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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#1
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089548/nanoformulation-of-synergistic-tlr-ligands-to-enhance-vaccination-against-entamoeba-histolytica
#2
Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Zannatun Noor, Mark A Tomai, James Elvecrog, Christopher B Fox, William A Petri
Diarrheal infectious diseases represent a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for vaccines against diarrheal pathogens, especially parasites. Modern subunit vaccines rely on combining a highly purified antigen with an adjuvant to increase their efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of a nanoliposome adjuvant system to trigger a strong mucosal immune response to the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin LecA antigen. CBA/J mice were immunized with alum, emulsion or liposome based formulations containing synthetic TLR agonists...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088874/a-clinical-validation-of-self-reported-periodontitis-among-participants-in-the-black-women-s-health-study
#3
Brenda Heaton, Nicholas B Gordon, Raul I Garcia, Lynn Rosenberg, Sharron Rich, Matthew P Fox, Yvette C Cozier
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on the validity of self-report of periodontal disease in African Americans. The Black Women's Health Study, a US national cohort study of 59,000 Black women followed via mailed questionnaires since 1995, offered the opportunity to clinically validate self-reported periodontitis among a sample of participants. METHODS: Oral health questionnaires were sent to study participants residing in Massachusetts. Respondents living in the Boston metro area were invited for clinical examination...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088798/the-intracranial-b2leed3s-score-and-the-risk-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-under-antiplatelet-treatment
#4
Pierre Amarenco, Leila Sissani, Julien Labreuche, Eric Vicaut, Marie Germaine Bousser, Angel Chamorro, Marc Fisher, Ian Ford, Kim M Fox, Michael G Hennerici, Heinrich Mattle, Peter M Rothwell, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Hans-Christoph Diener, Ralph L Sacco, Jacoba P Greving, Ale Algra
BACKGROUND: Chronic antiplatelet therapy in the post-acute phase of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke is limited by the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) complications. METHODS: We developed an ICH risk score based on the PERFORM trial cohort (n = 19,100), which included patients with a non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, and externally validated this score in one contemporary trial of very similar size and inclusion criteria, the PRoFESS trial (n = 20,332 patients)...
January 14, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087866/when-can-infants-and-children-benefit-from-probiotics
#5
Paul Dassow, Steven Fox
The latest studies indicate that probiotics can help with colic, eczema, and certain types of diarrhea. They may also help with upper respiratory infections and IBS pain.
November 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087488/cathepsin-k-targeted-sub-micron-particles-for-regenerative-repair-of-vascular-elastic-matrix
#6
Brenton Jennewine, Jonathan Fox, Anand Ramamurthi
: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) involve slow dilation and weakening of the aortic wall due to breakdown of structural matrix components, such as elastic fibers by chronically overexpressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily, MMPs-2 and -9. Auto-regenerative repair of disrupted elastic fibers by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the AAA site is intrinsically poor and together with chronic proteolysis prevents restoration of elastin homeostasis, necessary to enable AAA growth arrest or regression to a healthy state...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087388/unravelling-the-role-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-cancer-through-the-foxo3-foxm1-axis
#7
Paula Saavedra-García, Katie Nichols, Zimam Mahmud, Lavender Yuen-Nam Fan, Eric W-F Lam
Obesity and cachexia represent divergent states of nutritional and metabolic imbalance but both are intimately linked to cancer. There is an extensive overlap in their signalling pathways and molecular components involved such as fatty acids (FAs), which likely play a crucial role in cancer. Forkhead box (FOX) proteins are responsible of a wide range of transcriptional programmes during normal development, and the FOXO3-FOXM1 axis is associated with cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance. Free fatty acids (FFAs), FA synthesis and β-oxidation are associated with cancer development and progression...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087133/secukinumab-sustains-early-patient-reported-outcome-benefits-through-1%C3%A2-year-results-from-2-phase-iii-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trials-comparing-secukinumab-with-etanercept
#8
