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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231624/targets-and-mechanisms-in-prevention-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-immunomodulatory-treatments
#1
REVIEW
Marianne von Euler Chelpin, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, however, there is no cure for it. Current treatments only relieve some of the symptoms, without ceasing the disease, and lose efficacy with prolonged treatment. Considerable evidence shows that persistent inflammatory responses, involving T cell infiltration and glial cell activation, are common characteristics of human patients and play a crucial role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, it is important to develop therapeutic strategies that can impede or halt the disease through the modulation of the peripheral immune system by aiming at controlling the existing neuroinflammation...
February 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231588/checkpoint-inhibition-in-head-and-neck-cancer-immune-therapeutic-options-limitations-and-beyond
#2
Bastian Höchst, Percy A Knolle
The immune system functions to defend the organism against infectious microorganisms but also against transformed cells. This key role of the immune system, in particular cancer-specific T cells, in eliminating cancer cells is compromised by various immune escape strategies employed by cancer cells and the cancer microenvironment. Here, we review the current knowledge about the immune escape mechanisms of cancer and the attempts to reconstitute cancer-specific immunity by using checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231528/identification-of-uv-absorbing-extractables-from-rubber-closures-used-in-containers-of-injectable-powder-and-safety-assessment-of-leachables-in-the-drug
#3
Yulei Wei, Ying Wu, Tingli Zhu, Zhiyan Li, Yilan Zhang
Rubber closures have been of great concern to regulatory authorities on account of their potential safety risks to patients. The aim of our work is to provide part of data about the compatibility of the injectable powder and its packaging materials for the drug registration. In this report, methodologies were established to study the system of the preparation. Firstly, three major extractables were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC method combined with silica gel-based chromatographic methods. NMR spectra including 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT135) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) were introduced to identify the extractables, besides HPLC, GC-MS, ESI-MS/MS and HRMS...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231392/from-dendritic-cells-to-b-cells-dysfunctions-during-hiv-1-infection-tfh-at-the-cross-road
#4
REVIEW
Nicolas Ruffin, Lylia Hani, Nabila Seddiki
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal center, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure...
February 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231333/molecular-mechanisms-of-cooperative-binding-of-transcription-factors-runx1-cbf%C3%AE-ets1-on-the-tcr%C3%AE-gene-enhancer
#5
Kota Kasahara, Masaaki Shiina, Ikuo Fukuda, Kazuhiro Ogata, Haruki Nakamura
Ets1 is an essential transcription factor (TF) for several important physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. Its recognition of the enhancer region of the TCRα gene is enhanced by the cooperative binding of the Runx1-CBFβ heterodimer, with the cancelation of phosphorylation-dependent autoinhibition. The detailed mechanism of this interesting cooperativity between Ets1 and the Runx1-CBFβ heterodimer is still largely unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this cooperativity, by using molecular dynamics simulations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231309/improving-molecular-diagnosis-of-aniridia-and-wagr-syndrome-using-customized-targeted-array-based-cgh
#6
Fiona Blanco-Kelly, María Palomares, Elena Vallespín, Cristina Villaverde, Rubén Martín-Arenas, Camilo Vélez-Monsalve, Isabel Lorda-Sánchez, Julián Nevado, María José Trujillo-Tiebas, Pablo Lapunzina, Carmen Ayuso, Marta Corton
Chromosomal deletions at 11p13 are a frequent cause of congenital Aniridia, a rare pan-ocular genetic disease, and of WAGR syndrome, accounting up to 30% of cases. First-tier genetic testing for newborn with aniridia, to detect 11p13 rearrangements, includes Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and karyotyping. However, neither of these approaches allow obtaining a complete picture of the high complexity of chromosomal deletions and breakpoints in aniridia. Here, we report the development and validation of a customized targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, so called WAGR-array, for comprehensive high-resolution analysis of CNV in the WAGR locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231285/the-mother-s-autonomy-in-decision-making-madm-scale-patient-led-development-and-psychometric-testing-of-a-new-instrument-to-evaluate-experience-of-maternity-care
