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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149758/oligotrophy-as-a-major-driver-of-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-medium-to-high-trophic-level-consumers-a-marine-ecosystem-comparative-study
#1
Tiphaine Chouvelon, Pierre Cresson, Marc Bouchoucha, Christophe Brach-Papa, Paco Bustamante, Sylvette Crochet, Françoise Marco-Miralles, Bastien Thomas, Joël Knoery
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of environmental concern. Numerous factors influencing its bioaccumulation in marine organisms have already been described at both individual and species levels (e.g., size or age, habitat, trophic level). However, few studies have compared the trophic characteristics of ecosystems to explain underlying mechanisms of differences in Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification among food webs and systems. The present study aimed at investigating the potential primary role of the trophic status of systems on Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in temperate marine food webs, as shown by their medium-to high-trophic level consumers...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146986/cascading-predator-effects-in-a-fijian-coral-reef-ecosystem
#2
Douglas B Rasher, Andrew S Hoey, Mark E Hay
Coral reefs are among Earth's best-studied ecosystems, yet the degree to which large predators influence the ecology of coral reefs remains an open and contentious question. Recent studies indicate the consumptive effects of large reef predators are too diffuse to elicit trophic cascades. Here, we provide evidence that such predators can produce non-consumptive (fear) effects that flow through herbivores to shape the distribution of seaweed on a coral reef. This trophic cascade emerged because reef topography, tidal oscillations, and shark hunting behaviour interact to create predictable "hot spots" of fear on the reef where herbivores withhold feeding and seaweeds gain a spatial refuge...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128507/moderators-and-mediators-of-effects-of-unloading-shoes-on-knee-pain-in-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-shark-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Kade L Paterson, Jessica Kasza, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Ben R Metcalf, Penny K Campbell, David J Hunter, Rana S Hinman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate moderators and biomechanical mediators of effects of unloading shoes on knee pain in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Exploratory analysis from 164 participants in a clinical trial comparing unloading (ASICS GEL-Melbourne OA) to conventional walking shoes. The primary outcome was 6-month change in knee pain (11-point numerical rating scale). Moderators included baseline peak knee adduction moment (KAM), radiographic severity (Kellgren & Lawrence (KL) scale), body mass, foot posture, neuropathic pain and diffuse knee pain...
November 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118464/eocene-squalomorph-sharks-chondrichthyes-elasmobranchii-from-antarctica
#4
Andrea Engelbrecht, Thomas Mörs, Marcelo A Reguero, Jürgen Kriwet
Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni, Squalus woodburnei, Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp...
October 2017: Journal of South American Earth Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118132/physical-trade-offs-shape-the-evolution-of-buoyancy-control-in-sharks
#5
Adrian C Gleiss, Jean Potvin, Jeremy A Goldbogen
Buoyancy control is a fundamental aspect of aquatic life that has major implications for locomotor performance and ecological niche. Unlike terrestrial animals, the densities of aquatic animals are similar to the supporting fluid, thus even small changes in body density may have profound effects on locomotion. Here, we analysed the body composition (lipid versus lean tissue) of 32 shark species to study the evolution of buoyancy. Our comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that although lean tissue displays minor positive allometry, liver volume exhibits pronounced positive allometry, suggesting that larger sharks evolved bulkier body compositions by adding lipid tissue to lean tissue rather than substituting lean for lipid tissue, particularly in the liver...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116505/construction-of-high-quality-camel-immune-antibody-libraries
#6
Ema Romão, Vianney Poignavent, Cécile Vincke, Christophe Ritzenthaler, Serge Muyldermans, Baptiste Monsion
Single-domain antibodies libraries of heavy-chain only immunoglobulins from camelids or shark are enriched for high-affinity antigen-specific binders by a short in vivo immunization. Thus, potent binders are readily retrieved from relatively small-sized libraries of 10(7)-10(8) individual transformants, mostly after phage display and panning on a purified target. However, the remaining drawback of this strategy arises from the need to generate a dedicated library, for nearly every envisaged target. Therefore, all the procedures that shorten and facilitate the construction of an immune library of best possible quality are definitely a step forward...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116504/generation-of-semi-synthetic-shark-ignar-single-domain-antibody-libraries
#7
Julius Grzeschik, Doreen Könning, Steffen C Hinz, Simon Krah, Christian Schröter, Martin Empting, Harald Kolmar, Stefan Zielonka
Besides classical antibodies with the composition of heavy and light chains, sharks produce a unique heavy chain only isotype, termed Immunoglobulin New Antigen Receptor (IgNAR), in which antigen binding is solely mediated by a single domain, referred to as vNAR. Owing to their high affinity and specificity combined with their small size and high stability, vNAR domains emerged as promising target-binding scaffolds that can be tailor-made for biotechnological and biomedical applications. Herein, we describe protocols for the construction of semi-synthetic, CDR3-randomized vNAR libraries for the isolation of target-specific antibodies using yeast surface display or phage display as platform technology...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109729/in-vitro-maturation-of-a-humanized-shark-vnar-domain-to-improve-its-biophysical-properties-to-facilitate-clinical-development
