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Masatoyo Nakajo, Yoriko Kajiya, Megumi Jinguji, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Masayuki Nakajo, Tohru Nihara, Takashi Yoshiura
Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (CT) using (18)F-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ((18)F-FLT) offers noninvasive assessment of cell proliferation in human cancers in vivo. The present review discusses the current status on clinical applications of (18)F-FLT-PET (or PET/CT) in digestive and abdominal oncology by comparing with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-PET (or PET/CT). The results of this review show that although (18)F-FLT uptake is lower in most cases of digestive and abdominal malignancies compared with (18)F-FDG uptake, (18)F-FLT-PET can be used to detect primary tumors...
October 21, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Drew A Torigian, Judith Green-McKenzie, Xianling Liu, Frances S Shofer, Thomas Werner, Catherine E Smith, Andrew A Strasser, Mateen C Moghbel, Ami H Parekh, Grace Choi, Marcus D Goncalves, Natalie Spaccarelli, Saied Gholami, Prithvi S Kumar, Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Clementina Mesaros, Abass Alavi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to systematically detect and quantify differential effects of chronic tobacco use in organs of the whole body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy male subjects (10 nonsmokers and 10 chronic heavy smokers) were enrolled. Subjects underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT, diagnostic unenhanced chest CT, mini-mental state examination, urine testing for oxidative stress, and serum testing...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
Francesco Giganti, Alessandro Ambrosi, Maria Chiara Petrone, Carla Canevari, Damiano Chiari, Annalaura Salerno, Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono, Roberto Nicoletti, Luca Albarello, Elena Mazza, Francesca Gallivanone, Luigi Gianolli, Elena Orsenigo, Antonio Esposito, Carlo Staudacher, Alessandro Del Maschio, Francesco De Cobelli
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT), Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) and (18)F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET-CT) in the preoperative loco-regional staging of oesophageal cancer. METHODS: Eighteen patients with oesophageal or Siewert I tumour (9 directly treated with surgery and 9 addressed to chemo/radiotherapy before) underwent 1...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Vidya Ramachandraiah, Wilbert Aronow, Dipak Chandy
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas, the exact etiology of which is yet to be determined. Pulmonary involvement occurs in the majority of patients and its severity ranges from asymptomatic involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes to progressive pulmonary fibrosis and chronic respiratory failure that is insensitive to treatment. Diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis requires a compatible clinical picture supported by radiologic and pathologic data. A recent development in establishing the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis is endobronchial ultrasound that increases the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration of hilar and/or mediastinal lymph nodes...
October 21, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
David Fällmar, Johan Lilja, Lena Kilander, Torsten Danfors, Mark Lubberink, Elna-Marie Larsson, Jens Sörensen
The dosage of (18)F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original)...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
L Faivre, M Chaussard, L Vercellino, V Vanneaux, B Hosten, K Teixera, V Parietti, P Merlet, L Sarda-Mantel, N Rizzo-Padoin, J Larghero
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: After transplantation, cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are able to home to the bone marrow niche and to reconstitute the hematopoietic system. PET-CT imaging may be a useful method to monitor this parameter in different conditions. The aim of our study was to set up an efficient method for HSPC radiolabelling with [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) and to follow early HSPC homing through PET-CT in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Purified CB HSPCs were radiolabelled with (18)F-FDG at 37° C with various conditions of cell concentration, incubation time and radioactivity concentration in order to define the in vitro condition that allows both sufficient (18)F-FDG uptake to get high quality PET imaging, and preservation of HSPC viability and functional properties during 3h after radiolabelling...
July 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
Sirong Chen, Shing Kee Cheung, Ka-Nin Wong, Kwok Kee Wong, Chi-Lai Ho
A bedridden 90-year-old man with fever and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (49 ng/mL) was referred for differentiation between infection and tumor. F-FDG PET/CT was negative for infection, but Ga-PSMA PET/CT showed multiple lesions in prostate gland with infiltration to bladder wall and seminal vesicle, consistent with locally advanced prostate cancer. The lesion with the highest Ga-PSMA uptake was strongly avid for Ga-DOTATOC, suggesting neuroendocrine tumor differentiation. After hormonal therapy, PSA normalized, but chromogranin-A increased (from 251 to 398 ng/mL), inferring progression of neuroendocrine tumor differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Zhanli Fu, Meng Liu, Jin Zhang, Ziao Li, Qian Li
Multiple renal lesions, which showed clearly demarcated low densities on contrast-enhanced CT, were revealed in a 56-year-old woman. The F-FDG avidity of the renal lesions was equal to or mildly higher than that of the renal cortex on the routine PET/CT scan, but significantly higher on the delayed scan. IgG4-related disease with renal involvement was confirmed subsequently by the measurement of serous IgG4 and the pathology of renal lesion.
