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Sara Mashoof, Breanna Breaux, Michael F Criscitiello
In jawed vertebrates from sharks to mammals, the thymus is the primary (or central) lymphoid tissue where T cells develop and mature. The particular stromal cell types, cytokine environment, and tissue organization in the thymus are essential for V(D)J recombination, positive selection for major histocompatibility complex recognition, and negative selection against self-peptide recognition of most αβ T cells. The thymectomy operation on Xenopus tadpole larva described here creates a T-cell-deficient model suitable for many immunology studies...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Jennifer A Dill, Alvin C Camus, John H Leary, Terry Fei Fan Ng
Only eight families of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are known to infect vertebrate animals. During an investigation of papillomatous skin disease in an elasmobranch species, the giant guitarfish ( Rhynchobatus djiddensis ), a novel virus, distinct from all known viral families in regard to particle size, morphology, genome organization, and helicase phylogeny was discovered. Large inclusion bodies containing 75-nm icosahedral viral particles were present within epithelial cell nuclei in the proliferative skin lesions...
May 15, 2018: MBio
John S S Denton, John G Maisey, Mark Grace, Alan Pradel, Michael H Doosey, Henry L Bart, Gavin J P Naylor
Dalatiid sharks are members of a family of predominantly small, midwater meso- and bathypelagic chondrichthyans. The family is notable for both its number of monotypic genera and high morphological disparity. Three of the seven dalatiid genera are known only from holotype specimens (Mollisquama parini) or from only a handful of specimens (Euprotomicroides zantedeschia, Heteroscymnoides marleyi), with the only detailed anatomical work consistent across all taxa being studies of dentition. Here, we present detailed anatomical description of the second-ever specimen of Mollisquama (Mollisquama sp...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Fernanda Almerón-Souza, Christian Sperb, Carolina L Castilho, Pedro I C C Figueiredo, Leonardo T Gonçalves, Rodrigo Machado, Larissa R Oliveira, Victor H Valiati, Nelson J R Fagundes
Elasmobranchs, the group of cartilaginous fishes that include sharks and rays, are especially vulnerable to overfishing due to low fecundity and late sexual maturation. A significant number of elasmobranch species are currently overexploited or threatened by fisheries activities. Additionally, several recent reports have indicated that there has been a reduction in regional elasmobranch population sizes. Brazil is an important player in elasmobranch fisheries and one of the largest importers of shark meat. However, carcasses entering the shark meat market have usually had their fins and head removed, which poses a challenge to reliable species identification based on the morphology of captured individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Hao Zhan Wang, Xiao Jie Dai, Wen Jiang Guan, Yong Chao Fan
Crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) is an important by-catch species of tropical Atlantic tuna longline fishery. The research on the relationship between the CPUE (catch per unit effort) and environmental factors can provide basic data for resource protection and management of this important species. Based on the Tweedie distribution theory, and the data of 1085 croco-dile sharks collected by the national observers of longline fishery from 2009 to 2015 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean (6.38° S-14.92° N, 42...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Taryn D Laubenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Peter Gaube, Camrin D Braun, Gareth L Lawson, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Alice Della Penna, Gregory B Skomal, Chris Fischer, Simon R Thorrold
Satellite-tracking of mature white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) has revealed open-ocean movements spanning months and covering tens of thousands of kilometers. But how are the energetic demands of these active apex predators met as they leave coastal areas with relatively high prey abundance to swim across the open ocean through waters often characterized as biological deserts? Here we investigate mesoscale oceanographic variability encountered by two white sharks as they moved through the Gulf Stream region and Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
L Koehler
One male and one female angular rough sharks Oxynotus centrina were caught south-east of Malta between May and June at a depth of 60-100 m < 5 km from shore. The immature female (total length, LT 565 mm) was landed dead but the male (535 mm LT ) was found alive. This communication presents important biological observations on post-capture recovery and release behaviour of this species.
May 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Germain Boussarie, Judith Bakker, Owen S Wangensteen, Stefano Mariani, Lucas Bonnin, Jean-Baptiste Juhel, Jeremy J Kiszka, Michel Kulbicki, Stephanie Manel, William D Robbins, Laurent Vigliola, David Mouillot
In the era of "Anthropocene defaunation," large species are often no longer detected in habitats where they formerly occurred. However, it is unclear whether this apparent missing, or "dark," diversity of megafauna results from local species extirpations or from failure to detect elusive remaining individuals. We find that despite two orders of magnitude less sampling effort, environmental DNA (eDNA) detects 44% more shark species than traditional underwater visual censuses and baited videos across the New Caledonian archipelago (south-western Pacific)...
May 2018: Science Advances
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
Laura Martinez-Steele, Chris G Lowe, Mark S Okihiro, Renaud Berlemont
Here, we report the draft genome sequences of 9 strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum (SK_LD1 to SK_LD3 and SK_AV1 to SK_AV6), a member of the Carnobacteriaceae family (phylum Firmicutes ). These strains were isolated from the brain and the inner ear of three diseased thresher sharks and two diseased salmon sharks. The genome assembly resulted in an average of 3,306,205.9 ± 29,143.9 bp and 3,085 ± 32.67 coding DNA sequences (CDS).
