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Glutamine supplementation

Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aline C C Tritto, Mariane T Amano, Maria E De Cillo, Vinicius A Oliveira, Sandro H Mendes, Caroline Yoshioka, Hamilton Roschel, Niels Olsen S Camara, Bruno Gualano, Guilherme G Artioli
The role of plasma glutamine concentration and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression was investigated in combat athletes. Twenty-three male athletes were randomly assigned to receive glutamine (21 g/day, n=12) or placebo (ovalbumin, n=11) for 10 days. Six athletes who did not lose weight served as controls. Athletes were assessed 21 days before (-21d), 1 day before (-1d) and 5 days after (+5d) a competition. Weight reduction was similar between glutamine (-8.2%± 4.1%) and placebo (-8.5%±2.4%) and negligible in control (-0...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Soo Jin Yang, Hyun Ju Do, Youngae Jung, Geum-Sook Hwang, Min-Jeong Shin
The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose (VO) was recently reported to have a protective effect against weight gain as well as affect various metabolic changes related to food intake and gut-brain signaling. We hypothesized that VO prevents weight gain by altering neurometabolome profiles in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake. To test this hypothesis, we assessed metabolite profiles in the hypothalamus of standard diet- or high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice in the absence or presence of VO. In total, 29 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF, and (3) HF + VO...
March 1, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Shunwei Wang, Meng Sun, Na Wang, Kang Yang, Haitao Guo, Jingran Wang, Yuting Zhang, Shunli Yue, Jiabo Zhou
The quality of boar spermatozoa is affected by oxidative stress during preservation in vitro. It has been demonstrated that L-Glutamine (Gln) can effectively protect cells from oxidative stress-induced injury. There are, however, no reports to date evaluating the effects of Gln on boar semen liquid preservation at 17 °C. The aims of the present study were to elucidate whether the addition of Gln to the extender BTS could improve the quality of boar spermatozoa when stored at 17 °C and to determine the mechanism underlying Gln protection of spermatozoa against preservation-induced damage...
February 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Dalila C de Oliveira, Ed Wilson Santos, Amanda Nogueira-Pedro, José Guilherme Xavier, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrósio Fock
OBJECTIVE: Dietary restriction (DR) is a nutritional intervention that exerts profound effects on biochemical and immunologic parameters, modulating some inflammatory properties. Glutamine (GLN) is a conditionally essential amino acid that can modulate inflammatory properties. However, there is a lack of data evaluating the effects of DR and GLN supplementation, especially in relation to inflammatory cytokine production and the expression of transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB...
April 2018: Nutrition
Shubha Tiwari, Rohini M Nair, Praseeda Vamadevan, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik, Santosh G Honavar, Geeta K Vemuganti
PURPOSE: Lacrimal gland (LG) dysfunction leading to dry eye syndrome (DES) is an important cause of ocular morbidity. One of the potential and promising long-term management therapies for restoration of LG function could be transplantation of autologous ex vivo expanded stem cells. The present study was aimed at exploring the 2D and 3D cultures of human LG, identifying inherent stem cells and evaluating their secretory potential. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland (HuLG) (n = 5) from patients undergoing therapeutic exenteration was harvested after ethical approval and informed consent...
February 17, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Yan-Yan Xu, An-Qi He, Gang Liu, Kai-Yu Li, Jian Liu, Tong Liu
AIM: To assess the effect of enteral nutrition (EN) supplemented with glutamine on recovery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in rats, to provide an experimental basis for nutritional support in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) after IPAA. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups ( n = 8) after IPAA operation using a microsurgical technique. From the third postoperative day, rats in the control group, EN group, and immune nutrition (IN) group were fed standard rat chow, short peptide EN, and short peptide EN combined with glutamine ad libitum , respectively...
February 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jun Fan, Jing Wu, Li-Dong Wu, Bin Cheng, Shao-Yu Tao, Wei Wang, Xi Chen, Peng Zeng, Yi-Bing Wang, Qing-Yan Meng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of parenteral glutamine (GLN) supplementation combined with enteral nutrition (EN) on heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 expression and Peyer's patch (PP) apoptosis in severely burned rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Sham burn + EN + GLN-free amino acid (AA; n = 10), sham burn + EN + GLN (n = 10), burn + EN + AA (n = 10), and burn + EN + GLN (n = 10)...
March 2018: Nutrition
Axel Désir-Vigné, Vianney Haure-Mirande, Pierre de Coppet, Dominique Darmaun, Gwenola Le Dréan, Jean-Pierre Segain
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can affect the structure and function of the intestinal barrier and increase digestive disease risk in adulthood. Using the rat model of maternal dietary protein restriction (8% vs. 20%), we found that the colon of IUGR offspring displayed decreased mRNA expression of epithelial barrier proteins MUC2 and occludin during development. This was associated with increased mRNA expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker XBP1s and increased colonic permeability measured in Ussing chambers...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Zitong Yu, Angela Juhasz, Shahidul Islam, Dean Diepeveen, Jingjuan Zhang, Penghao Wang, Wujun Ma
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) quality is mainly determined by grain storage protein compositions. Sulphur availability is essential for the biosynthesis of the main wheat storage proteins. In this study, the impact of different sulphur fertilizer regimes on a range of agronomically important traits and associated gene networks was studied. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse the protein compositions of grains grown under four different sulphur treatments. Results revealed that sulphur supplementation had a significant effect on grain yield, harvest index, and storage protein compositions...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ran-Ran Zhang, Yun-Wen Zheng, Bin Li, Yun-Zhong Nie, Yasuharu Ueno, Tomonori Tsuchida, Hideki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Mature human hepatocytes are critical in preclinical research and therapy for liver disease, but are difficult to manipulate and expand in vitro. Hepatic stem cells (HpSCs) may be an alternative source of functional hepatocytes for cell therapy and disease modeling. Since these cells play an import role in regenerative medicine, the precise characterization that determines specific markers used to isolate these cells as well as whether they contribute to liver regeneration still remain to be shown...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mark P S Dunphy, James J Harding, Sriram Venneti, Hanwen Zhang, Eva M Burnazi, Jacqueline Bromberg, Antonio M Omuro, James J Hsieh, Ingo K Mellinghoff, Kevin Staton, Christina Pressl, Bradley J Beattie, Pat B Zanzonico, John F Gerecitano, David P Kelsen, Wolfgang Weber, Serge K Lyashchenko, Hank F Kung, Jason S Lewis
Purpose To assess the clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and tumor imaging characteristics of fluorine 18-(2S,4R)-4-fluoroglutamine (FGln), a glutamine analog radiologic imaging agent. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and conducted under a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved Investigational New Drug application in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. All patients provided written informed consent...
