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"Device development"

Anastasios Pateras, Joonkyu Park, Youngjun Ahn, Jack A Tilka, Martin V Holt, Christian Reichl, Werner Wegscheider, Timothy Baart, Juan Pablo Dehollain, Uditendu Mukhopadhyay, Lieven M K Vandersypen, Paul G Evans
Quantum devices formed in high-electron-mobility semiconductor heterostructures provide a route through which quantum mechanical effects can be exploited on length scales accessible to lithography and integrated electronics. The electrostatic definition of quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructure devices intrinsically involves the lithographic fabrication of intricate patterns of metallic electrodes. The formation of metal/semiconductor interfaces, growth processes associated with polycrystalline metallic layers, and differential thermal expansion produce elastic distortion in the active areas of quantum devices...
April 17, 2018: Nano Letters
Hongkai Wang, Xiaobang Sun, Tongning Wu, Congsheng Li, Zhonghua Chen, Meiying Liao, Mengci Li, Wen Yan, Hui Huang, Jia Yang, Ziyu Tan, Libo Hui, Yue Liu, Hang Pan, Yue Qu, Zhaofeng Chen, Liwen Tan, Lijuan Yu, Hongcheng Shi, Li Huo, Yanjun Zhang, Xin Tang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Changjian Liu
In recent years, there has been increasing demand for personalized anatomy modelling for medical and industrial applications, such as ergonomics device development, clinical radiological exposure simulation, biomechanics analysis, and 3D animation character design. In this study, we constructed deformable torso phantoms that can be deformed to match the personal anatomy of Chinese male and female adults. The phantoms were created based on a training set of 79 trunk computed tomography (CT) images (41 males and 38 females) from normal Chinese subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Yu Li Huang, Yu Jie Zheng, Zhibo Song, Dongzhi Chi, Andrew T S Wee, Su Ying Quek
Since the first isolation of graphene, new classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials have offered fascinating platforms for fundamental science and technology explorations at the nanometer scale. In particular, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) such as MoS2 and WSe2 have been intensely investigated due to their unique electronic and optical properties, including tunable optical bandgaps, direct-indirect bandgap crossover, strong spin-orbit coupling, etc., for next-generation flexible nanoelectronics and nanophotonics applications...
April 13, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Eric Zijlstra
In the current issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Dreon et al give a comprehensive overview of the technical performance of a wearable patch for bolus insulin delivery. The test results generated by the manufacturer of the bolus-patch provide the technical prerequisites for clinical application. As the device received FDA clearance already in 2010, positive results from the nonclinical performance testing were to be expected, but present nevertheless interesting insights into the device development...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Brian Kw Yum, William H Frishman
Heart failure patients with either reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) experience a high mortality rate. The most recent pharmacologic advance for treating patients with HFrEF has been with sacubitril/valsartan. Along with pharmaceutical research, there has been interest in device-based therapies as another treatment approach. One novel interventional device therapy that has shown promise in early tests and trials is the inter-atrial shunt device developed by Corvia Medical Inc...
March 30, 2018: Cardiology in Review
Yi Wang, Allan Guan, Samanthi Wickramasekara, K Scott Phillips
In the United States, regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of all Food and Drug Administration-regulated products. Good regulatory science facilitates consumer access to innovative medical devices that are safe and effective throughout the Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC). Because the need to measure things is fundamental to the regulatory science of medical devices, analytical chemistry plays an important role, contributing to medical device technology in two ways: It can be an integral part of an innovative medical device (e...
