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Greg L Plosker
Acamprosate (Campral(®), Aotal(®), Regtect(®)) is one of a limited number of pharmacological treatment options approved as an adjunct to psychosocial interventions to facilitate the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. It has been used in Europe, the USA and other countries for many years and was recently approved for this indication in Japan. In several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (without active comparators), acamprosate in conjunction with psychosocial therapy for 3-12 months was generally significantly better than placebo plus psychosocial interventions in improving various key outcomes, including the proportion of patients who maintained complete abstinence from alcohol (complete abstinence rate), the mean cumulative abstinence duration, the percentage of alcohol-free days and the median time to first drink...
July 2015: Drugs
Peter R Kufahl, Lucas R Watterson, M Foster Olive
INTRODUCTION: Globally, alcohol abuse and dependence are significant contributors to chronic disease and injury and are responsible for nearly 4% of all deaths annually. Acamprosate (Campral), one of only three pharmacological treatments approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence, has shown mixed efficacy in clinical trials in maintaining abstinence of detoxified alcoholics since studies began in the 1980s. Yielding inconsistent results, these studies have prompted skepticism. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors review the preclinical studies which have assessed the efficacy of acamprosate in various animal models of alcohol dependence and discuss the disparate findings from the major clinical trials...
November 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Rainer Spanagel, Valentina Vengeliene, Bernd Jandeleit, Wolf-Nicolas Fischer, Kent Grindstaff, Xuexiang Zhang, Mark A Gallop, Elena V Krstew, Andrew J Lawrence, Falk Kiefer
Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases, having an enormous health and socioeconomic impact. Along with a few other medications, acamprosate (Campral-calcium-bis (N-acetylhomotaurinate)) is clinically used in many countries for relapse prevention. Although there is accumulated evidence suggesting that acamprosate interferes with the glutamate system, the molecular mode of action still remains undefined. Here we show that acamprosate does not interact with proposed glutamate receptor mechanisms...
March 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
S N Kozhechkin, Iu S Mednikova, L G Kolik
The effect of drug for alcoholism treatment acamprosate (campral) on spontaneous electrical activity of frontal cortical neurons was studied in rats. Acamprosate after acute intraperitoneal administration (600 mg/kg) and microiontophoretic application reduced the frequency of spike activity in about 30 % of cells studied. The agent didn't change the magnitude and form of action potentials. Microiontophoretically applied acamprosate reduced the excitatory responses to ethanol electroosmotically applied to neurons at "small doses" (ejected current < 50 nA) and increased the value of neuronal depression induced by ethanol at the "large doses" (ejected current 50 nA)...
2013: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie O'Malley, John H Krystal
Developing pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol dependence and associated health problems traditionally has been based on gaining a better understanding of the neuroscience underlying alcohol-drinking behavior. To date, three medications have been approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence: disulfiram (Antabuse®), naltrexone (Revia®, Vivitrol®, and Naltrel®), and acamprosate (Campral®). However, these medications have modest efficacy, and there is a great need for newer medications that target different neurochemical systems and which could be used either as adjunctive treatments or to treat subpopulations of drinkers...
2008: Alcohol Research & Health: the Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Amir H Rezvani, Andrew J Lawrence, Maria P Arolfo, Edward D Levin, David H Overstreet
Alcoholism is a complex heterogeneous disease and a number of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems have been implicated in its manifestation. Consequently, it is unlikely that existing medications such as disulfiram (Antabuse®), naltrexone (ReVia®), acamprosate (Campral®)) can be efficacious in every individual. Thus, the development of novel therapeutic agents with greater selectivity and less unwanted effects for the treatment of this disease is one of the major objectives of alcohol research. This review summarizes the findings of five novel compounds with different neuronal targets for treating alcoholism...
August 2012: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery
Jae Kennedy, Aaron Dipzinski, John Roll, Joseph Coyne, Elizabeth Blodgett
OBJECTIVES: Pharmacotherapeutic treatments for drug addiction offer new options, but only if they are affordable for patients. The objective of this study is to assess the current availability and cost of five common antiaddiction medications in the largest federal medication insurance program in the US, Medicare Part D. METHODS: In early 2010, we collected coverage and cost data from 41 Medicare Part D prescription drug plans (PDPs) and 45 Medicare Advantage Plans (MAPs) in Washington State...
April 1, 2011: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Barbara J Mason, Charles J Heyser
Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent substance dependence disorders in the world. Advances in research in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence have identified specific neurotransmitter targets for the development of pharmacological treatments. Acamprosate, marketed under the brand name Campral, is an orally administered drug available by prescription in the U.S. and throughout much of the world for treating alcohol dependence. Its safety and efficacy have been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials worldwide...
March 2010: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Barbara J Mason, Charles J Heyser
IMPORTANCE TO THE FIELD: Acamprosate, marketed under the brand name Campral, (Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Saint Louis, MO, USA; Merck Sante s.a.s., Lyon, France) is an orally administered drug approved in the US and throughout much of the world for treating alcohol dependence. Its safety and efficacy have been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials worldwide and as with all pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, it is used in conjunction with psychosocial interventions. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This article reviews the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy and safety of acamprosate in Phase I, II and III randomized controlled trials involving healthy and alcohol-dependent populations using published reports from 1984 to 2009...
January 2010: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Amanda J Abraham, Lori J Ducharme, Paul M Roman
OBJECTIVE: Addiction treatment counselors play a central role in the dissemination of information about new treatment techniques to alcohol-dependent patients and are key in the implementation of new treatment technologies. Building on previous research, this study examines counselors' perceptions of the effectiveness and acceptability of pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol dependence. METHOD: Mail questionnaires were received from 1,140 counselors employed in a nationally representative sample of public-sector addiction treatment programs in 2006...
