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Glutamine supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#1
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421779/oral-glutamine-reduces-myocardial-damage-after-coronary-revascularization-under-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Mariana Chávez-Tostado, Fernando Carrillo-Llamas, Porfirio Eduardo Martínez-Gutiérrez, Araceli Alvarado-Ramírez, Jaime Gilberto López-Taylor, José Clemente Vásquez-Jiménez, Clotilde Fuentes-Orozco, Jorge Rendón-Félix, Leire Irusteta-Jiménez, Vanessa Carolina Calil-Romero, José Antonio Ramírez-Jiménez, Luis Rodrigo Michel-Espinoza, Carmen Karina Contreras-López, Lizbeth Araceli Cuesta-Márquez, Alejandro González-Ojeda
BACKGROUND: Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. It modulates immune cell function and is an important energy substrate for cells in critically ill patients. Reduction of injury cardiac markers had been observed in patients receiving intravenous glutamine and in a pilot study with oral glutamine. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of preoperative oral supplementation of glutamine on postoperative serum levels of cardiac injury markers. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was performed in 28 Mexican patients with ischemic heart disease who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass with extracorporeal circulation...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#3
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386552/l-glutamine-supplementation-alleviates-constipation-during-late-gestation-of-mini-sows-by-modifying-the-microbiota-composition-in-feces
#4
Yuanyuan Zhang, Taofeng Lu, Lingxia Han, Lili Zhao, Yinjie Niu, Hongyan Chen
Constipation occurs frequently in both sows and humans, particularly, during late gestation. The microbial community of the porcine gut, the enteric microbiota, plays a critical role in functions that sustain intestinal health. Hence, microbial regulation during pregnancy may be important to prevent host constipation. The present study was conducted to determine whether L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation improved intestinal function and alleviated constipation by regulation of enteric microbiota. 16S rRNA sequences obtained from fecal samples from 9 constipated sows (3 in the constipation group and 6 in the 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361751/glutamine-dipeptide-supplemented-parenteral-nutrition-improves-the-clinical-outcomes-of-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-evaluation-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#5
Peter Stehle, Björn Ellger, Dubravka Kojic, Astrid Feuersenger, Christina Schneid, John Stover, Daniela Scheiner, Martin Westphal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing whether parenteral nutrition regimens that include glutamine dipeptides improves the outcomes of critically ill patients demonstrated convincingly that this regimen associates with reduced mortality, infections, and hospital stays. However, several new RCTs on the same question challenged this. To resolve this controversy, the present meta-analysis was performed. Stringent eligibility criteria were used to select only those RCTs that tested the outcomes of critically ill adult patients without hepatic and/or renal failure who were haemodynamically and metabolically stabilised and who were administered glutamine dipeptide strictly according to current clinical guidelines (via the parenteral route at 0...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350110/glutamate%C3%A2-mediated-effects-of-caffeine-and-interferon%C3%A2-%C3%AE-on-mercury-induced-toxicity
#6
Ayse Basak Engin, Evren Doruk Engin, Kirill Golokhvast, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis
The molecular mechanisms mediating mercury‑induced neurotoxicity are not yet completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the severity of MeHg‑ and HgCl2‑mediated cytotoxicity to SH‑SY5Y human dopaminergic neurons can be attenuated by regulating glutamate‑mediated signal‑transmission through caffeine and interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ). The SH‑SY5Y cells were exposed to 1, 2 and 5 µM of either MeHgCl2 or HgCl2 in the presence or absence of L‑glutamine. To examine the effect of adenosine receptor antagonist, the cells were treated with 10 and 20 µM caffeine...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345452/l-glutamine-supplementation-promotes-an-improved-energetic-balance-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#7
Heber Amilcar Martins, Roberto Barbosa Bazotte, Geraldo Emilio Vicentini, Mariana Machado Lima, Flavia Alessandra Guarnier, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Flavia Cristina Vieira Frez, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Luciane Fracaro, Larissa Dos Santos Fávaro, Mariana Inocêncio Manzano, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni
We evaluated the effects of supplementation with oral l-glutamine in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. A total of 32 male Wistar rats aged 54 days were randomly divided into four groups: rats without Walker-256 tumor, that is, control rats (C group); control rats supplemented with l-glutamine (CG group); Walker-256 tumor rats without l-glutamine supplementation (WT group); and WT rats supplemented with l-glutamine (WTG group). l-Glutamine was incorporated into standard food at a proportion of 2 g/100 g (2%). After 10 days of the experimental period, the jejunum and duodenum were removed and processed...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343468/glutamine-protects-rabbit-spermatozoa-against-oxidative-stress-via-glutathione-synthesis-during-cryopreservation
#8
Zhendong Zhu, Xiaoteng Fan, Yinghua Lv, Yan Lin, De Wu, Wenxian Zeng
Mammalian spermatozoa are extremely susceptible to high doses of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of glutamine in protecting rabbit spermatozoa against ROS stress during cryopreservation and post-thaw incubation. Freshly ejaculated semen was diluted with Tris-citrate-glucose extender supplemented with glutamine. The addition of 20mM glutamine significantly improved sperm motility, acrosome integrity, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity...
