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Glutamine supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529738/therapeutic-benefits-of-glutamine-an-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses
#1
Marc P McRae
Glutamine may be an essential amino acid in patients with catabolic disease, as it has been demonstrated that circulating glutamine levels drop during critical illness and following major surgery; this may result in an increase in secondary infection risk, recovery time and mortality rates. However, there is much discrepancy in the literature with regards to randomized controlled studies, and therefore, the present study is an umbrella review of published meta-analyses, conducted to examine the effectiveness of glutamine's role as a therapeutic agent...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527336/title-potassium-application-regulates-nitrogen-metabolism-and-osmotic-adjustment-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-functional-leaf-under-drought-stress
#2
Rizwan Zahoor, Wenqing Zhao, Muhammad Abid, Haoran Dong, Zhiguo Zhou
To evaluate the role of potassium (K) in maintaining nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment development of cotton functional leaves to sustain growth under soil drought and rewatering conditions, the plants of two cotton cultivars Siza 3 (low-K sensitive) and Simian 3 (low-K tolerant), were grown under three different K rates (K0, K1, and K2; 0, 150, and 300kgK2Oha(-1), respectively) and exposed to drought stress with 40±5% soil relative water content (SRWC). The drought stress was applied at flowering stage by withholding water for eight days followed by rewatering to a well-watered level (75±5% SRWC)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526934/exogenous-proline-stimulates-type-i-collagen-and-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-and-the-process-is-attenuated-by-glutamine-in-human-skin-fibroblasts
#3
Lukasz Szoka, Ewa Karna, Kornelia Hlebowicz-Sarat, Jacek Karaszewski, Jerzy A Palka
Abundance of proline (Pro) in collagen molecule led us to investigate whether Pro supply affects collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts. Treatment of the cells with milimolar concentrations (5 and 10 mM) of Pro for 24 and 48 h contributed to increase in α1 subunit of collagen type I (COL1A1) expression in both cells and culture medium. However, the effect was more pronounced in glutamine-free medium. In such condition, Pro induced collagen expression by about twofold in the cells, while in the medium only by about 30% during 24 h incubation, compared to control...
May 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503899/effects-of-maternal-treatment-with-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-metylbutyrate-and-2-oxoglutaric-acid-on-femur-development-in-offspring-of-minks-of-the-standard-dark-brown-type
#4
E Tomaszewska, P Dobrowolski, I Świetlicka, S Muszyński, K Kostro, A Jakubczak, I Taszkun, A Żmuda, K Rycerz, T Blicharski, J Jaworska-Adamu
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the diet, mother type and sex of the offspring on the mechanical and geometric parameters of long bones as well as bone tissue density in minks. Primiparous and multiparous dams were supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (a metabolite of leucine, at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg of body weight) and/or 2-oxoglutaric acid (a precursor of glutamine, at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg of body weight) during gestation. The diet did not influence bone tissue density and the length of the humerus...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498331/the-roles-of-glutamine-in-the-intestine-and-its-implication-in-intestinal-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Min-Hyun Kim, Hyeyoung Kim
Glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body, is a major substrate utilized by intestinal cells. The roles of glutamine in intestinal physiology and management of multiple intestinal diseases have been reported. In gut physiology, glutamine promotes enterocyte proliferation, regulates tight junction proteins, suppresses pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, and protects cells against apoptosis and cellular stresses during normal and pathologic conditions. As glutamine stores are depleted during severe metabolic stress including trauma, sepsis, and inflammatory bowel diseases, glutamine supplementation has been examined in patients to improve their clinical outcomes...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487688/gamma-glutamylpolyamine-synthetase-glna3-is-involved-in-the-first-step-of-polyamine-degradation-pathway-in-streptomyces-coelicolor-m145
#6
Sergii Krysenko, Nicole Okoniewski, Andreas Kulik, Arne Matthews, Jan Grimpo, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Agnieszka Bera
Streptomyces coelicolor M145 was shown to be able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of polyamines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, or spermine, as a sole nitrogen source. However, hardly anything is known about polyamine utilization and its regulation in streptomycetes. In this study, we demonstrated that only one of the three proteins annotated as glutamine synthetase-like protein, GlnA3 (SCO6962), was involved in the catabolism of polyamines. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of glnA3 was strongly induced by exogenous polyamines and repressed in the presence of ammonium...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486989/postnatal-treatment-using-curcumin-supplements-to-amend-the-damage-in-vpa-induced-rodent-models-of-autism
#7
Maha Al-Askar, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Manar Selim, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Afaf El-Ansary
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is used as a first-line antiepileptic agent and is undergoing clinical trials for use as a treatment for many disorders. Mothers undergoing VPA treatment during early pregnancy reportedly show increased rates of autism among their offspring. The benefits of curcumin supplementation were investigated using an animal model of VPA-induced autism. METHODS: The study was performed using a rodent model of autism by exposing rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12...
