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Glutamine supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191319/discrimination-of-enantiomers-of-dipeptide-derivatives-with-two-chiral-centers-by-tetraaza-macrocyclic-chiral-solvating-agents-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#1
Lixia Fang, Caixia Lv, Guo Wang, Lei Feng, Pericles Stavropoulos, Guangpeng Gao, Lin Ai, Jiaxin Zhang
(1)H NMR spectroscopy is often used to discriminate enantiomers of chiral analytes and determine their enantiomeric excess (ee) by various chiral auxiliaries. In reported research, these studies were mainly focused on chiral discriminantion of chiral analytes with only one chiral center. However, many chiral compounds possessing two or more chiral centers are often found in natural products, chiral drugs, products of asymmetric synthesis and biological systems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate their chiral discrimination by effective chiral auxiliaries using (1)H NMR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2016: Organic Chemistry Frontiers: An International Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179423/xanthine-dehydrogenase-1-silencing-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-promotes-a-blood-feeding-induced-adulticidal-activity
#2
Jun Isoe, Natthida Petchampai, Yurika E Isoe, Katrina Co, Stacy Mazzalupo, Patricia Y Scaraffia
Aedesaegypti has 2 genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). We analyzed XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR in tissues from sugar- and blood-fed females. Differential XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression was observed in tissues dissected throughout a time course. We next exposed females to blood meals supplemented with allopurinol, a well-characterized XDH inhibitor. We also tested the effects of injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against XDH1, XDH2, or both. Disruption of XDH by allopurinol or XDH1 by RNA interference significantly affected mosquito survival, causing a disruption in blood digestion, excretion, oviposition, and reproduction...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157652/neuroprotective-effect-of-chrysin-on-hyperammonemia-mediated-neuroinflammatory-responses-and-altered-expression-of-astrocytic-protein-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Renuka Mani, Vijayakumar Natesan, Ramakrishnan Arumugam
Neuroinflammation is an innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) against metabolic and pathogenic toxic wastes. The main hypothesis implies that a state of hyperammonemia which is accountable for both direct and indirect modification in ammonia metabolism with an elevated production of inflammatory cytokines. This study was constructed to explore the modulating effect of chrysin on rudimentary pathophysiologic mechanisms of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) mediated neuroinflammation in the experimental hyperammonemic rats...
January 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124206/effect-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-and-glycine-supplementation-on-growth-performance-glutathione-synthesis-and-antioxidative-ability-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#4
Shiwei Xie, Lixia Tian, Jin Niu, Guiying Liang, Yongjian Liu
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and antioxidative ability of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Four practical diets were formulated: control, control + 0.2% NAC, control + 0.5% glycine, and control + 0.2% NAC + 0.5% glycine. Each diet was randomly assigned to quadruplicate groups of 30 fish (approximately 8.8 g). Weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased with the supplementation of NAC...
January 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118364/physical-and-flavor-characteristics-fatty-acid-profile-antioxidant-status-and-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-enzyme-gene-expression-changes-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-fillets-fed-dietary-valine
#5
Jian-Bo Luo, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105083/effects-of-glutamine-on-markers-of-intestinal-inflammatory-response-and-mucosal-permeability-in-abdominal-surgery-patients-a-meta-analysis
#6
Xiao-Liang Shu, Ting-Ting Yu, Kai Kang, Jian Zhao
The present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether supplementation with glutamine (Gln) would reduce the intestinal inflammatory response and mucosal permeability in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials on the effects of supplementation with Gln, and published from August, 1966 to June 2014. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis were: i) Study design was a randomized controlled trial, ii) study included patients undergoing abdominal surgery, iii) study patients received a supplementation with Gln peptide (Ala-Gln or Gly-Gln) whereas control patients did not use any supplements, and iv) study outcomes included inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-2 receptor] and markers of intestinal permeability [lactulose/mannitol, diamine oxidase, D(-)lactic acid, and endotoxin]...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079708/parenteral-nutrition-in-the-critically-ill
#7
Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Feeding guidelines have recommended early, full nutritional support in critically ill patients to prevent hypercatabolism and muscle weakness. Early enteral nutrition was suggested to be superior to early parenteral nutrition. When enteral nutrition fails to meet nutritional target, it was recommended to administer supplemental parenteral nutrition, albeit with a varying starting point. Sufficient amounts of amino acids were recommended, with addition of glutamine in subgroups...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077733/identification-of-potential-plasma-biomarkers-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-integrating-transcriptomics-and-proteomics-in-laying-hens