July 2009: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Amir H Rezvani, David H Overstreet, Anil H Vaidya, Boyu Zhao, Edward D Levin
BACKGROUND: Since 1994, when naltrexone (Revia) was approved by the FDA for the treatment of alcoholism, only 2 other drugs (Campral and Topamax have been approved for alcoholism treatment. However, various experimental drugs, including antiepileptic medications, have been tested in both animal models and in humans with some promising results. The purpose of this project was to study the effect of the novel neuromodulator carisbamate, which is in development for epilepsy treatment, on alcohol intake in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats...
August 2009: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Joseph S LoCastro, Marston Youngblood, Ron A Cisler, Margaret E Mattson, Allen Zweben, Raymond F Anton, Dennis M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the full range of alcohol treatment effectiveness, it is important to assess secondary nondrinking outcome dimensions in addition to primary alcohol consumption outcomes. METHOD: We used a large sample (n=1,226) of alcohol-dependent participants entering the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-sponsored COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions) Study, a multisite clinical trial of pharmacological (naltrexone [ReVia] and acamprosate [Campral]) and behavioral interventions, to examine the effects of specific treatment combinations on nondrinking functional outcomes...
March 2009: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Roger D Weiss, Stephanie S O'malley, James D Hosking, Joseph S Locastro, Robert Swift
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of the effect of placebo medication plus accompanying medical management in the treatment of alcohol dependence. METHOD: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions) study, a randomized controlled double-blind trial of 1,383 alcohol-dependent patients, compared combinations of medications (acamprosate [Campral] and naltrexone [ReVia]) and behavioral therapy (medical management and specialist-delivered behavioral therapy) for alcohol dependence...
November 2008: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Dennis M Donovan, Raymond F Anton, William R Miller, Richard Longabaugh, James D Hosking, Marston Youngblood
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions across 1 year posttreatment in the COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions) Study. METHOD: Alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 1,383; 428 women) recruited at 11 outpatient academic alcoholism-treatment clinics across the United States participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They received 16 weeks of naltrexone (Revia) or acamprosate (Campral) or both medications and/or placebos in combination with medical management (MM), with or without combined behavioral intervention (CBI); one group received CBI without pills or MM...
January 2008: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Helen M Pettinati, Amanda R Rabinowitz
In the past decade, scientists have made important progress toward understanding the neurobiology underlying an alcohol disorder. This knowledge has led to the development of promising pharmacotherapies that target the neural pathways involved in the brain's reward center in such a way that the usual treatment response (via counseling) is substantially improved upon. There are now four US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol dependence: disulfiram (Antabuse; Odyssey Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ), oral naltrexone (ReVia; Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
October 2006: Current Psychiatry Reports
Barbara J Mason, Anita M Goodman, Sylvie Chabac, Philippe Lehert
This is the first US study to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acamprosate (Campral), a newly FDA-approved medication for maintaining abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence following alcohol withdrawal. We compared effects of the standard 2 g dose (n=258) and an exploratory 3 g dose of acamprosate (n=83) versus placebo (n=260), and evaluated drug safety in a double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month trial conducted in 21 outpatient clinics across the US. Participants were 601 volunteers with current alcohol dependence recruited primarily by advertisement...
August 2006: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sophie C Reid, Maree Teesson, Claudia Sannibale, Michiyo Matsuda, Paul S Haber
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of compliance therapy in increasing adherence to pharmacological treatment for alcohol dependence. METHOD: Forty subjects were randomly allocated to receive usual medical care (n = 20) or usual medical care plus compliance therapy (n = 20). All subjects were prescribed acamprosate (Campral) for 4 months. Subjects were volunteers treated at a hospital-based outpatient drug and alcohol treatment service, and were men and women who were 18-65 years old and with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of alcohol dependence...
November 2005: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Michael S Cowen, Cameron Adams, Tracey Kraehenbuehl, Valentina Vengeliene, Andrew J Lawrence
Acamprosate (Campral) is a drug used clinically for the treatment of alcoholism. In order to examine further the time-course and mechanism of action of acamprosate, the effect of acute and repeated acamprosate administration was examined on (i) operant ethanol self-administration and (ii) voluntary home cage ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded, iP and Alko Alcohol (AA) rats. Acutely, acamprosate was shown to cause a significant decrease in operant ethanol self-administration by Fawn-Hooded and alcohol-preferring iP rats in part by decreasing the motivational relevance of a specific ethanol cue; however, repeated injection of acamprosate led to tolerance to this effect...
September 2005: Addiction Biology
Lesley J Scott, David P Figgitt, Susan J Keam, John Waugh
Acamprosate (Campral delayed-release tablet), a synthetic compound with a similar structure to that of the neurotransmitter GABA and the neuromodulator taurine, facilitates the maintenance of abstinence in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Although the precise mechanism(s) of action of the drug remains to be fully elucidated, it appears that it most likely involves beneficial modulation of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system, including antagonism of the mGLu5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, to counteract the imbalance between the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems associated with chronic alcohol exposure and alcohol withdrawal...
2005: CNS Drugs
(no author information available yet)
Acamprosate has a different mechanism of action than other drugs used for maintenance of abstinence from alcohol and is generally well tolerated. Diarrhea is the most common adverse effect. Its efficacy in controlled trials has been modest at best, and was poor when patients lacked social support for remaining abstinent. Acomprosate can be used in combination with naltrexone or disulfiram.
January 3, 2005: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
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