May 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484595/fetal-and-neonatal-programming-of-postnatal-growth-and-feed-efficiency-in-swine
#8
REVIEW
Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Xiaolong Wang, Ju Li, Binggen Wang, Guoyao Wu
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460195/chronic-probiotic-supplementation-with-or-without-glutamine-does-not-influence-the-ehsp72-response-to-a-multi-day-ultra-endurance-exercise-event
#9
Hannah Marshall, Bryna Cr Chrismas, Craig A Suckling, Justin D Roberts, Josh Foster, Lee Taylor
Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into three independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO, n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn, n = 10) or no supplementation (CON, n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS)...
May 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458804/nutrition-pharmacological-and-training-strategies-adopted-by-six-bodybuilders-case-report-and-critical-review
#10
Paulo Gentil, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Antonio Paoli, José Alexandre Barbosa Dos Santos, Roberto Deivide Teixeira da Silva, José Romulo Pereira Junior, Edson Pereira da Silva, Rodrigo Ferro Magosso
The purpose of this study was to report and analyze the practices adopted by bodybuilders in light of scientific evidence and to propose evidence-based alternatives. Six (four male and two female) bodybuilders and their coaches were directly interviewed. According to the reports, the quantity of anabolic steroids used by the men was 500-750 mg/week during the bulking phase and 720-1160 mg during the cutting phase. The values for women were 400 and 740 mg, respectively. The participants also used ephedrine and hydrochlorothiazide during the cutting phase...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451684/effects-of-early-enteral-nutrition-supplemented-with-collagen-peptides-on-post-burn-inflammatory-responses-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Qianru Chen, Hu Hou, Shikai Wang, Xue Zhao, Bafang Li
The effect of early enteral nutrition (EN) supplemented with Alaska pollock skin-derived collagen peptides (CPs) on post-burn inflammatory responses was investigated in a mouse model. Male blab/c mice were randomly assigned to four groups: a sham burn (SB) group, a control group (burn + EN + glycine, BE), a positive control group (burn + EN + glutamine, BEG) and a treatment group (burn + EN + CPs, BEC). Burn-induced increases of serum endotoxin level, and systemic and intestinal concentration of TNF-α and IL-6 were attenuated in BEG and BEC at post-burn day (PBD) 1, 3 and 7 (p < 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447460/effects-of-histidine-supplementation-on-global-serum-and-urine-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-and-serum-amino-acid-profiles-in-obese-women-from-a-randomized-controlled-study
#12
Shanshan Du, Shuhong Sun, Liyan Liu, Qiao Zhang, Fuchuan Guo, Chunlong Li, Rennan Feng, Changhao Sun
The aim of current study was to investigate the metabolic changes associated with histidine supplementation in serum and urine metabolic signatures and serum amino acid (AA) profiles. Serum and urine (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and serum AA profiles were employed in 32 and 37 obese women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) intervened with placebo or histidine for 12 weeks. Multivariable statistical analysis were conducted to define characteristic metabolites. In serum (1)H NMR metabolic profiles, increases in histidine, glutamine, aspartate, glycine, choline, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) were observed; meanwhile, decreases in cholesterol, triglycerides, fatty acids and unsaturated lipids, acetone, and α/β-glucose were exhibited after histidine supplement...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447376/reduced-fasting-periods-increase-intestinal-permeability-in-chickens
#13
S Gilani, G S Howarth, C D Tran, R Barekatain, S M Kitessa, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Fasting of up to 24 hr has been shown to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting duration of 4.5 and 9 hr increased IP and whether l-glutamine (a non-essential amino acid) supplementation before fasting provided some protection of barrier function as shown in other species. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 96) were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% glutamine from d0 to d38 post-hatch. On d37, the birds were assigned to single-bird metabolism cages and were fasted for either 0, 4...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446262/dietary-supplementation-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-increases-muscle-net-amino-acid-fluxes-through-elevating-their-substrate-availability-and-intramuscular-catabolism-in-young-pigs
#14
Liufeng Zheng, Fangrui Zuo, Shengjun Zhao, Pingli He, Hongkui Wei, Quanhang Xiang, Jiaman Pang, Jian Peng