May 3, 2018: Genome Announcements
Laura Gribouval, Pascal Sourdaine, Jean-Jacques Lareyre, Johanna Bellaiche, Florence Le Gac, Sylvie Mazan, Cécile Guiardiere, Pierrïck Auvray, Aude Gautier
Nanos are RNA-binding proteins playing crucial roles in germ cell development and maintenance. Based on phylogenetic and synteny analyses, this study reveals that nanos1 gene has undergone multiple duplications and gene copies losses in Vertebrates. Chondrichthyan species display two nanos1 genes (named nanos1A/1B), which were both retrieved in some Osteichthyes at basal positions in Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii lineages. In contrast, Teleosts have lost nanos1A but duplicated nanos1B leading to the emergence of two ohnologs (nanos1Ba/1Bb), whereas Tetrapods have lost nanos1B gene...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xing Zhang, Ke Xia, Lei Lin, Fuming Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Kalib St Ange, Xiaorui Han, Eric Edsinger, Joel Sohn, Robert J Linhardt
The skate, a cartilaginous fish related to sharks and rays, possesses a unique electrosensitive sensory organ known as the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). This organ is responsible for the detection of weak electric field changes caused by the muscle contractions of their prey. While keratan sulfate (KS) is believed to be a component of a jelly that fills this sensory organ and has been credited with its high proton conductivity, modern analytical methods have not been applied to its characterization. Surprisingly, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis demonstrates that the KS from skate jelly is extraordinarily pure, containing no other GAGs...
May 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
S A Appleyard, W T White, S Vieira, B Sabub
Our study is the first detailed examination of species composition using DNA COI barcoding of elasmobranchs from an artisanal fishery of Papua New Guinea. The study is the first in the region to provide biomass estimates based on species confirmation following examination of dried fins. Over 20 species of elasmobranchs were identified from 623 fins from the artisanal fishery in Milne Bay Province of PNG, with Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and Carcharhinus melanopterus the most abundant species in the catches. Of concern, 21% of fins examined were from IUCN listed threatened species (Vulnerable or Endangered) with 8% of fins from the Endangered scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yun Kai Li, Xiao di Gao, Lin Yu Wang, Lin Fang
As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Catarina Vila Pouca, Culum Brown
The marine environment is filled with biotic and abiotic sounds. Some of these sounds predict important events that influence fitness while others are unimportant. Individuals can learn specific sound cues and 'soundscapes' and use them for vital activities such as foraging, predator avoidance, communication and orientation. Most research with sounds in elasmobranchs has focused on hearing thresholds and attractiveness to sound sources, but very little is known about their abilities to learn about sounds, especially in benthic species...
April 24, 2018: Animal Cognition
Jeffrey W Johnson, Jessica Worthington Wilmer
Three new species of pinguipedid fishes from northern Australia are described based on specimens collected by deep water demersal trawling. Parapercis algrahami sp. nov. is recorded from off Dunk Island, Qld, south to Newcastle, NSW, in 67-333 m. It is distinct in having five narrow transverse dark bars across the upper body and a dark spot dorsally on the caudal-fin base, 6 canine teeth in outer row at front of lower jaw, palatines with 1-2 rows of teeth, and predorsal scales extending far forward on the nape to the posterior portion of the interorbital region...
March 1, 2018: Zootaxa
William T White, Alfred Ko'ou
An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) of Papua New Guinean waters is herein presented. The checklist is the result of a large biodiversity study on the chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea between 2013 and 2017. The chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea has historically been very poorly known due to a lack of baseline information and limited deepwater exploration. A total of 131 species, comprising 36 families and 68 genera, were recorded. The most speciose families are the Carcharhinidae with 29 species and the Dasyatidae with 23 species...
April 19, 2018: Zootaxa
Fahmi Fahmi, David A Ebert
Parmaturus nigripalatum, a new species of catshark of the genus Parmaturus is described from a single specimen collected from a deep-water shark longliner operating in south Sumbawa waters, Indonesia. This new species is distinguished from its closest geographic congener P. lanatus by having prominent enlarged caudal crests, well-developed labial furrows with the uppers and lowers of equal lengths, mouth roof blackish with dark pores, first dorsal fin origin more posteriorly positioned on body trunk, and much lower tooth counts than all other known Parmaturus species...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
Stephanie Sarmiento-Camacho, Martha Valdez-Moreno
The substitution of high-value fish species for those of lower value is common practice. Although numerous studies have addressed this issue, few have been conducted in Mexico. In this study, we sought to identify fresh fillets of fish, sharks, and rays using DNA barcodes. We analyzed material from "La Viga" in Mexico City, and other markets located on the Gulf and Caribbean coasts of Mexico. From 134 samples, we obtained sequences from 129, identified to nine orders, 28 families, 38 genera, and 44 species...
April 24, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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