January 31, 2018: Radiology
B Keimer, S Kröger, I Röhe, R Pieper, A Simon, J Zentek
Two feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrolyzed (HY) or non-hydrolyzed (NHY) yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) in isoenergetic and isonitrogeneous diets in the post-weaning period. In Exp. 1, a total of 550 unsexed pigs (6.5 ± 0.5 kg BW), weaned at 24 ± 2 d of age, were allocated to 5 treatment groups, receiving either a control diet (CON) or diets with 1, 3 and 5 % HY (groups HY1, HY3, HY5, respectively), or a diet with 3% NHY (group NHY3). In Exp. 2, a total of 48 male and female pigs (6...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Audrey Yule Coqueiro, Raquel Raizel, Andrea Bonvini, Thaís Hypólito, Allan da Mata Godois, Jéssica Ramos Rocha Pereira, Amanda Beatriz de Oliveira Garcia, Rafael de Souza Bittencourt Lara, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Julio Tirapegui
Recent evidence suggests that increased brain serotonin synthesis impairs performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise and specific amino acids may modulate this condition, delaying fatigue. This study investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on central fatigue markers in rats submitted to resistance training (RT). Wistar rats were distributed in: sedentary (SED), trained (CON), trained and supplemented with alanine (ALA), glutamine and alanine in their free form (G + A), or as dipeptide (DIP)...
January 25, 2018: Nutrients
Shun-Li Cao, Hong Jiang, Shi-Ping Niu, Xiao-Hu Wang, Shan Du
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of taurine supplementation on growth in low birth weight infants (LBW). METHODS: PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases were searched for published articles through March 2017. Analysis was done to examine the effect of taurine supplementation on growth, and sensitivity analysis was performed by removing each individual study from meta-analysis. RESULTS: Results of 9 trials totaling 216 LBW infants in the present meta-analysis were collected and analyzed...
January 25, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Lucie Lécuyer, Agnès Victor Bala, Mélanie Deschasaux, Nadia Bouchemal, Mohamed Nawfal Triba, Marie-Paule Vasson, Adrien Rossary, Aicha Demidem, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Valentin Partula, Laurence Le Moyec, Bernard Srour, Thibault Fiolet, Paule Latino-Martel, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Philippe Savarin, Mathilde Touvier
Background: Combination of metabolomics and epidemiological approaches opens new perspectives for ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time whether plasma untargeted metabolomic profiles, established from a simple blood draw from healthy women, could contribute to predict the risk of developing breast cancer within the following decade and to better understand the aetiology of this complex disease. Methods: A prospective nested case-control study was set up in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Theresa A Lawrie, John T Green, Mark Beresford, Linda Wedlake, Sorrel Burden, Susan E Davidson, Simon Lal, Caroline C Henson, H Jervoise N Andreyev
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of people survive cancer but a significant proportion have gastrointestinal side effects as a result of radiotherapy (RT), which impairs their quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVES: To determine which prophylactic interventions reduce the incidence, severity or both of adverse gastrointestinal effects among adults receiving radiotherapy to treat primary pelvic cancers. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase in September 2016 and updated them on 2 November 2017...
January 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hui-Ting Lee, Chen-Sung Lin, Siao-Cian Pan, Tsai-Hung Wu, Chyou-Shen Lee, Deh-Ming Chang, Chang-Youh Tsai, Yau-Huei Wei
We evaluated plasma glutamine levels and basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (mOCRB) and basal extracellular acidification rate (ECARB) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Lower plasma glutamine levels correlated with higher SLE disease activity indexes (p=0.025). Incubated in DMEM containing 100mg/dL glucose, SLE-PBMCs displayed lower mOCRB (p=0.018) but similar ECARB (p=0.467) to those of HC-PBMCs, and their mOCRB got elevated (p<0...
January 11, 2018: Mitochondrion
M Bottrel, D Acha, I Ortiz, M Hidalgo, J Gósalvez, J Camisão, J Dorado
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition to semen on post-thaw quality of donkey spermatozoa. Eighteen ejaculates were pooled and divided into aliquots which were cryopreserved in Gent A® containing 1% ethylene glycol (Gent-EG) and supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60 mM of glutamine, proline, or taurine. The greatest concentration (60 mM) of glutamine and taurine resulted in greater (P < 0.001) post-thaw sperm motility. Amino acid supplementation did not improve (P > 0...
December 30, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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