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IL 25 receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887373/a-metabolite-triggered-tuft-cell-ilc2-circuit-drives-small-intestinal-remodeling
#1
Christoph Schneider, Claire E O'Leary, Jakob von Moltke, Hong-Erh Liang, Qi Yan Ang, Peter J Turnbaugh, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Michael Pellizzon, Averil Ma, Richard M Locksley
The small intestinal tuft cell-ILC2 circuit mediates epithelial responses to intestinal helminths and protists by tuft cell chemosensory-like sensing and IL-25-mediated activation of lamina propria ILC2s. Small intestine ILC2s constitutively express the IL-25 receptor, which is negatively regulated by A20 (Tnfaip3). A20 deficiency in ILC2s spontaneously triggers the circuit and, unexpectedly, promotes adaptive small-intestinal lengthening and remodeling. Circuit activation occurs upon weaning and is enabled by dietary polysaccharides that render mice permissive for Tritrichomonas colonization, resulting in luminal accumulation of acetate and succinate, metabolites of the protist hydrogenosome...
May 23, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882262/the-potential-of-salivary-biomarkers-for-predicting-the-sensitivity-and-monitoring-the-response-to-nonsurgical-periodontal-therapy-a-preliminary-assessment
#2
C-H Lee, Y-W Chen, Y-K Tu, Y-C Wu, P-C Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The response to nonsurgical periodontal treatment varied among patients. This study assessed the potential of salivary biomarkers for predicting the sensitivity and monitoring the response to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study recruited 34 participants with severe chronic periodontitis (the test group) and 20 participants without periodontal destruction in any teeth (the control group) from September 6, 2013 to August 25, 2017...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863012/dexmedetomidine-attenuates-traumatic-brain-injury-action-pathway-and-mechanisms
#3
Dong Wang, Xin Xu, Yin-Gang Wu, Li Lyu, Zi-Wei Zhou, Jian-Ning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury induces potent inflammatory responses that can exacerbate secondary blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, neuronal injury, and neurological dysfunction. Dexmedetomidine is a novel α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that exert protective effects in various central nervous system diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective action of dexmedetomidine in a mouse traumatic brain injury model, and to explore the possible mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859222/acetyl-11-keto-%C3%AE-boswellic-acid-inhibits-the-secretion-of-cytokines-by-dendritic-cells-via-the-tlr7-8-pathway-in-an-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-mouse-model-and-in-vitro
#4
Ming-Xing Wang, Jing-Xia Zhao, Yu-Jiao Meng, Ting-Ting Di, Xiao-Long Xu, Xiang-Jiang Xie, Yan Lin, Lu Zhang, Ning Wang, Ping Li, Yan Wang
AIMS: Psoriasis vulgaris is mediated by T and dendritic cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) on activated dendritic cells (DCs) using an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated with resiquimod (R848) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were treated with IMQ and intragastrically administered 25-100 mg/kg/day of AKBA, 1 mg/kg/day of methotrexate (MTX), or normal saline...
May 30, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848886/association-of-the-polymorphisms-in-th2-chemotaxis-related-genes-with-the-development-and-prognosis-of-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases
#5
Naoki Omori, Mikio Watanabe, Naoya Inoue, Junpei Taniguchi, Yoh Hidaka, Yoshinori Iwatani
The prognosis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is difficult to predict. Th2 cells suppress the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells, which are associated with the prognosis of AITD. However, there are few reports as to whether Th2 chemotaxis-related genes, such as CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells), IL-25, TARC/CCL17 (Thymus and activation regulated chemokine/chemokine ligand 17) or STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6), affect the pathology of and/or susceptibility to AITD...
May 30, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844361/dimethyl-fumarate-induces-a-persistent-change-in-the-composition-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#6
G Montes Diaz, J Fraussen, B Van Wijmeersch, R Hupperts, V Somers
The effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on the immune system in multiple sclerosis (MS) are not completely elucidated. In this study, an extensive immunophenotypic analysis of innate and adaptive immune cells of DMF-treated MS patients was performed. Peripheral blood immune cell phenotypes were determined using flow cytometry in a follow-up study of 12 MS patients before, after 3 and 12 months of DMF treatment and a cross-sectional study of 25 untreated and 64 DMF-treated MS patients. Direct effects of DMF on B cells were analyzed in vitro...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803505/selective-killing-of-proinflammatory-synovial-fibroblasts-via-activation-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-trpa1
#7
Torsten Lowin, Janna Bleck, Matthias Schneider, Georg Pongratz
BACKGROUND: Studies in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) demonstrated the expression of several transient receptor potential channels (TRP) such as TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPA1 and TRPM8. Upon ligation, these receptors increase intracellular calcium but they have also been linked to modulation of inflammation in several cell types. TNF was shown to increase the expression of TRPA1, the receptor for mustard oil and environmental poisons in SF, but the functional consequences have not been investigated yet...