March 26, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Sean J Nagel, Chandan G Reddy, Leonardo A Frizon, Matthieu K Chardon, Marshall Holland, Andre G Machado, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard, Saul Wilson
Understanding the relevant biophysical properties of the spinal dura mater is essential to the design of medical devices that will directly interact with this membrane or influence the contents of the intradural space. We searched the literature and reviewed the pertinent characteristics for the design, construction, testing, and imaging of novel devices intended to perforate, integrate, adhere or reside within or outside of the spinal dura mater. The spinal dura mater is a thin tubular membrane composed of collagen and elastin fibres that varies in circumference along its length...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Chintan Malhotra, Arun Kumar Jain, Nikhil Aggarwal
A 70-year-old patient who underwent uneventful primary implantation of Auro K Pro (a Type I Boston Keratoprosthesis-based device), developed infiltrates in the deep stroma of the carrier corneal graft and exudates on the optic stem of the keratoprosthesis assembly, 6 weeks postoperatively, which subsequently progressed to endophthalmitis. Vitreous tap was positive for a panfungal polymerase chain reaction, although corneal scrapings for both Gram stain and KOH wet mount yielded negative results. Aggressive management with systemic, topical, intravitreal, and intrastromal antifungal agents resulted in an initial resolution, but residual inflammatory vitreous membranes persisted...
January 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Clayton J Brinster, Ross Milner
Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has revolutionized the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with consistently low reported perioperative morbidity and mortality. Universal applicability of EVAR to treat AAA is hindered by several specific anatomic constraints, however, and many patients cannot be treated with commercially available stent grafts within the device specific instructions for use. Treatment of these complex pararenal aneurysms is increasingly accomplished by extension of EVAR into the visceral segment of the abdominal aorta with branches or fenestrations that allow perfusion of the visceral and renal arteries...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Enrico Ravagli, Stefano Severi
During hemodialysis (HD), blood is circulated through an extracorporeal tubing system (bloodline) made of medical-grade polymeric material. Sensors of various types that do not come into contact with blood (optical, electromagnetic, etc.) are applied directly across the bloodline for clinical purposes and for therapy customization. Thus, a detailed knowledge of the bloodline's physical properties is useful for the development of next-generation HD sensors. In this work, we performed a novel comparative analysis of the materials used by the manufacturers of the bloodlines...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Yasunori Sasakura
The chordate ascidians, the major group of tunicate s, is the best animal group for studying molecular and cellular processes underlying formation of a chordate body plan. For these studies, transgenic technologies are powerful. Transgenesis of ascidians has a long history of more than 20 years, and many practical tips have been accumulated. This book is aimed at summarizing the accumulated techniques in ascidians in addition to concrete research in which transgenic techniques have played pivotal roles. This book is useful for fast assimilation of the techniques and for learning the unique devices developed by the enthusiasm of ascidian researchers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ran Peng, Xiaowu Shirley Tang, Dongqing Li
This paper presents a new method of sensing single molecules and cations by a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based differential resistive pulse sensing (RPS) technique on a nanofluidic chip. A mathematical model for multichannel RPS systems is developed to evaluate the CNT-based RPS signals. Individual cations, rhodamine B dye molecules, and ssDNAs are detected successfully with high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. Differentiating ssDNAs with 15 and 30 nucleotides are achieved. The experimental results also show that translocation of negatively charged ssDNAs through a CNT decreases the electrical resistance of the CNT channel, while translocation of positively charged cations and rhodamine B molecules increases the electrical resistance of the CNT...
