the relationships among changes in the sex steroid hormone levels, follicle size, and egg-laying period to develop indicators for the female reproductive status...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
David M Irwin, Svetlana Mojsov
The teleost fish-specific genome duplication gave rise to a great number of species inhabiting diverse environments with different access to nutrients and life histories. This event produced duplicated gcg genes, gcga and gcgb, for proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon and GLP-1 and duplicated gcgr receptor genes, gcgra and gcgrb, which play key roles connecting the consumption of nutrients with glucose metabolism. We conducted a systematic survey of the genomes from 28 species of fish (24 bony (Superclass Osteichthyes), 1 lobe-finned (Class Sarcoperygii), 1 cartilaginous (Superclass Chondrichthyes), and 2 jawless (Superclass Agnatha)) and find that almost all surveyed ray-finned fish contain gcga and gcgb genes with different coding potential and duplicated gcgr genes, gcgra and gcgrb that form two separate clades in the phylogenetic tree consistent with the accepted species phylogeny...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Diego Bernal, Joseph P Reid, Julie M Roessig, Shinsyu Matsumoto, Chugey A Sepulveda, Joseph J Cech, Jeffrey B Graham
In fish, regional endothermy (i.e., the capacity to significantly elevate tissue temperatures above ambient via vascular heat exchangers) in the red swimming muscles (RM) has evolved only in a few marine groups (e.g., sharks: Lamnidae, Alopiidae, and teleosts Scombridae). Within these taxa, several species have also been shown to share similar physiological adaptations to enhance oxygen delivery to the working tissues. Although the hemoglobin (Hb) of most fish has a decreased affinity for oxygen with an increase in temperature, some regionally endothermic teleosts (e...
March 5, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Michael Tessler, David Marancik, Donald Champagne, Alistair Dove, Alvin Camus, Mark E Siddall, Sebastian Kvist
Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Moya Meredith Smith, Charlie Underwood, Brett Clark, Jürgen Kriwet, Zerina Johanson
A defining feature of dentitions in modern sharks and rays is the regulated pattern order that generates multiple replacement teeth. These are arranged in labio-lingual files of replacement teeth that form in sequential time order both along the jaw and within successively initiated teeth in a deep dental lamina. Two distinct adult dentitions have been described: alternate, in which timing of new teeth alternates between two adjacent files, each erupting separately, and the other arranged as single files, where teeth of each file are timed to erupt together, in some taxa facilitating similarly timed teeth to join to form a cutting blade...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Xian-Rong Shen, Xiu-Li Chen, Hai-Xia Xie, Ying He, Wei Chen, Qun Luo, Wei-Hong Yuan, Xue Tang, Deng-Yong Hou, Ding-Wen Jiang, Qing-Rong Wang
BACKGROUND: Wounded personnel who work at sea often encounter a plethora of difficulties. The most important of these difficulties is seawater immersion. Common medical dressings have little effect when the affected area is immersed in seawater, and only rarely dressings have been reported for the treatment of seawater-immersed wounds. The objective of this study is to develop a new dressing which should be suitable to prevent the wound from seawater immersion and to promote the wound healing...
October 27, 2017: Military Medical Research
Sarah N Powell, Megan M Wallen, Shweta Bansal, Janet Mann
Bottlenose dolphins are excellent bioindicators of ocean ecosystem health for three reasons: (a) as long-lived apex predators they accumulate biotoxins and contaminants; (b) they are visible, routinely appearing at the water's surface in coastal areas, often coming into close contact with humans; and, (c) they exhibit a range of pathogenic lesions attributable to environmental degradation. In this study, we analyzed tattoo-like skin lesions in a population of Tursiops aduncus studied for 30+years in Shark Bay, Australia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S N Maduna, J H Van Wyk, C Da Silva, E Gennari, A E Bester-Van Der Merwe
The present histological study of adult female common smoothhound shark Mustelus mustelus demonstrates that the species can store sperm in their oviducal glands. In addition, single paternity of a litter of 22 pups is reported, contributing to further knowledge regarding the genetic and behavioural mating strategy of M. mustelus.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
B Violi, M R Gaither, F Burns, A Rus Hoelzel, F Neat
This study investigated taxonomic validity of the pale ghost shark Hydrolagus pallidus Hardy & Stehmann, 1990, which was described as a species distinct from the smalleyed rabbitfish H. affinis (de Brito Capello 1868). While few morphological characters distinguish the two taxa, a striking difference in sex ratio and fixed differences (1·1-1·6% divergence) in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcoding gene support the recognition of both species.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Fabian Huettig, Usama Chekhani, Andrea Klink, Fadi Said, Frank Rupp
The shark-fin test was modified to convey the clinical application of a single-step/double-mix technique assessing the behavior of two viscosities applied at one point in time. A medium and light body polyether (PE), a medium and light body polyvinylsiloxane (PVS), and a medium as well as heavy and light body vinyl polyether silicone (PVXE) impression material were analyzed solely, and in a layered mixture of 1:1 and 3:1 at working times of 50, 80, and 120 s. The fin heights were measured with a digital ruler...
February 27, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Erwann Lagabrielle, Agathe Allibert, Jeremy J Kiszka, Nicolas Loiseau, James P Kilfoil, Anne Lemahieu
Understanding the environmental drivers of interactions between predators and humans is critical for public safety and management purposes. In the marine environment, this issue is exemplified by shark-human interactions. The annual shark bite incidence rate (SBIR) in La Réunion (Indian Ocean) is among the highest in the world (up to 1 event per 24,000 hours of surfing) and has experienced a 23-fold increase over the 2005-2016 period. Since 1988, 86% of shark bite events on ocean-users involved surfers off the leeward coast, where 96% of surfing activities took place...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hajime Uchida, Yutaka Itabashi, Ryuichi Watanabe, Ryoji Matsushima, Hiroshi Oikawa, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Masashi Hosokawa, Naonobu Tsutsumi, Kazuhiro Ura, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R Miller
Using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS), we have developed a new method for detection and identification of furan fatty acids (F-acids), which are widely distributed in living organisms and foods as minor lipid components and are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. For this purpose, total fatty acids prepared from the testis lipids of Japanese chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) were examined without any concentration or isolation of F-acids...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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