Bruce Strober, Alice B Gottlieb, Bintu Sherif, Patrick Mollon, Isabelle Gilloteau, Lori McLeod, Todd Fox, Margaret Mordin, Ari Gnanasakthy, Charis Papavassilis, Mark G Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic condition with negative impact on patients' quality of life that most often requires lifelong effective and safe treatment. OBJECTIVE: This analysis focused on the effect of secukinumab treatment on patient-reported health-related quality of life as assessed by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. METHODS: The proportion of subjects achieving DLQI score 0/1 response at week 24, time to DLQI score 0/1 response, and sustained DLQI score 0/1 response up to week 52 were compared between secukinumab and etanercept...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081537/impact-of-disease-stage-and-aetiology-on-survival-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-implications-for-surveillance
#9
Philip Johnson, Sarah Berhane, Chiaki Kagebayashi, Shinji Satomura, Mabel Teng, Richard Fox, Winnie Yeo, Frankie Mo, Paul Lai, Stephen L Chan, Toshifumi Tada, Hidenori Toyoda, Takashi Kumada
BACKGROUND: Variation in survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been attributed to different aetiologies or disease stages at presentation. While international guidelines recommend surveillance of high-risk groups to permit early diagnosis and curative treatment, the evidence that surveillance decreases disease-specific mortality is weak. METHODS: We compared HCC survival figures from Japan (n=1174) and Hong Kong (n=1675) over similar time periods (Japan 2000-2013, Hong Kong, China 2003-2014)...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#10
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079456/overexpression-of-tify-genes-promotes-plant-growth-in-rice-through-jasmonate-signaling
#11
Makoto Hakata, Masayuki Muramatsu, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Naho Hara, Miho Kishimoto, Keiko Iida-Okada, Mariko Kajikawa, Naoko Imai-Toki, Seiichi Toki, Yoshiaki Nagamura, Hiromoto Yamakawa, Hiroaki Ichikawa
Because environmental stress can reduce crop growth and yield, the identification of genes that enhance agronomic traits is increasingly important. Previous screening of full-length cDNA overexpressing (FOX) rice lines revealed that OsTIFY11b, one of 20 TIFY proteins in rice, affects plant size, grain weight, and grain size. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of OsTIFY11b and nine other TIFY genes on the growth and yield of corresponding TIFY-FOX lines. Regardless of temperature, grain weight and culm length were enhanced in lines overexpressing TIFY11 subfamily genes, except OsTIFY11e...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079405/posttraumatic-growth-following-pregnancy-termination-for-fetal-abnormality-the-predictive-role-of-coping-strategies-and-perinatal-grief
#12
Caroline Lafarge, Kathryn Mitchell, Pauline Fox
BACKGROUND: Research about termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) suggests that it is a traumatic event with potential negative psychological consequences. However, evidence also indicates that following traumatic events individuals may experience growth. Although TFA's negative psychological outcomes are well documented, little is known of the potential for growth following this event. Therefore, the study's objectives were to measure posttraumatic growth (PTG) post-TFA, examine the relationship between PTG, perinatal grief and coping, and determine the predictors of PTG...
January 12, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079054/local-dimensionality-determines-imaging-speed-in-localization-microscopy
#13
Patrick Fox-Roberts, Richard Marsh, Karin Pfisterer, Asier Jayo, Maddy Parsons, Susan Cox
Localization microscopy allows biological samples to be imaged at a length scale of tens of nanometres. Live-cell super-resolution imaging is rare, as it is generally assumed to be too slow for dynamic samples. The speed of data acquisition can be optimized by tuning the density of activated fluorophores in each time frame. Here, we show that the maximum achievable imaging speed for a particular structure varies by orders of magnitude, depending on the sample dimensionality (that is, whether the sample is more like a point, a strand or an extended structure such as a focal adhesion)...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077880/interleukin-2-receptor-%C3%AE-proximal-promoter-hypomethylation-is-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
J Field, A Fox, M A Jordan, A G Baxter, T Spelman, M Gresle, H Butzkueven, T J Kilpatrick, J P Rubio
Genetic studies have demonstrated association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the IL2RA (interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit) gene and risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS); however, these variants do not have obvious functional consequences. DNA methylation is a source of genetic variation that could impact on autoimmune disease risk. We investigated DNA methylation of the IL2RA promoter in genomic DNA obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural tissue using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry...
