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Glutamine supplementation

Klaus Kratochwill, Michael Boehm, Rebecca Herzog, Katharina Gruber, Anton Michael Lichtenauer, Lilian Kuster, Dagmar Csaicsich, Andreas Gleiss, Seth L Alper, Christoph Aufricht, Andreas Vychytil
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis and ultrafiltration failure remain serious complications of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Dysfunctional cellular stress responses aggravate peritoneal injury associated with PD fluid exposure, potentially due to peritoneal glutamine depletion. In this randomized cross-over phase I/II trial we investigated cytoprotective effects of alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln) addition to glucose-based PDF. METHODS: In a prospective randomized cross-over design, 20 stable PD outpatients underwent paired peritoneal equilibration tests 4 weeks apart, using conventional acidic, single chamber 3...
2016: PloS One
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Zhixiong Ying, Yueping Chen, Le Zhou, Yue Li, Jingfei Zhang, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may play beneficial roles against intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)-induced hepatic damage in suckling piglets. METHODS: Fourteen IUGR and seven normal birth weight (NBW) neonatal male piglets were selected. Piglets were weaned at 7 days of postnatal age and fed the control formula milk (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON groups) or the control formula milk supplemented with 1...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Marc Feary, Andrew J Racher, Robert J Young, C Mark Smales
In Lonza Biologics' GS Gene Expression System™, recombinant protein-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines are generated by transfection with an expression vector encoding both GS and the protein product genes followed by selection in MSX and glutamine-free medium. MSX is required to inhibit endogenous CHOK1SV GS, and in effect create a glutamine auxotrophy in the host that can be complemented by the expression vector encoded GS in selected cell lines. However, MSX is not a specific inhibitor of GS as it also inhibits the activity of GCL (a key enzyme in the glutathione biosynthesis pathway) to a similar extent...
September 30, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
F-C Tang, C-C Chan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) are both associated with energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of BCAA supplementation on the PNC activity of male athletes in response to a bout of endurance running exercise. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twelve male athletes (20.3±1.4 years) participated in the study. Each of the athletes received 12 g of a BCAA supplement (leucine 54%, isoleucine 19% and valine 27%) per day during the study...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry J Zimmerman, Christopher J L Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster, Robert F Tamburro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pediatric Critical Illness Stress-induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) trial compared the effectiveness of 2 nutraceutical supplementation strategies and found no difference in the development of nosocomial infection and sepsis in the overall population. We performed an exploratory post hoc analysis of interaction between nutraceutical treatments and host immune status related to the development of nosocomial infection/sepsis. METHODS: Children from the CRISIS trial were analyzed according to 3 admission immune status categories marked by decreasing immune competence: immune competent without lymphopenia, immune competent with lymphopenia, and previously immunocompromised...
September 22, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yun Xiao, Lewis A Reis, Nicole Feric, Erica J Knee, Junhao Gu, Shuwen Cao, Carol Laschinger, Camila Londono, Julia Antolovich, Alison P McGuigan, Milica Radisic
There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic wounds in diabetic patients. Lack of epithelial cell migration is a hallmark of nonhealing wounds, and diabetes often involves endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, targeting re-epithelialization, which mainly involves keratinocytes, may improve therapeutic outcomes of current treatments. In this study, we present an integrin-binding prosurvival peptide derived from angiopoietin-1, QHREDGS (glutamine-histidine-arginine-glutamic acid-aspartic acid-glycine-serine), as a therapeutic candidate for diabetic wound treatments by demonstrating its efficacy in promoting the attachment, survival, and collective migration of human primary keratinocytes and the activation of protein kinase B Akt and MAPKp42/44 The QHREDGS peptide, both as a soluble supplement and when immobilized in a substrate, protected keratinocytes against hydrogen peroxide stress in a dose-dependent manner...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Madhulika Singh, Vijay Pratap Singh, Sheo Mohan Prasad
In the present study, effect of different levels of nitrogen (N0, deprived; N25, sub-optimum; N75, optimum and N150, supra-optimum) in Solanum lycopersicum L. seedlings under NaCl (NaCl1, 0.3 g kg(-1) sand and NaCl2, 0.5 g kg(-1)sand) stress was investigated. Biomass accumulation, pigments, K(+) concentration, nitrate and nitrite contents were declined by NaCl in dose dependent manner. As compared to control (N75 without NaCl), fresh weight declined by 4% and 11%, and dry weight by 7 and 13% when seedlings were grown under N75+NaCl1 and N75+NaCl2 combinations, respectively...
August 31, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Geraldo E Vicentini, Luciane Fracaro, Sara R G de Souza, Heber A Martins, Flávia A Guarnier, Jacqueline N Zanoni
Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs in cancer cachexia and may result from damage to enteric innervation caused by oxidative stress, especially due to glutathione depletion. We assessed the effect of dietary supplementation with 20 g/kg l-glutamine (a glutathione precursor) on the intrinsic innervation of the enteric nervous system in healthy and Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats during the development of experimental cachexia (14 days), in comparison with non-supplemented rats, by using immunohistochemical methods and Western blotting...
2016: PloS One
Daihachiro Tomotsune, Kanji Hirashima, Masako Fujii, Fengming Yue, Ken Matsumoto, Sakiko Takizawa-Shirasawa, Tadayuki Yokoyama, Katsunori Sasaki
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are potential resources for the regeneration of defective organs, including the liver. However, some obstacles must be overcome before this becomes reality. Undifferentiated cells that remain following differentiation have teratoma-forming potential. Additionally, practical applications require a large quantity of differentiated cells, so the differentiation process must be economical. Here we describe a DNA microarray-based global analysis of the gene expression profiles of differentiating human pluripotent stem cells...