May 24, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791797/modulating-macrophage-polarization-through-ccr2-inhibition-and-multivalent-engagement
#8
Michael B Deci, Scott W Ferguson, Sydney L Scatigno, Juliane Nguyen
Excessive or prolonged recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to damaged tissue can significantly worsen patient outcomes. Monocytes migrate to sites of tissue inflammation in response to high local concentrations of CCL2, a chemokine that binds to and signals through the CCR2 receptor. While the role of CCR2 in cellular migration is well studied, it is unclear how CCR2 inhibition affects macrophage polarization and if multivalency can increase downstream signaling effects. Using affinity selection with a phage library, we identified a novel scFv (58C) that binds specifically and with high affinity to the N-terminal domain of CCR2 (KD = 59...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779777/interleukin-23-interleukin-17-axis-activated-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-is-attenuated-in-patients-with-mac-lung-disease
#9
Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Yuan Wang, Ming-Fang Wu, Hsin-Chih Lai, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chong-Jen Yu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-lung disease (LD) is increasing in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, data on host vulnerability to MAC-related immune responses, and in particular the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis, are lacking. METHODS: We enrolled 50 patients with MAC-LD, 25 age-matched patients with tuberculosis (TB) and 25 controls. We measured levels of plasma cytokines, and studied IL-12/IL-17 responses in macrophage and lymphocyte activation to MAC...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764544/-effects-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-toll-like-receptor-4-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-targeted-pathway-on-hyperglycemia-induced-myocardium-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Changle Liu, Ruimeng Liu, Xiaohan Wu, Peize Tan, Huaying Fu, Xinghua Wang, Tong Liu, Guangping Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effects and mechanism on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-toll-like receptor 4-tumor necrosis factor-α (PPARγ-TLR4-TNF-α) targeted pathway on hyperglycemia induced myocardium inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Thirty-two Japanese healthy adult rabbits were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rabbits in each group: normal control group (NC group), diabetes mellitus group (DM group), diabetes mellitus + pioglitazone 4 mg×kg-1 ×d-1 and 8 mg×kg-1 ×d-1 groups (DM+PGZ 4 mg and 8 mg groups)...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764192/simvastatin-suppresses-interleukin-i%C3%AE-release-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-stimulated-with-cholesterol-crystals
#11
Anna J Boland, Nisha Gangadharan, Pierce Kavanagh, Linda Hemeryck, Jennifer Kieran, Michael Barry, Patrick T Walsh, Margaret Lucitt
Statins are mainstream therapy in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease through inhibitory effects on cholesterol synthesis. However, statins' beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease may also be attributable to their role as anti-inflammatory mediators. Here, we investigated the effects of simvastatin treatment on expression levels of interleukin (IL) 1β in both patient with hyperlipidemia and healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using cholesterol crystals (CC), a cardiovascular pathogenic stimulus for activation of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762848/cxcr3-mediates-chondrocyte-injury-through-regulating-nitric-oxide
#12
Z-C Yin, W-H Xiong, Q-J Pang
OBJECTIVE: As a common joint disease, osteoarthritis exhibits increasing trend in recent years. C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is a kind of chemokine with the characteristic of recruiting inflammatory cells. Its function in osteoarthritis has not been clarified. This study aims to explore the role of CXCR3 in cartilage injury by affecting unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sample was obtained from osteoarthritis patients to test CXCR3 expression by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751114/very-low-numbers-of-cd4-foxp3-tregs-expanded-in-donors-via-tl1a-ig-and-low-dose-il-2-exhibit-a-distinct-activation-functional-profile-and-suppress-gvhd-in-a-pre-clinical-model
#13
Sabrina Copsel, Dietlinde Wolf, Brandon Kale, Henry Barreras, Casey O Lightbourn, Cameron S Bader, W Alperstein, Norman H Altman, Krishna V Komanduri, Robert B Levy
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for the maintenance of tolerance and immune homeostasis. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), transfer of appropriate Treg numbers is a promising therapy for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have recently reported a novel approach which induces the marked expansion and selective activation of Tregs in vivo by targeting TNF receptor superfamily 25 (TNFRSF25) and CD25. A potential advance to promote clinical application of Treg cells to ameliorate GVHD and other disorders would be the generation of more potent Treg populations...
May 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748919/severe-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Evie Huang, Peck Y Ong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood leads to significant morbidity including psychosocial problems and infectious complications. There are only a few approved treatment options for these patients. These include topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment, which are associated with potential side effects. RECENT FINDINGS: In order to find better and safer treatments, further understanding of AD mechanisms is needed. Primary skin barrier defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD...