#7
Saraswathi Vedam, Kathrin Stoll, Kelsey Martin, Nicholas Rubashkin, Sarah Partridge, Dana Thordarson, Ganga Jolicoeur
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a new instrument that assesses women's autonomy and role in decision making during maternity care. DESIGN: Through a community-based participatory research process, service users designed, content validated, and administered a cross-sectional quantitative survey, including 31 items on the experience of decision-making. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Pregnancy experiences (n = 2514) were reported by 1672 women who saw a single type of primary maternity care provider in British Columbia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231245/signalling-crosstalk-at-the-leading-edge-controls-tissue-closure-dynamics-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#8
Raphaël Rousset, Fabrice Carballès, Nadège Parassol, Sébastien Schaub, Delphine Cérézo, Stéphane Noselli
Tissue morphogenesis relies on proper differentiation of morphogenetic domains, adopting specific cell behaviours. Yet, how signalling pathways interact to determine and coordinate these domains remains poorly understood. Dorsal closure (DC) of the Drosophila embryo represents a powerful model to study epithelial cell sheet sealing. In this process, JNK (JUN N-terminal Kinase) signalling controls leading edge (LE) differentiation generating local forces and cell shape changes essential for DC. The LE represents a key morphogenetic domain in which, in addition to JNK, a number of signalling pathways converges and interacts (anterior/posterior -AP- determination; segmentation genes, such as Wnt/Wingless; TGFβ/Decapentaplegic)...
February 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231235/near-real-time-surveillance-of-u-s-norovirus-outbreaks-by-the-norovirus-sentinel-testing-and-tracking-network-united-states-august-2009-july-2015
#9
Minesh P Shah, Mary E Wikswo, Leslie Barclay, Anita Kambhampati, Kayoko Shioda, Umesh D Parashar, Jan Vinjé, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of endemic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States (1). New variant strains of norovirus GII.4 emerge every 2-4 years (2-4) and are often associated with increased disease and health care visits (5-7). Since 2009, CDC has obtained epidemiologic data on norovirus outbreaks from state health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (8) and laboratory data through CaliciNet (9). NORS is a web-based platform for reporting waterborne, foodborne, and enteric disease outbreaks of all etiologies, including norovirus, to CDC...
February 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231127/a-summary-of-the-united-states-food-and-drug-administrations-food-safety-program-for-imported-seafood-one-country-s-approach
#10
REVIEW
Brett Koonse
It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E...
April 29, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231124/food-safety-impacts-from-post-harvest-processing-procedures-of-molluscan-shellfish
#11
REVIEW
George L Baker
Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined...
April 18, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230889/quantification-of-the-borderline-range-and-implications-for-evaluating-non-animal-testing-methods-precision
#12
Maria Leontaridou, Daniel Urbisch, Susanne N Kolle, Katharina Ott, Denis S Mulliner, Silke Gabbert, Robert Landsiedel
Testing methods to assess the skin sensitisation potential of a substance usually use threshold criteria to dichotomise continuous experimental read-outs into yes/no conclusions. The threshold criteria are prescribed in the respective OECD test guidelines and the conclusion is used for regulatory hazard assessment, i.e. classification and labelling of the substance. We can identify a borderline range (BR) around the classification threshold within which test results are non-conclusive due to a testing method's biological and technical variability...
February 23, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230807/effect-of-reduction-of-redox-modifications-of-cys-residues-in-the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-1-subunit-on-its-activity
#13
Elena A Dergousova, Irina Yu Petrushanko, Elizaveta A Klimanova, Vladimir A Mitkevich, Rustam H Ziganshin, Olga D Lopina, Alexander A Makarov
Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions necessary for the viability of animal cells, and it is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox status. Earlier we found that regulatory glutathionylation determines Na,K-ATPase redox sensitivity but the role of basal glutathionylation and other redox modifications of cysteine residues is not clear. The purpose of this study was to detect oxidized, nitrosylated, or glutathionylated cysteine residues in Na,K-ATPase, evaluate the possibility of removing these modifications and assess their influence on the enzyme activity...
