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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912845/forkhead-box-c1-is-targeted-by-microrna-133b-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-migration-in-osteosarcoma
#1
Lu Deng, Tang Liu, Beibei Zhang, Haishan Wu, Jingping Zhao, Jindong Chen
Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene in a number of malignant tumors, though its underlying mechanism of action in osteosarcoma (OS) remains unknown. The present study evaluated the expression and regulatory role of FOXC1 in OS. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot data indicated that FOXC1 was significantly upregulated in OS tissues and cell lines when compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (P<0.001) and normal human osteoblast cells (P<0...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912098/melatonin-mediated-upregulation-of-sirt3-attenuates-sodium-fluoride-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-activating-the-mt1-pi3k-akt-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#2
Chao Song, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Dan Li, Tingchao Mao, Wei Peng, Haibo Wu, Yong Zhang
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fluoride toxicity in liver. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland, was previously shown to protect against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin pretreatment on NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and elucidates the potential mechanism of melatonin-mediated protection. Reducing mitochondrial ROS by melatonin substantially attenuated NaF-induced NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation and cytotoxicity in L-02 cells...
September 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911141/glucagon-decreases-igf-1-bioactivity-in-humans-independently-of-insulin-by-modulating-its-binding-proteins
#3
Zeinab Sarem, Christiane Bumke-Vogt, Ayman M Mahmoud, Biruhalem Assefa, Martin O Weickert, Aikatarini Adamidou, Volker Bähr, Jan Frystyk, Matthias Möhlig, Joachim Spranger, Stefanie Lieske, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ayman M Arafat
Context: Depending on its lipolytic activity, glucagon plays a promising role in obesity treatment. Glucagon-induced growth hormone (GH) release can promote its effect on lipid metabolism, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well-defined. Objective: The present study highlights the glucagon effect on the GH/insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis in vivo and in vitro, taking into consideration insulin as a confounding factor...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906435/mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-response-to-chromium-vi-toxicity-in-human-liver-cells
#4
Xiali Zhong, Rita de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Caigao Zhong
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, which poses a threat to human public health. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial biogenesis can be activated by inflammatory and oxidative stress. However, whether mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in Cr(VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated the induction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as indicated by upregulation of inflammatory factors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis, comprising the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass, was significantly increased in HepG2 cells exposed to low concentrations of Cr(VI)...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905195/experimental-evidences-for-mir-30b-as-a-negative-regulator-of-foxo3-upregulated-by-kynurenine
#5
Zhi-Qing Duan, Yan Li, Lu Li
Molecular constituents regulated by the microenvironment components profoundly influence the propensity of cancer metastasis, a key event of estimating therapeutic actions of anticancer drugs. On one hand, kynurenine (Kyn), one of the microenvironment components, plays key roles in the metastasis of cancer cells in vivo; on the other hand, forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) can serve as a therapeutic target of various anticancer drugs. However, the effect of Kyn on FOXO3 is still not clear. The current study demonstrated that the selected dose of Kyn significantly upregulated the FOXO3 protein rather than FOXO3 messenger RNA (mRNA) in the lung cancer 95D cells...
September 13, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904225/endothelial-aplnr-regulates-tissue-fatty-acid-uptake-and-is-essential-for-apelin-s-glucose-lowering-effects
#6
Cheol Hwangbo, Jingxia Wu, Irinna Papangeli, Takaomi Adachi, Bikram Sharma, Saejeong Park, Lina Zhao, Hyekyung Ju, Gwang-Woong Go, Guoliang Cui, Mohammed Inayathullah, Judith K Job, Jayakumar Rajadas, Stephanie L Kwei, Ming O Li, Alan R Morrison, Thomas Quertermous, Arya Mani, Kristy Red-Horse, Hyung J Chun
Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to pose an important clinical challenge, with most existing therapies lacking demonstrable ability to improve cardiovascular outcomes. The atheroprotective peptide apelin (APLN) enhances glucose utilization and improves insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanism of these effects remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that the expression of APLNR (APJ/AGTRL1), the only known receptor for apelin, is predominantly restricted to the endothelial cells (ECs) of multiple adult metabolic organs, including skeletal muscle and adipose tissue...