2016: PloS One
Takushi Hachiya, Nanae Ueda, Munenori Kitagawa, Guy Hanke, Akira Suzuki, Toshiharu Hase, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Ferredoxin : NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) plays a key role in redox metabolism in plastids. Whereas leaf FNR (LFNR) is required for photosynthesis, root FNR (RFNR) is believed to provide electrons to ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent enzymes, including nitrite reductase (NiR) and Fd-glutamine-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) in non-photosynthetic conditions. In some herbal species, however, most nitrate reductase activity is located in photosynthetic organs, and ammonium in roots is assimilated mainly by Fd-independent NADH-GOGAT...
September 11, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jun Fan, Jing Wu, Li-Dong Wu, Guo-Ping Li, Meng Xiong, Xi Chen, Qing-Yan Meng
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of parenteral glutamine(GLN) supplementation combined with enteral nutrition (EN) on heat shock protein 90(Hsp90) expression, apoptosis of lymphoid organs and circulating lymphocytes, immunological function and survival in severely burned rats. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: a sham burn+EN+GLN-free amino acid (AA) group (n=10), a sham burn+EN+GLN group (n=10), a burn+EN+AA group (n=10), and a burn +EN +GLN group (n=10)...
November 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
I Zulkifli, M Shakeri, A F Soleimani
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary glutamine (Gln) + glutamic acid (Glu) supplementation on growth performance and physiological stress response in broiler chickens subjected to 24 h delay in placement. Equal number of day-old broiler chicks were assigned to either immediate placement or with 24 h delay in placement with no access to feed and water. Chicks from each placement group were fed either standard starter diet (control) or standard starter diet +1% AminoGut (AG; mixture of 10% Gln and 10% Glu) from 1 to 21 d...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Keiko Kanamori
In vivo (15)N MRS has made a unique contribution to kinetic studies of the individual pathways that control glutamate flux in the rat brain. This review covers the following topics: (1) the advantages and limitations of in vivo (15)N MRS and its indirect detection through coupled (1)H; (2) kinetic methods; (3) major findings from our and other laboratories in the areas: (a) the uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the extracellular fluid into glia; (b) the metabolism of glutamate to glutamine; (c) glutamine transport to the extracellular fluid; (d) hydrolysis of neuronal glutamine to glutamate; and (e) contribution of transamination from leucine to replenish the glutamate nitrogen...
August 28, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Victoria Castro-Gutiérrez, Gabriel Rada
There is no consensus about the effects of glutamine supplementation for acute pancreatitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 15 systematic reviews including 31 randomized controlled trials addressing the question of this article. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded glutamine supplementation might decrease infectious complications in acute pancreatitis, but it is not clear if it affects mortality or length of hospital stay because the certainty of the evidence is very low...
2016: Medwave
Prakasha Kempaiah, Karol Dokladny, Zachary Karim, Evans Raballah, John M Ong'echa, Pope L Moseley, Douglas J Perkins
Severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) <5.0 g/dL] is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality among children residing in Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions. Exploration of molecular pathways through global gene expression profiling revealed that SMA was characterized by decreased HSPA1A, a heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 coding gene. Hsp70 is a ubiquitous chaperone that regulates Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines known to be important in malaria pathogenesis (e...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Shunsuke Miyauchi, Tsutomu Yonetani, Takayuki Yuki, Ayako Tomio, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki
For an experimental model to elucidate the relationship between light quality during plant culture conditions and plant quality of crops or vegetables, we cultured tea plants (Camellia sinensis) and analyzed their leaves as tea material. First, metabolic profiling of teas from a tea contest in Japan was performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and then a ranking predictive model was made which predicted tea rankings from their metabolite profile. Additionally, the importance of some compounds (glutamine, glutamic acid, oxalic acid, epigallocatechin, phosphoric acid, and inositol) was elucidated for measurement of the quality of tea leaf...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Huansheng Yang, Xiaocheng Wang, Xia Xiong, Yulong Yin
Intestinal epithelial cells continuously migrate and mature along crypt-villus axis (CVA), while the changes in energy metabolism during maturation are unclear in neonates. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells would be changed during maturation along CVA in neonates. Eight 21-day-old suckling piglets were used. Intestinal epithelial cells were isolated sequentially along CVA, and proteomics was used to analyze the changes in proteins expression in epithelial cells along CVA...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ibtissem Ghouzali, Caroline Lemaitre, Wafa Bahlouli, Saïda Azhar, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Mathieu Meleine, Philippe Ducrotté, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
BACKGROUND: Intestinal hyperpermeability has been reported in several intestinal and non-intestinal disorders. We aimed to investigate the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in gut barrier regulation in two mice models: the water avoidance stress model (WAS) and a post-inflammatory model (post-TNBS). METHODS: Both models were applied in C57BL/6 male mice (n=7-8/group); Proteasome was targeted by injection of a selective proteasome inhibitor or by using knock-out mice for β2i proteasome subunit...
August 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alexander J Lakhter, James Hamilton, Raymond L Konger, Nickolay Brustovetsky, Hal E Broxmeyer, Samisubbu R Naidu
Tumors rely on multiple nutrients to meet cellular bioenergetics and macromolecular synthesis demands of rapidly dividing cells. Although the role of glucose and glutamine in cancer metabolism is well understood, the relative contribution of acetate metabolism remains to be clarified. We show that glutamine supplementation is not sufficient to prevent loss of cell viability in a subset of glucose-deprived melanoma cells, but synergizes with acetate to support cell survival. Glucose-deprived melanoma cells depend on both oxidative phosphorylation and acetate metabolism for cell survival...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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