#8
John Steven, Mischa R Müller, Miguel F Carvalho, Obinna C Ubah, Marina Kovaleva, Gerard Donohoe, Thomas Baddeley, Dawn Cornock, Kenneth Saunders, Andrew J Porter, Caroline Jane Barelle
Molecular engineering to increase the percentage identity to common human immunoglobulin sequences of non-human therapeutic antibodies and scaffolds has become standard practice. This strategy is often used to reduce undesirable immunogenic responses, accelerating the clinical development of candidate domains. The first humanized shark variable domain (VNAR) was reported by Kovalenko and colleagues and used the anti-human serum albumin (HSA) domain, clone E06, as a model to construct a number of humanized versions including huE06v1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104425/analysis-of-drag-reduction-methods-and-mechanisms-of-turbulent
#9
REVIEW
Gu Yunqing, Liu Tao, Mu Jiegang, Shi Zhengzan, Zhou Peijian
Turbulent flow is a difficult issue in fluid dynamics, the rules of which have not been totally revealed up to now. Fluid in turbulent state will result in a greater frictional force, which must consume great energy. Therefore, it is not only an important influence in saving energy and improving energy utilization rate but also an extensive application prospect in many fields, such as ship domain and aerospace. Firstly, bionic drag reduction technology is reviewed and is a hot research issue now, the drag reduction mechanism of body surface structure is analyzed, such as sharks, earthworms, and dolphins...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104316/determination-of-size-sex-and-maturity-stage-of-free-swimming-catsharks-using-laser-photogrammetry
#10
REVIEW
Toby D Rogers, Giulia Cambiè, Michel J Kaiser
The lack of detailed life history (LH) information (e.g. age, growth, size at maturity, sex composition etc.) for many species of conservation importance limits the implementation of appropriate conservation measures. Typically, LH information is acquired using lethal sampling techniques, which undermines the goal of conservation. This is particularly problematic for many shark species that have low fecundity and slow growth rates. Here we tested the use of non-invasive laser photogrammetry to measure body morphometry in vivo...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082477/production-and-biotechnological-application-of-extracellular-alkalophilic-lipase-from-marine-macroalga-associated-shewanella-algae-to-produce-enriched-c20-22-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentrate
#11
Dexy Joseph, Kajal Chakraborty
An extracellular alkalophilic lipase was partially purified from heterotrophic Shewanella algae (KX 272637) associated with marine macroalgae Padina gymnospora. The enzyme possessed a molecular mass of 20 kD, and was purified 60-fold with a specific activity of 36.33 U/mg. The enzyme exhibited Vmax and Km of 1000 mM/mg/min and 157 mM, respectively, with an optimum activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was improved by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, and the enzyme showed a good tolerance towards organic solvents, such as methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol...
October 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080323/seascape-genomics-reveals-fine-scale-patterns-of-dispersal-for-a-reef-fish-along-the-ecologically-divergent-coast-of-northwestern-australia
#12
Joseph D DiBattista, Michael J Travers, Glenn I Moore, Richard D Evans, Stephen J Newman, Ming Feng, Samuel D Moyle, Rebecca J Gorton, Thor Saunders, Oliver Berry
Understanding the drivers of dispersal among populations is a central topic in marine ecology and fundamental for spatially explicit management of marine resources. The extensive coast of Northwestern Australia provides an emerging frontier for implementing new genomic tools to comparatively identify patterns of dispersal across diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Here, we focused on the stripey snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus), which is important to recreational, charter-based and customary fishers throughout the Indo-West Pacific...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078038/influence-of-supraphysiological-cortisol-manipulation-on-predator-avoidance-behaviours-and-physiological-responses-to-a-predation-threat-in-a-wild-marine-teleost-fish
#13
Michael J Lawrence, Erika J Eliason, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, John W Mandelman, Lee F G Gutowsky, Steven J Cooke
The stress axis in teleost fish attempts to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of allostatic loading. However, stress axis induction has been associated with a higher predation rate in fish. To date, the physiological and behavioural factors associated with this outcome are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of experimental cortisol elevation on anti-predator behaviour and physiological responses to predator presence. We hypothesized that semi-chronic cortisol elevation would increase susceptibility to predation by increasing stress-induced risk taking behaviours...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077226/species-composition-of-the-international-shark-fin-trade-assessed-through-a-retail-market-survey-in-hong-kong
#14
Andrew T Fields, Gunter A Fischer, Stanley K H Shea, Huarong Zhang, Debra L Abercrombie, Kevin A Feldheim, Elizabeth A Babcock, Demian D Chapman
The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4,800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade...
