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Local block

Rong-Guei Tsai, Pei-Hsuan Tsai
The location information obtained using a sensor is a critical requirement in wireless sensor networks. Numerous localization schemes have been proposed, among which mobile-anchor-node-assisted localization (MANAL) can reduce costs and overcome environmental constraints. A mobile anchor node (MAN) provides its own location information to assist the localization of sensor nodes. Numerous path planning schemes have been proposed for MANAL, but most scenarios assume the absence of obstacles in the environment...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Allison A Lindgren, Adam R Filipowicz, Julian B Hattler, Soon Ok Kim, Hye Kyung Chung, Marcelo J Kuroda, Edward M Johnson, Woong-Ki Kim
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection of the brain and related cognitive impairment remain prevalent in HIV-1-infected subjects despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a newly identified host restriction factor that blocks the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses in myeloid cells. Cell-cycle-regulated phosphorylation at residue Thr592 and viral protein X (Vpx)-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 have been shown to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in vitro...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Hilary C Archbold, Kasey L Jackson, Ayush Arora, Kaitlin Weskamp, Elizabeth M-H Tank, Xingli Li, Roberto Miguez, Robert D Dayton, Sharon Tamir, Ronald L Klein, Sami J Barmada
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders marked in most cases by the nuclear exclusion and cytoplasmic deposition of the RNA binding protein TDP43. We previously demonstrated that ALS-associated mutant TDP43 accumulates within the cytoplasm, and that TDP43 mislocalization predicts neurodegeneration. Here, we sought to prevent neurodegeneration in ALS/FTD models using selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds that target exportin-1 (XPO1)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeevan K Pant, Sridhar Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To present a new compressive sensing (CS)-based method for the acquisition of ECG signals and for robust estimation of heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters from compressively sensed measurements with high compression ratio. APPROACH: CS is used in the biosensor to compress the ECG signal. Estimation of the locations of QRS segments is carried out by applying two algorithms on the compressed measurements. The first algorithm reconstructs the ECG signal by enforcing a block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal, so the transient QRS segments are significantly emphasized on the first-order difference of the signal...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Ming-Xing Zhang, Shan-Shan Hong, Qing-Qing Cai, Meng Zhang, Jun Chen, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Cong-Jian Xu
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among gynecological malignancies. The high mortality rate has not been significantly reduced despite advances in surgery and chemotherapy. Gene therapy shows therapeutic potential, but several key issues must be resolved before clinical application. To minimize toxicity in noncancerous tissues, tumor-specific ligands are conjugated to vectors to increase the selectivity of drug delivery. The expression pattern of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor in normal and cancer tissues provides an opportunity for highly selective drug delivery in ovarian cancer...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Anish Sharda, Bruce Furie
The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of thiol isomerases are intracellular enzymes known to catalyze the oxidation, reduction and isomerization of disulfide bonds during protein synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum. PDI and related members of the thiol isomerase family are known to localize extracellularly where they possess various functions. Among these, the role of PDI in the initiation of thrombus formation is best characterized. PDI is secreted within seconds from activated platelets and endothelial cells at the site of vascular injury and accumulates in the developing platelet-fibrin thrombus...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Jing Sun, Yarong Mu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Ruilong Song, Jianxin Yi, Jingsong Zhou, Jun Sun, Xinan Jiao, Richard A Prinz, Yi Li, Xiulong Xu
Autophagy plays a central role in degrading misfolded proteins such as mutated superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which forms aggregates in motor neurons and is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autophagy is activated when UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) is phosphorylated at S555 and activated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Autophagy is suppressed when ULK1 is phosphorylated at S757 by the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Whether p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a serine/threonine kinase downstream of mTOR, can also regulate autophagy remains uncertain...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Shantisree Sandeepani Rayagiri, Daniele Ranaldi, Alexander Raven, Nur Izzah Farhana Mohamad Azhar, Olivier Lefebvre, Peter S Zammit, Anne-Gaëlle Borycki
A central question in stem cell biology is the relationship between stem cells and their niche. Although previous reports have uncovered how signaling molecules released by niche cells support stem cell function, the role of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) within the niche is unclear. Here, we show that upon activation, skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) induce local remodeling of the ECM and the deposition of laminin-α1 and laminin-α5 into the basal lamina of the satellite cell niche. Genetic ablation of laminin-α1, disruption of integrin-α6 signaling or blocking matrix metalloproteinase activity impairs satellite cell expansion and self-renewal...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Charline Kambrun, Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Chiara Salio, Marc Landry, Aziz Moqrich, Yves Le Feuvre
C-low-threshold mechanoreceptors (C-LTMRs) are sensory neurons that, beyond conveying pleasant touch, modulate nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord. However, pain alleviation by C-LTMRs remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the C-LTMR-derived TAFA4 chemokine induces a reinforcement of inhibitory synaptic transmission within spinal networks, which consequently depresses local excitatory synapses and impairs synaptic transmission from high-threshold C-fibers. In animals with inflammation induced by Freund's complete adjuvant, TAFA4 decreases the noxious stimulus-induced neuronal responses recorded in vivo and alleviates mechanical pain...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Xin Li, Shengfu Zhong, Wanquan Chen, Syeda Akash Fatima, Qianglan Huang, Qing Li, Feiquan Tan, Peigao Luo
Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum , is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Because of the quantitative nature of FHB resistance, its mechanism is poorly understood. We conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed in FHB-resistant and FHB-susceptible wheat lines grown under field conditions for various periods after F. graminearum infection and determined the chromosomal distribution of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Suresh, Gautam E Unni, M Satyanarayana, A Sreekumaran Nair, V P Mahadevan Pillai
Engineering photons on a nanoscale via guidance and localization by metal nanostructures has a profound influence on the performance of devices that try to mimic the process of photosynthesis. The conventional route for the synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles and their integration into the porous structure of the photoanode either directly or after being capped with a dielectric material not only adds to the complexity but also to the cost of the cell. The present study introduces the concept of a plasmonic blocking layer that concurrently acts as a light harvester and an electron-blocking layer in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), wherein the plasmonic silver nanoparticles are incorporated into an Nb2 O5 blocking layer by a simple one-step process...