January 12, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077161/mathematical-modelling-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-abundance-in-foxes-in-zurich-switzerland
#15
Belen Otero-Abad, Simon R Rüegg, Daniel Hegglin, Peter Deplazes, Paul R Torgerson
BACKGROUND: In Europe, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main definitive host of Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of a severe disease in humans called alveolar echinococcosis. The distribution of this zoonotic parasite among the fox population is remarkably aggregated with few heavily infected animals harbouring much of the parasite burdens and being responsible for most of the environmental parasitic egg contamination. Important research questions explored were: (i) spatial differences in parasite infection pressure related to the level of urbanization; (ii) temporal differences in parasite infection pressure in relation to time of the year; (iii) is herd immunity or an age-dependent infection pressure responsible for the observed parasite abundance; (iv) assuming E...
January 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075626/could-the-president-and-congress-precipitate-a-public-health-crisis
#16
Daniel M Fox, Sandro Galea, Colleen Grogan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075011/the-changing-contribution-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-limitation-of-mesopredators-during-220-years-of-land-use-and-climate-change
#17
Marianne Pasanen-Mortensen, Bodil Elmhagen, Harto Lindén, Roger Bergström, Märtha Wallgren, Ype van der Velde, Sara A O Cousins
Apex predators may buffer bottom-up driven ecosystem change, as top-down suppression may dampen herbivore and mesopredator responses to increased resource availability. However, theory suggests that for this buffering capacity to be realized, the equilibrium abundance of apex predators must increase. This raises the question: will apex predators maintain herbivore/mesopredator limitation, if bottom-up change relaxes resource constraints? Here, we explore changes in mesopredator (red fox Vulpes vulpes) abundance over 220 years in response to eradication and recovery of an apex predator (Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx), and changes in land use and climate which are linked to resource availability...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074012/reduced-abundance-of-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-e6ap-contributes-to-decreased-expression-of-the-ink4-arf-locus-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Cristina Gamell, Twishi Gulati, Yaara Levav-Cohen, Richard J Young, Hongdo Do, Pat Pilling, Elena Takano, Neil Watkins, Stephen B Fox, Prudence Russell, Doron Ginsberg, Brendon J Monahan, Gavin Wright, Alex Dobrovic, Sue Haupt, Ben Solomon, Ygal Haupt
The tumor suppressor p16(INK4a), one protein encoded by the INK4/ARF locus, is frequently absent in multiple cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Whereas increased methylation of the encoding gene (CDKN2A) accounts for its loss in a third of patients, no molecular explanation exists for the remainder. We unraveled an alternative mechanism for the silencing of the INK4/ARF locus involving the E3 ubiquitin ligase and transcriptional cofactor E6AP (also known as UBE3A). We found that the expression of three tumor suppressor genes encoded in the INK4/ARF locus (p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), and p19(ARF)) was decreased in E6AP(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts...
January 10, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072612/prophylactic-antibiotics-for-enucleation-and-evisceration-a-retrospective-study-and-systematic-literature-review
#19
Brett Pariseau, Barry Fox, Jonathan Dutton
PURPOSE: To report surgical site infection (SSI) rates of eviscerations and enucleations with implants performed without perioperative intravenous (IV) antibiotics or postoperative oral antibiotics, and to give SSI prevention recommendations. METHODS: A single-center retrospective chart review was performed after obtaining institutional review board approval. Charts were found by Current Procedural Terminology codes. Demographics, surgical indication, procedure, implant, antibiotic use, and postoperative course were recorded...
January 6, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070007/first-evidence-of-angiostrongyliasis-caused-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-guadeloupe-lesser-antilles
#20
Céline Dard, Jean-Eudes Piloquet, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, LeAnne M Fox, Helmi M'kada, Jean-Christophe Hebert, Didier Mattera, Dorothée Harrois
Infection by the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis represents the most common cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis in humans, causing central nervous system (CNS) angiostrongyliasis. Most of CNS angiostrongyliasis cases were described in Asia, Pacific Basin, Australia, and some limited parts of Africa and America. CNS angiostrongyliasis has been reported in the Caribbean but never in the Lesser Antilles. The primary objectives of this study were to depict the first case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles and investigate the environmental presence of A...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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