October 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076535/spatial-patterns-of-fish-standing-biomass-across-brazilian-reefs
#15
R A Morais, C E L Ferreira, S R Floeter
A large fish-count dataset from the Brazilian province was used to describe spatial patterns in standing biomass and test if total biomass, taxonomic and functional trophic structure vary across nested spatial scales. Taxonomic and functional structure varied more among localities and sites than among regions. Total biomass was generally higher at oceanic islands and remote or protected localities along the coast. Lower level carnivores comprised a large part of the biomass at almost all localities (mean of 44%), zooplanktivores never attained more than 14% and omnivores were more representative of subtropical reefs and oceanic islands (up to 66% of total biomass)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076325/a-shark-attack-treated-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Melissa Roy, Mathew Plant, Laura Snell
Although uncommon, shark attacks can lead to devastating outcomes for victims. Surgeons also face unique challenges during operative management such as exsanguination, shock, specific injury patterns and infections. This case report presents the management of a 39-year-old previously healthy female attacked by a shark while on vacation in Mexico. The patient sustained severe injuries to her left arm and her left thigh. She was transferred to a Canadian institution after ambiguous operative management in Mexico and presented with no clear antibiotic coverage and a Volkman's contracture of the left upper extremity...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059558/dioxin-concentrations-in-dietary-supplements-containing-animal-oil-on-the-japanese-market-between-2007-and-2014
#17
Tomoaki Tsutsumi, Satoshi Takatsuki, Reiko Teshima, Rieko Matsuda, Takahiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Akiyama
We determined the concentrations of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) in 46 dietary supplement products, containing the oil of fish, marine mammals, or egg yolk, on the Japanese market between 2007 and 2014. Dioxins were detected in 43 of the 46 products tested at concentrations from 0.00015 to 67 pg TEQ/g. The highest concentration of dioxins was found in a shark liver oil product which varied insignificantly in five batches collected over a two-year period...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056448/evolution-of-the-glucagon-like-system-across-fish
#18
João C R Cardoso, Rute C Félix, Carina Costa, Pedro F S Palma, Adelino V M Canário, Deborah M Power
In fishes, including the jawless lampreys, the most ancient lineage of extant vertebrates, plasma glucose levels are highly variable and regulation is more relaxed than in mammals. The regulation of glucose and lipid in fishes in common with mammals involves members of the glucagon (GCG)-like family of gastrointestinal peptides. In mammals, four peptides GCG, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 (GLP1 and GLP2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) that activate four specific receptors exist. However, in lamprey and other fishes the glucagon-like family evolved differently and they retained additional gene family members (glucagon-related peptide, gcrp and its receptor, gcrpr) that are absent from mammals...
October 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056145/shark-interactions-with-directed-and-incidental-fisheries-in-the-northeast-pacific-ocean-historic-and-current-encounters-and-challenges-for-shark-conservation
#19
Jackie King, Gordon A McFarlane, Vladlena Gertseva, Jason Gasper, Sean Matson, Cindy A Tribuzio
For over 100 years, sharks have been encountered, as either directed catch or incidental catch, in commercial fisheries throughout the Northeast Pacific Ocean. A long-standing directed fishery for North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) has occurred and dominated shark landings and discards. Other fisheries, mainly for shark livers, have historically targeted species including Bluntnose Sixgill Shark (Hexanchus griseus) and Tope Shark (Galeorhinus galeus). While incidental catches of numerous species have occurred historically, only recently have these encounters been reliably enumerated in commercial and recreational fisheries...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056144/sharks-in-captivity-the-role-of-husbandry-breeding-education-and-citizen-science-in-shark-conservation
#20
Michael Grassmann, Bryan McNeil, Jim Wharton
The role of public aquariums in promoting conservation has changed substantially over the decades, evolving from entertainment attractions to educational and research centres. In many facilities, larger sharks are an essential part of the collection and represent one of the biggest draws for the public. Displaying healthy elasmobranchs comes with many challenges, but improvements in husbandry techniques have enabled aquariums to have success with a variety of species. The establishment of organisations such as the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and the completion of texts like the Elasmobranch Husbandry Manual, has helped set high standards of care for sharks in captivity and promoted international conservation efforts...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
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