May 10, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739850/small-molecule-targeting-of-the-stat5-6-src-homology-2-sh2-domains-to-inhibit-allergic-airway-disease
#15
J Morgan Knight, Pijus Mandal, Pietro Morlacchi, Garbo Mak, Evan Li, Matthew Madison, Cameron Landers, Brandon Saxton, Ed Felix, Brian Gilbert, Joel Sederstrom, Atul Varadhachary, Melissa M Singh, Dev Chatterjee, David B Corry, John S McMurray
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs and airways and one of the most burdensome of all chronic maladies. Previous studies have established that expression of experimental and human asthma requires the IL-4/IL-13/IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling pathway, which activates the transcription factor STAT6. However, no small molecules targeting this important pathway are currently in clinical development. To this end, using a preclinical asthma model, we sought to develop and test a small-molecule inhibitor of the Src homology 2 domains in mouse and human STAT6...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737898/exposure-to-low-dose-bisphenol-a-during-the-juvenile-period-of-development-disrupts-the-immune-system-and-aggravates-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#16
Eiko Koike, Rie Yanagisawa, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe, Hirohisa Takano
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in many consumer products. Previous studies have reported that perinatal exposure to BPA through the oral route promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation. We investigated the effects of exposure to low-dose BPA during the juvenile period of development on allergic airway inflammation. Six-week-old male C3H/HeJ mice were intratracheally administered ovalbumin (OVA, 1 μg) every 2 weeks and/or BPA (0, 0...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720384/plasma-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-angiogenesis-predict-cerebral-cavernous-malformation-symptomatic-hemorrhage-or-lesional-growth
#17
Romuald Girard, Hussein A Zeineddine, Janne Koskimaki, Maged D Fam, Ying Cao, Changbin Shi, Thomas J Moore, Rhonda Lightle, Agnieszka Stadnik, Kiranj K Chaudager, Sean P Polster, Robert Shenkar, Ryan C Duggan, David Leclerc, Kevin J Whitehead, Dean Li, Issam A Awad
<u>Rationale:</u> The clinical course of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) is highly unpredictable, with few cross-sectional studies correlating pro-inflammatory genotypes and plasma biomarkers with prior disease severity. <u>Objective:</u> We hypothesize that a panel of 24 candidate plasma biomarkers, with a reported role in the physiopathology of CCMs, may predict subsequent clinically relevant disease activity. <u>Methods and Results:</u> Plasma biomarkers were assessed in non-fasting peripheral venous blood collected from consecutive CCM subjects followed for one year after initial sample collection...
May 2, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713130/mucosa-repair-mechanisms-of-tong-xie-yao-fang-mediated-by-crh-r2-in-murine-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis
#18
Shan-Shan Gong, Yi-Hong Fan, Shi-Yi Wang, Qing-Qing Han, Bin Lv, Yi Xu, Xi Chen, Yao-Er He
AIM: To explore the significance of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-receptor (R)2 in mucosal healing of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and the effect of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) on CRH-R2 expression and regulation. METHODS: Ulcerative colitis was induced in mice by administration of 3% (w/v) DSS for 7 d. Once the model was established, mice were administered urocortin-2 (30 μg/kg), a peptide which binds exclusively to CRH-R2, or various doses of aqueous TXYF extracts (2...
April 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701083/elevated-glucose-levels-preserve-glucose-uptake-hyaluronan-production-and-low-glutamate-release-following-interleukin-1%C3%AE-stimulation-of-differentiated-chondrocytes
#19
Victoria Rotter Sopasakis, Ruth Wickelgren, Valentina Sukonina, Camilla Brantsing, Emilia Svala, Elisabeth Hansson, Sven Enerbäck, Anders Lindahl, Eva Skiöldebrand
Objective Chondrocytes are responsible for remodeling and maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Because of the absence of a vascular supply, chondrocytes survive in a relatively hypoxic environment and thus have limited regenerative capacity during conditions of cellular stress associated with inflammation and matrix degradation, such as osteoarthritis (OA). Glucose is essential to sustain chondrocyte metabolism and is a precursor for key matrix components...
April 1, 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692738/liver-transcriptome-and-mirna-analysis-of-silver-carp-hypophthalmichthys-molitrix-intraperitoneally-injected-with-microcystin-lr
#20
Xiancheng Qu, Menghong Hu, Yueyong Shang, Lisha Pan, Peixuan Jia, Chunxue Fu, Qigen Liu, Youji Wang
Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze the effects of toxic microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ). Silver carps were intraperitoneally injected with MC-LR, and RNA-seq and miRNA-seq in the liver were analyzed at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 h. The expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), which acts as a marker gene for MC-LR, was tested to determine the earliest time point at which GST transcription was initiated in the liver tissues of the MC-LR-treated silver carps. Hepatic RNA-seq/miRNA-seq analysis and data integration analysis were conducted with reference to the identified time point...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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