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been clearly demonstrated to have anabolic effects on muscle protein synthesis. However, little is known about their roles in the regulation of net AA fluxes across skeletal muscle in vivo. This study was aimed to investigate the effect and related mechanisms of dietary supplementation of BCAA on muscle net amino acid (AA) fluxes using the hindlimb flux model. In all fourteen 4-week-old barrows were fed reduced-protein diets with or without supplemental BCAA for 28 d. Pigs were implanted with carotid arterial, femoral arterial and venous catheters, and fed once hourly with intraarterial infusion of p-amino hippurate...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#15
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421779/oral-glutamine-reduces-myocardial-damage-after-coronary-revascularization-under-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Mariana Chávez-Tostado, Fernando Carrillo-Llamas, Porfirio Eduardo Martínez-Gutiérrez, Araceli Alvarado-Ramírez, Jaime Gilberto López-Taylor, José Clemente Vásquez-Jiménez, Clotilde Fuentes-Orozco, Jorge Rendón-Félix, Leire Irusteta-Jiménez, Vanessa Carolina Calil-Romero, José Antonio Ramírez-Jiménez, Luis Rodrigo Michel-Espinoza, Carmen Karina Contreras-López, Lizbeth Araceli Cuesta-Márquez, Alejandro González-Ojeda
BACKGROUND: Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. It modulates immune cell function and is an important energy substrate for cells in critically ill patients. Reduction of injury cardiac markers had been observed in patients receiving intravenous glutamine and in a pilot study with oral glutamine. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of preoperative oral supplementation of glutamine on postoperative serum levels of cardiac injury markers. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was performed in 28 Mexican patients with ischemic heart disease who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass with extracorporeal circulation...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#17
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386552/l-glutamine-supplementation-alleviates-constipation-during-late-gestation-of-mini-sows-by-modifying-the-microbiota-composition-in-feces
#18
Yuanyuan Zhang, Taofeng Lu, Lingxia Han, Lili Zhao, Yinjie Niu, Hongyan Chen
Constipation occurs frequently in both sows and humans, particularly, during late gestation. The microbial community of the porcine gut, the enteric microbiota, plays a critical role in functions that sustain intestinal health. Hence, microbial regulation during pregnancy may be important to prevent host constipation. The present study was conducted to determine whether L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation improved intestinal function and alleviated constipation by regulation of enteric microbiota. 16S rRNA sequences obtained from fecal samples from 9 constipated sows (3 in the constipation group and 6 in the 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361751/glutamine-dipeptide-supplemented-parenteral-nutrition-improves-the-clinical-outcomes-of-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-evaluation-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#19
Peter Stehle, Björn Ellger, Dubravka Kojic, Astrid Feuersenger, Christina Schneid, John Stover, Daniela Scheiner, Martin Westphal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing whether parenteral nutrition regimens that include glutamine dipeptides improves the outcomes of critically ill patients demonstrated convincingly that this regimen associates with reduced mortality, infections, and hospital stays. However, several new RCTs on the same question challenged this. To resolve this controversy, the present meta-analysis was performed. Stringent eligibility criteria were used to select only those RCTs that tested the outcomes of critically ill adult patients without hepatic and/or renal failure who were haemodynamically and metabolically stabilised and who were administered glutamine dipeptide strictly according to current clinical guidelines (via the parenteral route at 0...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350110/glutamate%C3%A2-mediated-effects-of-caffeine-and-interferon%C3%A2-%C3%AE-on-mercury-induced-toxicity
#20
Ayse Basak Engin, Evren Doruk Engin, Kirill Golokhvast, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis
The molecular mechanisms mediating mercury‑induced neurotoxicity are not yet completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the severity of MeHg‑ and HgCl2‑mediated cytotoxicity to SH‑SY5Y human dopaminergic neurons can be attenuated by regulating glutamate‑mediated signal‑transmission through caffeine and interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ). The SH‑SY5Y cells were exposed to 1, 2 and 5 µM of either MeHgCl2 or HgCl2 in the presence or absence of L‑glutamine. To examine the effect of adenosine receptor antagonist, the cells were treated with 10 and 20 µM caffeine...
May 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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