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Amino acid supplementation

Sheng-Chun Yu, Alexander Dawson, Alyssa C Henderson, Eloise J Lockyer, Emily Read, Gayathri Sritharan, Marjah Ryan, Mara Sgroi, Pok M Ngou, Rosie Woodruff, Ruifeng Zhang, Travis Ren Teen Chia, Yu Liu, Yiyu Xiang, Pietro D Spanu
Efficiency of yeast transformation is determined by the rate of yeast endocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of introducing amino acids and other nutrients (inositol, adenine, or p-aminobenzoic acid) in the transformation medium to develop a highly efficient yeast transformation protocol. The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) kinase signalling complex influences the rate of yeast endocytosis. TORC signaling is induced by amino acids in the media. Here, we found that increasing the concentration of amino acids and other nutrients in the growth media lead to an increase yeast transformation efficiency up to 10(7) CFU per μg plasmid DNA and per 10(8) cells with a 13...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mengjing Wang, Jason Chou, Yongen Chang, Wei L Lau, Uttam Reddy, Connie M Rhee, Jing Chen, Chuanming Hao, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
In the management of patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a low-protein diet usually refers to a diet with protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day) and should include at least 50% high-biologic-value protein. It may be supplemented with essential acids or nitrogen- free ketoanalogues if <0.6 g/kg/d. Low-protein diet can reduce proteinuria especially in non-diabetic CKD patients. In hypoalbuminemic patients it may lead to an increase in serum albumin level...
October 19, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Antonino Baez, Joseph Shiloach
The damaging effect of high oxygen concentration on growth of Escherichia coli is well established. Over-oxygenation increases the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing the destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of dehydratases and limiting the biosynthesis of both branched-chain amino acids and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A key enzyme that reduces the damaging effect of superoxide is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Its transcriptional regulation is controlled by global transcription regulators that respond to changes in oxygen and iron concentrations and pH...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ji-Young Choi, Ye Jin Kim, Ri Ryu, Su-Jung Cho, Eun-Young Kwon, Myung-Sook Choi
Green tea (GT) has various health effects, including anti-obesity properties. However, the multiple molecular mechanisms of the effects have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of GT via the analysis of its metabolic and transcriptional responses based on RNA-seq profiles. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal, high-fat (60% energy as fat), or high-fat + 0.25% (w/w) GT diet for 12 weeks. The GT extract ameliorated obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Bin Wang, Qianqian Sun, Yingsha Li, Peng Li, Weijie Xia, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to improve metabolic status in animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human, especially in prehypertensive participants. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on metabolic parameters, such as blood pressure (BP) levels, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle brachial index (ABI)/toe brachial index (TBI), BMI and biochemical parameters in prehypertensive participants...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lucia Mastrototaro, Gerhard Sponder, Behnam Saremi, Jörg R Aschenbach
Methionine (Met) is a neutral, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid with biological functions in the initiation and prolongation step of protein synthesis, transmethylation reactions, the synthesis of cysteine and cystine, and as a component of antioxidant systems. Its key importance is reflected by the fact that it is usually absorbed from the diet with highest efficiency among all proteinogenic amino acids but may yet not optimally support metabolism and health. As such, crystalline Met supplements are partly used in man and heavily used in production of animal species (poultry, fish, shrimps, pigs and cattle) to provide improved health and performance...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
Roger A Sunde, Kevin M Thompson, Kevin L Fritsche, Jacqueline K Evenson
Second-generation selenium-deficient weanling rats fed graded levels of dietary Se were used (a) to study the impact of initial Se deficiency on dietary Se requirements; (b) to determine if further decreases in selenoperoxidase expression, especially glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), affect growth or gross disease; and (c) to examine the impact of vitamin E deficiency on biochemical and molecular biomarkers of Se status. Rats were fed a vitamin E-deficient and Se-deficient crystalline amino acid diet (3 ng Se/g diet) or that diet supplemented with 100 μg/g all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate and/or 0, 0...