March 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
C Fraschetti, L Guarcini, C Zazza, L Mannina, S Circi, S Piccirillo, B Chiavarino, A Filippi
Conformational characterization of single α- and β-epimers of galactosamine in solution still remains an intriguing task because of their flexibility and ability to interconvert. This difficulty was circumvented by recording several "snapshots" of the epimerization process by means of fast ESI vaporization of a galactosamine·HCl sample solution at different times. Consequently, the so generated gaseous mixtures were spectroscopically investigated and the specific conformational features of both α- and β-epimers were assigned, despite the overlapping of several IR signals...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Michael Akerman, Nada Pejčić, Ivan Veličković
The use of truncal nerve blocks has been described since 2001. Since then, there have been many studies trying to understand the ideal clinical scenarios for its use. Since 2001, the transversus abdominis plane block has evolved in many ways including from landmark based technique to ultrasound guided and more recently, into the quadratus lumborum (QL) block. Its anatomical placement, concentration of local anesthetic, volume of local anesthetic, and anatomic placement have all been raised as clinical questions...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Andrew T Koogler, Michael Kushelev
A 76-year-old male presented for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) in the beach chair position. A preoperative interscalene nerve catheter was placed under direct ultrasound-guidance utilizing a posterior in-plane approach. On POD 2, the catheter was removed. Three weeks postoperatively, the patient reported worsening dyspnea with a subsequent chest X-ray demonstrating an elevated right hemidiaphragm. Pulmonary function testing revealed worsening deficit from presurgical values consistent with phrenic nerve palsy...
2018: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
Kenneth J O'Riordan, Neng-Wei Hu, Michael J Rowan
Synaptic long-term depression (LTD) is believed to underlie critical mnemonic processes in the adult hippocampus. The roles of the metabotropic and ionotropic actions of glutamate in the induction of synaptic LTD by electrical low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in the living adult animal is poorly understood. Here we examined the requirement for metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and NMDA receptors in LTD induction in anaesthetized adult rats. LTD induction was primarily dependent on NMDA receptors and required the involvement of both the ion channel function and GluN2B subunit of the receptor...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xuanwei Zhang, Gabriele Niedermann
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (hRT) combined with immune checkpoint blockade can induce T-cell-mediated local and abscopal antitumor effects. We had previously observed peak levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) between days 5 and 8 after hRT. Because TILs are regarded as radiosensitive, hRT schedules extending into this period might be less immunogenic, prompting us to compare clinically relevant, short and extended schedules with equivalent biologically effective doses combined with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) antibody treatment...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Pini Koplovitch, Marshall Devor
Ectopic impulse discharge (ectopia) generated in the soma of afferent neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) following nerve injury is thought to be a major contributor to neuropathic pain. The DRG is thus a prime interventional target. The process of electrogenesis (impulse generation) in the DRG is far more sensitive to systemically administered Na channel blockers than the process of impulse propagation along sensory axons. It should therefore be possible to selectively suppress DRG ectopia with local application of membrane stabilizing agents without blocking normal impulse traffic...
March 12, 2018: Pain
Wenko Smolka, Thomas Knoesel, Ullrich Mueller-Lisse
A case of a 60-year-old man with severe trismus after inferior alveolar nerve block is presented. MRI scans as well as histologic examination revealed muscle fibrosis and degeneration of the medial part of the left temporal muscle due to myotoxicity of a local anesthetic agent.
March 12, 2018: Quintessence International
Franz L Ricklefs, Quazim Alayo, Harald Krenzlin, Ahmad B Mahmoud, Maria C Speranza, Hiroshi Nakashima, Josie L Hayes, Kyungheon Lee, Leonora Balaj, Carmela Passaro, Arun K Rooj, Susanne Krasemann, Bob S Carter, Clark C Chen, Tyler Steed, Jeffrey Treiber, Scott Rodig, Katherine Yang, Ichiro Nakano, Hakho Lee, Ralph Weissleder, Xandra O Breakefield, Jakub Godlewski, Manfred Westphal, Katrin Lamszus, Gordon J Freeman, Agnieszka Bronisz, Sean E Lawler, E Antonio Chiocca
Binding of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) to programmed cell death protein-1 (PD1) leads to cancer immune evasion via inhibition of T cell function. One of the defining characteristics of glioblastoma, a universally fatal brain cancer, is its profound local and systemic immunosuppression. Glioblastoma has also been shown to generate extracellular vesicles (EVs), which may play an important role in tumor progression. We thus hypothesized that glioblastoma EVs may be important mediators of immunosuppression and that PD-L1 could play a role...
March 2018: Science Advances
Peter V Deraska, Colin O'Leary, Hunter D Reavis, Shelby Labe, Tru-Khang Dinh, Jean-Bernard Lazaro, Christopher Sweeney, Alan D D'Andrea, David Kozono
Despite optimal chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT), and/or surgery, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the US and worldwide. Thoracic RT, a mainstay in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, is often restricted in efficacy by a therapeutic index limited by sensitivity of tissues surrounding the malignancy. Therefore, radiosensitizers that can improve the therapeutic index are a vital unmet need. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway is a proposed mechanism of radiosensitization...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
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