March 5, 2018: Small
Saurabh Kumar, Bharadwaj Amrutur, Sundarrajan Asokan
Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have become popular for applications related to structural health monitoring, biomedical engineering, and robotics. However, for successful large scale adoption, FBG interrogation systems are as important as sensor characteristics. Apart from accuracy, the required number of FBG sensors per fiber and the distance between the device in which the sensors are used and the interrogation system also influence the selection of the interrogation technique. For several measurement devices developed for applications in biomedical engineering and robotics, only a few sensors per fiber are required and the device is close to the interrogation system...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
J Andréasson, U Pischel
The idea of using molecules in the context of information security has sparked the interest of researchers from many scientific disciplines. This is clearly manifested in the diversity of the molecular platforms and the analytical techniques used for this purpose, some of which we highlight in this Tutorial Review. Moreover, those molecular systems can be used to emulate a broad spectrum of security measures. For a long time, molecular keypad locks enjoyed a clear preference and the review starts off with a description of how these devices developed...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Giorgia M Bosi, Claudio Capelli, Mun Hong Cheang, Nicola Delahunty, Michael Mullen, Andrew M Taylor, Silvia Schievano
Patient-specific computational models are an established tool to support device development and test under clinically relevant boundary conditions. Potentially, such models could be used to aid the clinical decision-making process for percutaneous valve selection; however, their adoption in clinical practice is still limited to individual cases. To be fully informative, they should include patient-specific data on both anatomy and mechanics of the implantation site. In this work, fourteen patient-specific computational models for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with balloon-expandable Sapien XT devices were retrospectively developed to tune the material parameters of the implantation site mechanical model for the average TAVR population...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Erin Perfect, Atul Jaiswal, Theresa Claire Davies
The purpose of this study is to systematically review published evidence regarding the development, use and effectiveness of assistive devices and technologies that enable internet access for individuals who are deafblind. Eight electronic research databases (CINAHL, Embase, Engineering Village MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) and three clinical trials registries (ISRCTN Registry, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials,gov) were searched. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review...
February 26, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Hao-Ting Huang, Guan-You Ho, Zung-Hang Wei
This study designs a microscaled thermoelectric component featuring a nanogap of varying size (133-900 nm) between the tips of the component. Electricity and heat are transmitted between the gap of the tips through the thermionic emission of electrons. Because the gaps exhibit a discontinuous structure, the phonon's contribution to thermal conductivity can be virtually neglected, thereby enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of the designed thermoelectric component. The experimental results reveal that a narrow tip gap generates stronger thermoelectric effects, with Seebeck voltage and Seebeck coefficient being respectively, one and two orders of magnitude greater than those of the thermoelectric effects of nanowires...
February 23, 2018: Small
T D Dongale, P S Pawar, R S Tikke, N B Mullani, V B Patil, A M Teli, K V Khot, S V Mohite, A A Bagade, V S Kumbhar, K Y Rajpure, P N Bhosale, R K Kamat, P S Patil
In the present investigation, we have fabricated copper oxide (CuO) thin film memristor by employing a hydrothermal method for neuromorphic application. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the films are polycrystalline in nature with the monoclinic crystal structure. The developed devices show analog memory and synaptic property similar to biological neuron. The size dependent synaptic behavior is investigated for as-prepared and annealed CuO memristor. The results suggested that the magnitude of synaptic weights and resistive switching voltages are dependent on the thickness of the active layer...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Robin E Sweeney, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
We have developed a device that is able to rapidly and specifically diagnose bacterial pathogens in a wound model based on Mie scatter spectra from a tissue surface. The Mie scatter spectra collected is defined as the intensity of Mie scatter over the angle of detection from a tissue surface. A 650 nm LED perpendicular to the surface illuminates a tissue sample (90°) and photodiodes positioned in 10° increments from 10° to 80° of backscatter act as the detectors to collect these Mie scatter spectra. Through principal component analysis of the Mie scatter spectra collected, we have shown significant differences between Mie scatter spectra of tissues with bacterial pathogens versus those without, as well as significant differences between each species of bacteria tested...
November 1, 2017: IEEE Sensors Journal
Katherine E Marusak, Julia R Krug, Yaying Feng, Yangxiaolu Cao, Lingchong You, Stefan Zauscher
The emerging field of biofabrication capitalizes on nature's ability to create materials with a wide range of well-defined physical and electronic properties. Particularly, there is a current push to utilize programmed, self-organization of living cells for material fabrication. However, much research is still necessary at the interface of synthetic biology and materials engineering to make biofabrication a viable technique to develop functional devices. Here, the authors exploit the ability of Escherichia coli to contribute to material fabrication by designing and optimizing growth platforms to direct inorganic nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, specifically cadmium sulfide (CdS) NPs, onto porous polycarbonate membranes...
February 9, 2018: Biointerphases
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