March 27, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316020/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-boosts-mitochondrial-and-neuronal-metabolism-but-is-not-preferred-over-glucose-under-activated-conditions
#9
Lavanya B Achanta, Benjamin D Rowlands, Donald S Thomas, Gary D Housley, Caroline D Rae
The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U-(13)C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1-(13)C]D-glucose under conditions of normo- and hypoglycaemia, as well as under high potassium (40 mmol/L K(+)) depolarization in normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. The contribution of βOHB to synthesis of GABA was also probed by inhibiting the synthesis of glutamine, a GABA precursor, with methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302378/hypothermic-storage-of-isolated-spermatogonia-and-oogonia-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Bahram Falahatkar, Samaneh Poursaeid, Ryota Kitada, Goro Yoshizaki
A growing number of fish species are endangered due to human activities. A short- or long-time preservation of gametes could conserve genetic resources of threatened fish species. The aim of this study was to evaluate a hypothermic condition for short-term preservation of spermatogonia and oogonia cells isolated from immature transgenic rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and to determine the maximum time point for further transplantation. Viability rate of germ cells was investigated after isolation and during storage at 4 °C up to 24 h...
March 13, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#11
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272402/influence-of-enteral-glutamine-on-inflammatory-and-hormonal-response-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-during-preoperative-radiochemotherapy
#12
N Rotovnik Kozjek, L Kompan, T Žagar, Ž Mrevlje
We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the influence of 5 weeks' duration of 30 g enteral glutamine supplementation on inflammatory and hormonal responses in 73 patients with rectal cancer undergoing preoperative radiochemotherapy. Plasma levels of inflammatory and hormonal parameters were controlled at the beginning and at the end of supplementation. Enteral glutamine resulted in modulation of inflammatory and hormonal responses as shown by a decreased plasma interleukin 6 and cortisol levels in glutamine compared with placebo group: 5...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251112/in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-ethanolic-extracts-of-piper-nigrum-against-colorectal-carcinoma-cell-lines
#13
Akila Prashant, Chandini Rangaswamy, Anshu Kumar Yadav, Varun Reddy, M N Sowmya, Subbarao Madhunapantula
BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum (PN) is well known for its cytotoxic and pharmacological benefits. However, there is minimal documented evidence about its cytotoxic efficacy against colorectal carcinoma. We therefore sought to procure a precisely quantitative and qualitative result, pertaining the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of PN (EEPN) against colorectal carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EEPN was prepared by subjecting dried PN seeds to gradient ethanol fractionation...