#8
Meng-Tsz Tsai, Yu-Jen Chen, Ching-Yi Chen, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Chia-Li Han, Yu-Ju Chen, Harry J Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Prevalent worldwide obesity is associated with increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers for NAFLD is of recent interest. Because primary de novo lipogenesis occurs in chicken liver as in human liver, adult chickens with age-associated steatosis resembling human NAFLD is an appealing animal model. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to screen potential biomarkers in the chicken model for NAFLD by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076832/dietary-supplementation-of-grape-seed-and-skin-flour-mitigates-brain-oxidative-damage-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-rat-gender-dependency
#9
Kamel Charradi, Mohamed Mahmoudi, Takwa Bedhiafi, Safwen Kadri, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
It is unknown whether gender has an impact on brain injury in obesity, and, if so, whether treatment with grape seed and skin flour could exert a protective effect. Both male and female rats were fed a standard diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) during eight weeks and treated with high dosage grape seed and skin flour (GSSF). Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated into the brain with a special emphasis on transition metals determination. HFD induced male-cholesterol overload (+78.12%) and an oxidative stress status characterized by increased lipoperoxidation (+68...
January 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063503/does-oral-glutamine-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#10
Lournaris Torres-Santiago, Nelly Mauras, Jobayer Hossain, Arthur L Weltman, Dominique Darmaun
OBJECTIVE: The decline in insulin sensitivity (SI) associated with puberty increases the difficulty of achieving glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamine supplementation affects blood glucose by enhancing SI in adolescents with T1D. METHODS: Thirteen adolescents with T1D (HbA1C 8.2 ± 0.1%) were admitted to perform afternoon exercise (four 15-min treadmill/5-min rest cycles of exercise) on two occasions within a 4-wk period...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052337/change-of-the-metabolomic-profile-during-short-term-mononuclear-cell-storage
#11
P A Steininger, E F Strasser, B Ziehe, R Eckstein, M Rauh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Short-term storage of leukapheresis products used for immunotherapeutic mononuclear cell (MNC) products is a frequent event. The analysis of time-related metabolic patterns enables the characterization of storage-related effects in MNCs and the hypothesis-based optimization of the MNC medium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MNC products from seven leukapheresis procedures were stored within a closed bag system for 48 h. Concentrations of amino acids, biogenic amines, phospho- and sphingolipids and hexoses in the medium were measured by targeted metabolomics...
January 4, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043362/rutin-can-replace-the-use-of-three-other-antioxidants-in-the-culture-medium-maintaining-the-viability-of-sheep-isolated-secondary-follicles
#12
T L B G Lins, A Y P Cavalcante, J M S Santos, V G Menezes, V R P Barros, R S Barberino, M É S Bezerra, T J S Macedo, M H T Matos
The present study evaluated the effect of addition of rutin alone or combined with other antioxidants (transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid) present in the culture medium on the in vitro development of ovine isolated secondary follicles. After collection of the sheep ovaries, secondary follicles (200-230 μm) were isolated and cultured for 12 days in α-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with BSA, insulin, glutamine and hypoxanthine (α-MEM: antioxidant free-medium) or in this medium also added by transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid (AO: base medium with antioxidants)...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000843/wheat-bran-autolytic-peptides-containing-a-branched-chain-amino-acid-attenuate-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-via-the-suppression-of-oxidative-stress-and-the-upregulation-of-ampk-acc-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#13
Takumi Kawaguchi, Takato Ueno, Yoichi Nogata, Masako Hayakawa, Hironori Koga, Takuji Torimura
Whole-wheat intake is known to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the active component remains unclear. Recently, we identified bioactive peptides [leucine-arginine-proline (LRP) and leucine-glutamine‑proline (LQP)] from wheat bran autolytic hydrolysate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of LRP and LQP on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a mouse model. We also evaluated the effects of these peptides on oxidative stress and on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, two major pathogenic factors of NASH...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000678/the-effects-of-prebiotics-on-microbial-dysbiosis-butyrate-production-and-immunity-in-hiv-infected-subjects
#14
S Serrano-Villar, J F Vázquez-Castellanos, A Vallejo, A Latorre, T Sainz, S Ferrando-Martínez, D Rojo, J Martínez-Botas, J Del Romero, N Madrid, M Leal, J I Mosele, M J Motilva, C Barbas, M Ferrer, A Moya, S Moreno, M J Gosalbes, V Estrada
Altered interactions between the gut mucosa and bacteria during HIV infection seem to contribute to chronic immune dysfunction. A deeper understanding of how nutritional interventions could ameliorate gut dysbiosis is needed. Forty-four subjects, including 12 HIV(+) viremic untreated (VU) patients, 23 antiretroviral therapy-treated (ART(+)) virally suppressed patients (15 immunological responders and 8 non-responders) and 9 HIV(-) controls (HIV(-)), were blindly randomized to receive either prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS/glutamine) or placebo (34/10) over 6 weeks in this pilot study...