October 17, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
W Kyle Mitchell, Bethan E Phillips, Daniel J Wilkinson, John P Williams, Debbie Rankin, Jonathan N Lund, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Postprandial limb blood flow and skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion reduce with aging. Here we tested the impact of providing bolus essential amino acids (EAA) in the presence and absence of the nitric oxide precursor, l-Arginine (ARG), upon skeletal muscle blood flow and anabolism in older men. Healthy young (YOUNG: 19.7 ± 0.5 y, N = 8) and older men (OLD, 70 ± 0.8 y, N = 8) received 15 g EAA or (older only) 15 g EAA +3 g ARG (OLD-ARG, 69.2 ± 1.2 y, N = 8). We quantified responses in muscle protein synthesis (MPS; incorporation of (13)C phenylalanine into myofibrillar proteins), leg and muscle microvascular blood flow (Doppler/contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)) and insulin/EAA in response to EEA ± ARG...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
J S Osorio, F Batistel, E F Garrett, M M Elhanafy, M R Tariq, M T Socha, J J Loor
Supplying trace minerals in more bioavailable forms such as amino acid complexes (AAC) could help ameliorate the incidence of hoof disorders in peripartal dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing metal AAC during the peripartal period on expression of 28 genes in corium tissue related to claw composition, oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and transcriptional regulation. Forty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a common diet from -30 to 30 d relative to parturition and were assigned to receive an oral bolus containing either inorganic trace minerals (INO) or AAC (i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Gianni Biolo, Rado Pišot, Sara Mazzucco, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Stefano Lazzer, Bruno Grassi, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Joern Rittweger, Mladen Gasparini, Boštjan Šimunič, Marco Narici
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (D5Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yuan Wei, Wei Qiu, Xue-Dong Zhou, Xin Zheng, Ke-Ke Zhang, Shi-Da Wang, Yu-Qing Li, Lei Cheng, Ji-Yao Li, Xin Xu, Ming-Yun Li
D-alanine (D-Ala) is an essential amino acid that has a key role in bacterial cell wall synthesis. Alanine racemase (Alr) is a unique enzyme that interconverts L-alanine and D-alanine in most bacteria, making this enzyme a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Streptococcus mutans is a major causative factor of dental caries. The factors involved in the survival, virulence and interspecies interactions of S. mutans could be exploited as potential targets for caries control. The current study aimed to investigate the physiological role of Alr in S...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
Georg Wandrey, Joel Wurzel, Kyra Hoffmann, Tobias Ladner, Jochen Büchs, Lorenz Meinel, Tessa Lühmann
BACKGROUND: Genetic code expansion has developed into an elegant tool to incorporate unnatural amino acids (uAA) at predefined sites in the protein backbone in response to an amber codon. However, recombinant production and yield of uAA comprising proteins are challenged due to the additional translation machinery required for uAA incorporation. RESULTS: We developed a microtiter plate-based high-throughput monitoring system (HTMS) to study and optimize uAA integration in the model protein enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
Jae Cheol Kim, Bruce P Mullan, John L Black, Robert J E Hewitt, Robert J van Barneveld, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Fahim Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Y Ashraf, Muhammad N Tahir, Bilal Zulfiqar, Muhammad Salahuddin, Rana N Shabbir, Muhammad Aslam
Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kevin M Kubachka, Traci Hanley, Madhavi Mantha, Robert A Wilson, Travis M Falconer, Zena Kassa, Aline Oliveira, Julio Landero, Joseph Caruso
Selenium-enriched dietary supplements containing various selenium compounds are readily available to consumers. To ensure proper selenium intake and consumer confidence, these dietary supplements must be safe and have accurate label claims. Varying properties among selenium species requires information beyond total selenium concentration to fully evaluate health risk/benefits A LC-ICP-MS method was developed and multiple extraction methods were implemented for targeted analysis of common "seleno-amino acids" and related oxidation products, selenate, selenite, and other species relatable to the quality and/or accuracy of the labeled selenium ingredients...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Z Yang, Z Y Wang, H M Yang, F Z Zhao, L L Kong
1. An experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design with two concentrations of dietary betaine (0 and 600 mg/kg) and three dietary concentrations of methionine (0, 600 and 1200 mg/kg) was conducted using goslings to estimate growth, nutrient utilisation and digestibility of amino acids from 21 to 70 d of age. 2. Three hundred geese were randomised at 18 d of age into 6 groups with 5 replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate. 3. Increasing dietary concentrations of methionine gave a linear increase in body weight and average daily gain...
October 7, 2016: British Poultry Science
Gaurav Jerath, Prakash Kishore Hazam, Shashi Shekhar, Vibin Ramakrishnan
Polypeptide chain has an invariant main-chain and a variant side-chain sequence. How the side-chain sequence determines fold in terms of its chemical constitution has been scrutinized extensively and verified periodically. However, a focussed investigation on the directive effect of side-chain geometry may provide important insights supplementing existing algorithms in mapping the geometrical evolution of protein chains and its structural preferences. Geometrically, folding of protein structure may be envisaged as the evolution of its geometric variables: ϕ, and ψ dihedral angles of polypeptide main-chain directed by χ1, and χ2 of side chain...
2016: PloS One
Oliver Oehlke, Michael Mix, Erika Graf, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Ursula Nestle, Irina Götz, Sabine Schneider-Fuchs, Astrid Weyerbrock, Irina Mader, Brigitta G Baumert, Susan C Short, Philipp T Meyer, Wolfgang A Weber, Anca-Ligia Grosu
BACKGROUND: The higher specificity of amino-acid positron emission tomography (AA-PET) in the diagnosis of gliomas, as well as in the differentiation between recurrence and treatment-related alterations, in comparison to contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI was demonstrated in many studies and is the rationale for their implementation into radiation oncology treatment planning. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the significant differences between AA-PET and standard MRI concerning the definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV)...
October 5, 2016: BMC Cancer
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
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