January 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191319/discrimination-of-enantiomers-of-dipeptide-derivatives-with-two-chiral-centers-by-tetraaza-macrocyclic-chiral-solvating-agents-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#14
Lixia Fang, Caixia Lv, Guo Wang, Lei Feng, Pericles Stavropoulos, Guangpeng Gao, Lin Ai, Jiaxin Zhang
(1)H NMR spectroscopy is often used to discriminate enantiomers of chiral analytes and determine their enantiomeric excess (ee) by various chiral auxiliaries. In reported research, these studies were mainly focused on chiral discriminantion of chiral analytes with only one chiral center. However, many chiral compounds possessing two or more chiral centers are often found in natural products, chiral drugs, products of asymmetric synthesis and biological systems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate their chiral discrimination by effective chiral auxiliaries using (1)H NMR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2016: Organic Chemistry Frontiers: An International Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179423/xanthine-dehydrogenase-1-silencing-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-promotes-a-blood-feeding-induced-adulticidal-activity
#15
Jun Isoe, Natthida Petchampai, Yurika E Isoe, Katrina Co, Stacy Mazzalupo, Patricia Y Scaraffia
Aedesaegypti has 2 genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). We analyzed XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR in tissues from sugar- and blood-fed females. Differential XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression was observed in tissues dissected throughout a time course. We next exposed females to blood meals supplemented with allopurinol, a well-characterized XDH inhibitor. We also tested the effects of injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against XDH1, XDH2, or both. Disruption of XDH by allopurinol or XDH1 by RNA interference significantly affected mosquito survival, causing a disruption in blood digestion, excretion, oviposition, and reproduction...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157652/neuroprotective-effect-of-chrysin-on-hyperammonemia-mediated-neuroinflammatory-responses-and-altered-expression-of-astrocytic-protein-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Renuka Mani, Vijayakumar Natesan, Ramakrishnan Arumugam
Neuroinflammation is an innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) against metabolic and pathogenic toxic wastes. The main hypothesis implies that a state of hyperammonemia which is accountable for both direct and indirect modification in ammonia metabolism with an elevated production of inflammatory cytokines. This study was constructed to explore the modulating effect of chrysin on rudimentary pathophysiologic mechanisms of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) mediated neuroinflammation in the experimental hyperammonemic rats...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124206/effect-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-and-glycine-supplementation-on-growth-performance-glutathione-synthesis-and-antioxidative-ability-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#17
Shiwei Xie, Lixia Tian, Jin Niu, Guiying Liang, Yongjian Liu
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and antioxidative ability of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Four practical diets were formulated: control, control + 0.2% NAC, control + 0.5% glycine, and control + 0.2% NAC + 0.5% glycine. Each diet was randomly assigned to quadruplicate groups of 30 fish (approximately 8.8 g). Weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased with the supplementation of NAC...
January 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118364/physical-and-flavor-characteristics-fatty-acid-profile-antioxidant-status-and-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-enzyme-gene-expression-changes-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-fillets-fed-dietary-valine
#18
Jian-Bo Luo, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105083/effects-of-glutamine-on-markers-of-intestinal-inflammatory-response-and-mucosal-permeability-in-abdominal-surgery-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
Xiao-Liang Shu, Ting-Ting Yu, Kai Kang, Jian Zhao
The present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether supplementation with glutamine (Gln) would reduce the intestinal inflammatory response and mucosal permeability in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials on the effects of supplementation with Gln, and published from August, 1966 to June 2014. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis were: i) Study design was a randomized controlled trial, ii) study included patients undergoing abdominal surgery, iii) study patients received a supplementation with Gln peptide (Ala-Gln or Gly-Gln) whereas control patients did not use any supplements, and iv) study outcomes included inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-2 receptor] and markers of intestinal permeability [lactulose/mannitol, diamine oxidase, D(-)lactic acid, and endotoxin]...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079708/parenteral-nutrition-in-the-critically-ill
#20
Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Feeding guidelines have recommended early, full nutritional support in critically ill patients to prevent hypercatabolism and muscle weakness. Early enteral nutrition was suggested to be superior to early parenteral nutrition. When enteral nutrition fails to meet nutritional target, it was recommended to administer supplemental parenteral nutrition, albeit with a varying starting point. Sufficient amounts of amino acids were recommended, with addition of glutamine in subgroups...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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