September 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903387/hyperactivated-mtorc1-downregulation-of-foxo3a-pdgfr%C3%AE-akt-cascade-restrains-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-associated-tumor-development
#7
Li Wang, Zhaofei Ni, Yujie Liu, Shuang Ji, Fuquan Jin, Keguo Jiang, Junfang Ma, Cuiping Ren, Hongbing Zhang, Zhongdong Hu, Xiaojun Zha
Hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), caused by loss-of-function mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, leads to the development of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a benign tumor syndrome with multiple affected organs. mTORC1-mediated inhibition of AKT constrains the tumor progression of TSC, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Herein we showed that loss of TSC1 or TSC2 downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) expression was mediated by mTORC1...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903041/mir-150-mediated-foxo1-regulation-programs-cd8-t-cell-differentiation
#8
Young Ho Ban, Se-Chan Oh, Sang-Hwan Seo, Seok-Min Kim, In-Pyo Choi, Philip D Greenberg, Jun Chang, Tae-Don Kim, Sang-Jun Ha
MicroRNA (miR)-150 is a developmental regulator of several immune-cell types, but its role in CD8(+) T cells is largely unexplored. Here, we show that miR-150 regulates the generation of memory CD8(+) T cells. After acute virus infection, miR-150 knockout (KO) mice exhibited an accelerated differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into memory cells and improved production of effector cytokines. Additionally, miR-150 KO CD8(+) T cells displayed an enhanced recall response and improved protection against infections with another virus and bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902136/dual-strands-of-pre-mir-149-inhibit-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion-through-targeting-foxm1-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Atsushi Okato, Takayuki Arai, Yasutaka Yamada, Sho Sugawara, Keiichi Koshizuka, Lisa Fujimura, Akira Kurozumi, Mayuko Kato, Satoko Kojima, Yukio Naya, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Naohiko Seki
Our recent studies revealed that dual strands of certain pre-microRNAs, e.g., pre-miR-144, pre-miR-145, and pre-miR-150, act as antitumor microRNAs (miRNAs) in several cancers. The involvement of passenger strands of miRNAs in cancer pathogenesis is a novel concept in miRNA research. The analysis of a miRNA expression signature in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has revealed that the guide strand of pre-miR-149 is significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. The aims of this study were to investigate the functional significance of miR-149's guide strand (miR-149-5p) and passenger strand (miR-149-3p), and to identify the oncogenic genes regulated by these miRNAs in ccRCC cells...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901888/effects-of-oral-lactobacillus-administration-on-antioxidant-activities-and-cd4-cd25-forkhead-box-p3-foxp3-t-cells-in-nzb-w-f1-mice
#10
Bor-Show Tzang, Chung-Hsien Liu, Kuo-Ching Hsu, Yi-Hsing Chen, Chih-Yang Huang, Tsai-Ching Hsu
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by a dysregulation of the immune system, which causes inflammation responses, excessive oxidative stress and a reduction in the number of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+CD25+forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ T cells. Supplementation with certain Lactobacillus strains has been suggested to be beneficial in the comprehensive treatment of SLE. However, little is known about the effect and mechanism of certain Lactobacillus strains on SLE...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901488/the-role-of-fructose%C3%A2-1-6%C3%A2-bisphosphatase-1-in-abnormal-development-of-ovarian-follicles-caused-by-high-testosterone-concentration
#11
Tao Liu, Han Zhao, Jianfeng Wang, Xin Shu, Yuan Gao, Xiaoli Mu, Fei Gao, Hongbin Liu
The present study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the fructose‑1,6‑bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) signaling pathway within normal follicle development and in hyperandrogenism‑induced abnormal follicle growth. To achieve this, murine primary follicles, granulosa cells (GCs) and theca‑interstitial cells (TICs) were isolated, cultured in vitro and treated with a high concentration of androgens. A concentration of 1x10‑5 mol/l testosterone was considerable to induce hyperandrogenism by MTT assay...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901192/neuronal-cell-sheets-of-cortical-motor-neuron-phenotype-derived-from-human-ipscs
#12
Noboru Suzuki, Nagisa Arimitsu, Jun Shimizu, Kenji Takai, Chieko Hirotsu, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki
Transplantation of stem cells that differentiate into more mature neural cells brings about functional improvement in preclinical studies of stroke. Previous transplant approaches in the diseased brain utilized injection of the cells in a cell suspension. In addition, neural stem cells were preferentially used for grafting. However, these cells had no specific relationship to the damaged tissue of stroke and brain injury patients. The injection of cells in a suspension destroyed the cell-cell interactions that are suggested to be important for promoting functional integrity of cortical motor neurons...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899970/targeting-prostate-cancer-subtype-1-by-forkhead-box-m1-pathway-inhibition
#13
Kirsi Ketola, Ravi Sn Munuganti, Alastair Davies, Ka Mun Nip, Jennifer L Bishop, Amina Zoubeidi