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Li Huo, Feng Feng, Quan Liao, Zhengyu Jin, Fang Li, Yupei Zhao
A 57-year-old man underwent FDG PET/CT to evaluate a mass in the head of the pancreas. The imaged revealed mildly, nonuniformly increased activity in the mass, but the exact location of the activity could not be determined on the low-dose noncontrast CT portion of the study. On subsequent PET/MRI images acquired 60 minutes after the FDG PET/CT study, the increased activity was clearly localized on the cystic wall. The pathological examination showed that the lesion was intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas with high degree of dysplasia...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Michele M Merten, M Regina Castro, Jun Zhang, Jolanta M Durski, Mabel Ryder
BACKGROUND: Cytologically defined indeterminate thyroid nodules are a diagnostic challenge. Surgical lobectomy remains gold standard for definitive diagnosis, however, 70-85% of nodules are ultimately benign. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT) in excluding cancer among cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules within our institution using surgical pathology as a gold standard reference and to perform a systematic review of published prospective studies on the NPV of PET/CT in evaluating indeterminate thyroid nodules...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
A Shammas, A S Doria, A Amirabadi, H Gahunia, R Jong, M Charron, R Moineddin, U Metser
RATIONALE: (18) F-FDG-PET/CT has a potential role in the early detection of haemophilic arthritis, at a time when treatment may still avoid further joint degeneration. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the ability of (18) F-FDG-PET/CT to detect inflammatory changes associated with blood-induced arthropathy in knees of a rabbit model. METHODS: Ten juvenile rabbits were imaged at baseline and weeks 5 and 17 post intraarticular autologous blood injections (ABI)...
October 20, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Ying-Chun Lin, Rui-Yun Chen, Shang-Wen Chen, Te-Chun Hsieh, Kuo-Yang Yen, Ji-An Liang, Shih-Neng Yang, Yao-Ching Wang, Ya-Huey Chen, Nan-Haw Chow, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVES: This study correlated immunohistochemical studies with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and identified prognostic factors for radiotherapy (RT)-based treatment outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx. METHODS: Genomic data from pretreatment biopsy specimens (Glut1, CAIX, VEGF, HIF-1α, EGFR, Ki-67, Bcl-2, CLAUDIN-4, YAP-1, c-Met, and p16) of 76 patients were analyzed using tissue microarrays...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
D J Murphy, A R Keraliya, M D Agrawal, A Aghayev, M L Steigner
Aortic infections are uncommon clinical entities, but are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we focus on the cross-sectional imaging appearance of aortic infections, including aortic valve endocarditis, pyogenic aortitis, mycotic aneurysm and aortic graft infections, with an emphasis on CT, MRI and PET/CT appearance. Teaching Points • Aortic infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. • CT, MRI and FDG PET/CT play complementary roles in aortic infection imaging...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Asif Ali Fakhri, Paul David Rodrigue, Amena Fatima Fakhri
Extramedullary plasmacytoma is rare in patients with diagnosed multiple myeloma. Soft tissue plasmacytoma of the gallbladder is particularly uncommon and has been described in only a handful of cases. Diagnosis of gallbladder plasmacytoma with fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has not previously been reported. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of multiple myeloma who underwent a restaging F18-FDG-PET/CT which showed a focal area of hypermetabolic activity, corresponding to a nodular lesion within the posterior gallbladder wall...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Shotaro Shima, Tetsuro Toriumi, Yukihiro Nomura, Hajime Tamura, Minoru Hirano
A 68-year-old woman who presented with a left axillary mass was admitted. A computed tomography scan showed swelling ofthe left axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes, but magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography(FDG-PET)did not reveal these primary sites. Histological findings of the axillary mass revealed a HER2-positive adenocarcinoma. We diagnosed the patient with axillary nodal metastasis ofadenocarcinoma ofan unknown primary site and treated her with neoadjuvant chemotherapy including paclitaxel and trastuzumab followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is a pivotal imaging modality for cancer imaging, assisting diagnosis, staging of patients with newly diagnosed malignancy, restaging following therapy and surveillance. Interpretation requires integration of the metabolic and anatomic findings provided by the PET and CT components which transcend the knowledge base isolated in the worlds of nuclear medicine and radiology, respectively. In the manuscript we detail our approach to reviewing and reporting a PET/CT study using the most commonly used radiotracer, FDG...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Shigeki Kobayashi, Mayumi Ogura, Naohisa Suzawa, Noriyuki Horiki, Masaki Katsurahara, Toru Ogura, Hajime Sakuma
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the value of (18)F-FDG uptake on screening PET/CT images for the prediction of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. METHODS: Among subjects who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT for cancer screening from April 2005 to November 2015, PET/CT images were analyzed in 88 subjects who had gastrointestinal fiberscopy within 6 months. The volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the fornix, corpus and antrum of the stomach to determine maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Imaging
Bert-Ram Sah, Paul Stolzmann, Gaspar Delso, Scott D Wollenweber, Martin Hüllner, Yahya A Hakami, Marcelo A Queiroz, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Gustav K von Schulthess, Carsten Pietsch, Patrick Veit-Haibach
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical performance of a block sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM) penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm in oncologic PET/computed tomography (CT) studies. METHODS: A total of 410 reconstructions of 41 fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT studies of 41 patients with a total of 2010 lesions were analyzed by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Images were reconstructed with BSREM (with four different β values) or ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with/without time-of-flight (TOF/non-TOF) corrections...
October 18, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Anne-Segolene Cottereau, Sebastien Hapdey, Loic Chartier, Romain Modzelewski, Olivier Casasnovas, Emmanuel Itti, Herve Tilly, Pierre Vera, Michel A Meignan, Stéphanie Becker
: To compare in a large series of Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL), as a model of diffuse disease, the prognostic value of baseline Total Metabolic Tumor Volume (TMTV) measured on FDG-PET/CT with adaptive thresholding methods to TMTV measured with a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold method. METHODS: 106 patients with PTCL, staged with a PET/CT were enrolled from 5 LYSA centers. In this series TMTV computed with the 41% SUVmax threshold is a strong predictor of outcome (Ann Oncol, 2016)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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