December 21, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989504/morin-and-esculetin-supplementation-modulates-c-myc-induced-energy-metabolism-and-attenuates-neoplastic-changes-in-rats-challenged-with-the-procarcinogen-1-2-dimethylhydrazine
#15
Sharada H Sharma, Senthilkumar Thulasingam, David Raj Chellappan, Prabu Chinnaswamy, Sangeetha Nagarajan
Targeting tumor metabolism by natural products is a novel approach and provides rationale for anti-cancer drug discovery. The present study aims to explore the impact of morin and/or esculetin on c-myc induced energy metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer in rats. In order to achieve this aim we analyzed the expression of glucose and glutamine transporters and the key enzymes of glycolytic pathway besides the markers of neoplastic changes viz., mucin depleted foci (MDF), beta catenin accumulated crypts (BCAC), and markers of cell proliferation viz...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897391/a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-vitamins-minerals-proteins-and-other-supplements-for-the-treatment-of-cachexia-in-cancer-a-european-palliative-care-research-centre-cachexia-project
#16
REVIEW
Mochamat, Henning Cuhls, Milka Marinova, Stein Kaasa, Christiane Stieber, Rupert Conrad, Lukas Radbruch, Martin Mücke
We provide a systematic review to support the European Palliative Care Research Collaboration development of clinical guidelines for cancer patients suffering from cachexia. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals have been searched up until 15 April 2016. The systematic literature research yielded 4214 publications with 21 of these included in the final evaluation. Regarding minerals, our search identified only one study examining the use of magnesium with no effect on weight loss...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865159/dietary-glutamine-supplementation-enhances-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mobilization-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-subjected-to-limb-ischemia
#17
Shiau-Tsz Su, Chiu-Li Yeh, Yu-Chen Hou, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with increased risk of vascular diseases. Tissue ischemia may occur with diabetic vascular complications. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute a reparative response to ischemic injury. This study investigated the effects of oral glutamine (GLN) supplementation on circulating EPC mobilization and expression of tissue EPC-releasing markers in diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia. Diabetes was induced by a daily intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin for 5 days...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857647/nutrition-chez-le-br%C3%A3-l%C3%A3
#18
G Perro
Nutrition is a challenge for burn patients. Emphasized points are early enteral amounts by means of a naso-gastric tube, semi-recumbent position > 30°, gastro-intestinal survey improved by kinetics, weight evolution, nutritional amounts assessment to prevent proteino-energetic deficiency. Feeding is difficult with children, as with seniors often associating a preexisting starvation. Nutritional supplements are useful in medium severity patients. For overweight patients, hypo caloric and hyperprotidic diet is the better choice...
March 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854330/enhanced-production-of-anthraquinones-and-phenolic-compounds-and-biological-activities-in-the-cell-suspension-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#19
Muthu Thiruvengadam, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Taek-Jun Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ill-Min Chung
Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836465/naringin-regulates-glutamate-nitric-oxide-cgmp-pathway-in-ammonium-chloride-induced-neurotoxicity
#20
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar, Mani Renuka
Naringin, plant bioflavonoid extracted mainly from grapefruit and other related citrus species. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitonial injection (i.p) of NH4Cl (100mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Hyperammonemic rats were treated with naringin (80mg/kg b.w.) via oral gavage. Naringin administration drastically restored the levels of blood ammonia, plasma urea, nitric oxide (NO), glutamate, glutamine, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, activities of liver marker enzymes, antioxidant status and sodium/potassium-ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase)...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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