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer was recently classified to three clinically relevant subtypes (PCS) demarcated by unique pathway activation and clinical aggressiveness. In this preclinical study, we investigated molecular targets and therapeutics for PCS1, the most aggressive and lethal subtype with no treatment options available in the clinic. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We utilized the PCS1 gene set and our model of enzalutamide (ENZR) castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to identify targetable pathways and inhibitors for PCS1...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894844/microrna-let-7g-directly-targets-forkhead-box-c2-foxc2-to-modulate-bone-metastasis-in-breast-cancer
#14
Lei Wang, Ming Li, Yongxin Zhou, Yu Zhao
Aberrantly expressed microRNAs have been implicated in lots of cancers. Reduced amounts of let-7g have been found in breast cancer tissues. The function of let-7g in bone metastasis of breast cancer remains poorly understood. This study is to explore the significance of let-7g and its novel target gene in bone metastasis of breast cancer. The expression of let-7g or forkhead box C2 (FOXC2) was measured in human clinical breast cancer tissues with bone metastasis by using quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR)...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894507/foxo-transcriptional-factors-and-long-term-living
#15
REVIEW
Ghulam Murtaza, Abida Kalsoom Khan, Rehana Rashid, Saiqa Muneer, Syed Muhammad Farid Hasan, Jianxin Chen
Several pathologies such as neurodegeneration and cancer are associated with aging, which is affected by many genetic and environmental factors. Healthy aging conceives human longevity, possibly due to carrying the defensive genes. For instance, FOXO (forkhead box O) genes determine human longevity. FOXO transcription factors are involved in the regulation of longevity phenomenon via insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. Only one FOXO gene (FOXO DAF-16) exists in invertebrates, while four FOXO genes, that is, FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 are found in mammals...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892130/fgl2-deteriorates-cardiac-function-in-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-rats-through-regulation-of-pd-1-and-inflammatory-cytokines
#16
Zhenzhong Zheng, Yinghui Yu, Ratnakar Potla, Yujing Wu, Hao Wu
PD-1 plays an important role in protecting against inflammation and myocyte damage in T cell mediated myocarditis. To understand whether FGL2 can affect the role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM),we investigated the cardiac function in EAM rats overexpressing FGL2. Overexpression of FGL2 significantly decreased PD-1 and deteriorated cardiac function in autoimmune myocarditis rats. Histopathology revealed increased inflammatory cell infiltrate in EAM-FGL2 rats compared to the control groups (EAM, EAM-GFP, and NC)...
September 11, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892065/regulatory-t-cells-impede-acute-and-long-term-immunity-to-blood-stage-malaria-through-ctla-4
#17
Samarchith P Kurup, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Scott M Anthony, Boubacar Traore, Ogobara K Doumbo, Noah S Butler, Peter D Crompton, John T Harty
Malaria, caused by the protozoan Plasmodium, is a devastating mosquito-borne disease with the potential to affect nearly half the world's population. Despite mounting substantial T and B cell responses, humans fail to efficiently control blood-stage malaria or develop sterilizing immunity to reinfections. Although forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells form a part of these responses, their influence remains disputed and their mode of action is unknown. Here we show that Treg cells expand in both humans and mice in blood-stage malaria and interfere with conventional T helper cell responses and follicular T helper (TFH)-B cell interactions in germinal centers...
September 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889023/suppression-of-foxo3a-attenuates-neurobehavioral-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury-through-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy
#18
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Man Liu, Peng Su, Jingbo Zhang, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious insult that frequently leads to neurological impairments. Forkhead box O (FoxO) 3a, as transcription factor, has been confirmed to modulate autophagic process. Moreover, FoxO3a is expressed throughout the brain including the hippocampus. However, the role of FoxO3a in the pathophysiology of TBI is unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether FoxO3a has the neuroprotective effects on rats subjected to TBI, and further to explore the potential molecular mechanisms...
September 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888048/involvement-of-nutrients-and-nutritional-mediators-in-mitochondrial-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase-gene-expression
#19
Tania Rescigno, Anna Capasso, Mario Felice Tecce
Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase (HMGCS2) catalyses the first step of ketogenesis and is critical in various metabolic conditions. Several nutrient molecules were able to differentially modulate HMGCS2 expression levels. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, n-6) and glucose increased HMGCS2 mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 hepatoma cells, while fructose decreased them. The effect of n-6 AA resulted significantly higher than that of n-3 PUFA, but when combined all these molecules were far less efficient...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884888/foxp1-haploinsufficiency-phenotypes-beyond-behavior-and-intellectual-disability
#20
Angela Myers, Christèle du Souich, Connie L Yang, Lior Borovik, Jill Mwenifumbo, Rosemarie Rupps, Causes Study, Anna Lehman, Cornelius F Boerkoel
The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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