February 21, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230765/metabolic-effects-of-glucose-fructose-co-ingestion-compared-to-glucose-alone-during-exercise-in-type-1-diabetes
#14
Lia Bally, Patrick Kempf, Thomas Zueger, Christian Speck, Nicola Pasi, Carlos Ciller, Katrin Feller, Hannah Loher, Robin Rosset, Matthias Wilhelm, Chris Boesch, Tania Buehler, Ayse S Dokumaci, Luc Tappy, Christoph Stettler
This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU) with glucose alone (GLU) in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol)) underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO2max while ingesting combined glucose-fructose (GLUFRU) or glucose alone (GLU) to maintain stable glycaemia without insulin adjustment. GLUFRU and GLU were labelled with (13)C-fructose and (13)C-glucose, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230721/the-interplay-of-lncrna-h19-and-its-binding-partners-in-physiological-process-and-gastric-carcinogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Yuhang Zhou, Tingting Huang, Alfred S L Cheng, Jun Yu, Wei Kang, Ka Fai To
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a novel and effective modulator in carcinogenesis, has become a study hotspot in recent years. The imprinted oncofetal lncRNA H19 is one of the first identified imprinted lncRNAs with a high expression level in embryogenesis but is barely detectable in most tissues after birth. Aberrant alterations of H19 expression have been demonstrated in various tumors, including gastric cancer (GC), implicating a crucial role of H19 in cancer progression. As one of the top malignancies in the world, GC has already become a serious concern to public health with poor prognosis...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230720/role-of-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-in-regulation-of-embryonic-and-adult-hematopoiesis
#16
REVIEW
Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Rita Carmona
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230407/explaining-discrepancies-in-assessment-protocols-trait-relevance-and-functional-equivalence
#17
Hedwig Teglasi, Jessica Ritzau, Catherine Sanders, Margaret J Kim, Arianna Scott
Inconsistencies among independent sources of information about psychological constructs are widely documented, but not adequately explained. Measurement error as the primary explanation, though historically popular, is no longer tenable. Yet, even as assessors acknowledge that various measures of the same construct are not necessarily interchangeable, there are no agreed upon frameworks to discern the unique contribution of each measure in multiinformant and multimethod assessment protocols. In this study, we focus on the relevance of the target trait in its measured contexts and on the functional equivalence of the trait across its measures (similar self-regulatory requirements for trait expression) as driving relations between scores...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230290/a3-adenosine-receptor-agonist-inhibited-survival-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-via-gli-1-and-erk1-2-pathway
#18
Seyyed Mehdi Jafari, Mojtaba Panjehpour, Mahmoud Aghaei, Hamid Reza Joshaghani, Seyed Ehsan Enderami
Numerous studies have demonstrated the role of A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) and signaling pathways in the multiple aspects of the tumor. However, there is a little study about the function of A3AR in the biological processes of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have a critical role in the maintenance and survival of breast cancer. The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of A3AR agonist on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). XTT assay showed antiprolierative effect of A3AR agonist (Cl-IB-MECA) on BCSCs...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230276/dissection-of-regulatory-elements-during-direct-conversion-of-somatic-cells-into-neurons
#19
Tahereh Soleimani, Nafiseh Falsafi, Hossein Fallahi
A revolutionary approach that involves direct conversion of somatic cells into almost any other types of cells showed promising results for regenerative medicine. Currently, producing valuable cell types including neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes through direct conversion of somatic cells appear to be a feasible option for regenerative medicine. The process involves inducing the cells by chemical cocktails or by expression of different types of transcription factors. In this concept, in vitro neurogenesis considered to be able to produce neuron cells to replace damaged neurons especially in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230206/mirna-21-mediates-the-antiangiogenic-activity-of-metformin-through-targeting-pten-and-smad7-expression-and-pi3k-akt-pathway
#20
Mao Luo, Xiaoyong Tan, Lin Mu, Yulin Luo, Rong Li, Xin Deng, Ni Chen, Meiping Ren, Yongjie Li, Liqun Wang, Jianbo Wu, Qin Wan
Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug commonly used for type 2 diabetes therapy, is associated with anti-angiogenic effects in conditions beyond diabetes. miR-21 has been reported to be involved in the process of angiogenesis. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms by which the metformin-induced endothelial suppression and its effects on miR-21-dependent pathways are still unclear. Bioinformatic analysis and identification of miR-21 and its targets and their effects on metformin-induced antiangiogenic activity were assessed using luciferase assays, quantitative real-time PCR, western blots, scratch assays, CCK-8 assays and tubule formation assays...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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