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Amino acid supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094560/systemic-metabolite-changes-in-wild-type-c57bl-6-mice-fed-black-raspberries
#1
Pan Pan, Chad W Skaer, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Michael A Kreiser, Steven M Stirdivant, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Matthew R Young, Li-Shu Wang
INTRODUCTION: Freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) elicit chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer in humans and in rodents. The objective of this study was to investigate potential BRB-caused metabolite changes using wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: WT mice were fed either control diet or control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 wk. A nontargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted on colonic mucosa, liver, and fecal specimens collected from both diet groups...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092150/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-supplements
#2
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091680/protective-effects-of-dietary-glycine-and-glutamic-acid-toward-the-toxic-effects-of-oxidized-mustard-oil-in-rabbits
#3
Alam Zeb, Saleem Ur Rahman
The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090634/dietary-interventions-for-fetal-growth-restriction-therapeutic-potential-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-pregnancy
#4
Elizabeth Cottrell, Teresa Tropea, Laura Ormesher, Susan Greenwood, Mark Wareing, Edward Johnstone, Jenny Myers, Colin Sibley
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079708/parenteral-nutrition-in-the-critically-ill
#5
Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Feeding guidelines have recommended early, full nutritional support in critically ill patients to prevent hypercatabolism and muscle weakness. Early enteral nutrition was suggested to be superior to early parenteral nutrition. When enteral nutrition fails to meet nutritional target, it was recommended to administer supplemental parenteral nutrition, albeit with a varying starting point. Sufficient amounts of amino acids were recommended, with addition of glutamine in subgroups...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077194/the-response-of-weaned-piglets-to-dietary-valine-and-leucine
#6
F Meyer, C Jansen van Rensburg, R M Gous
Valine (Val) is considered to be the fifth-limiting amino acid in a maize-soyabean meal diet for pigs. Excess leucine (Leu) levels often occur in commercial diets, which may attenuate the effect of Val deficiency because of an increased oxidation of Val. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effect of increasing concentrations of Leu on the response of young piglets to dietary Val. In all, 75 Large White×Landrace entire male pigs, 44 days of age and with a mean starting weight of 13...
January 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070311/optimization-of-production-and-quality-evaluation-of-maize-based-snack-supplemented-with-soybean-and-tiger-nut-cyperus-esculenta-flour
#7
Olugbenga O Awolu, Olufunmilayo S Omoba, Olumide Olawoye, Modupe Dairo
Optimization of the production and evaluation of the quality of maize-based snack supplemented with soy and tigernut flour was carried out. Experimental design for the composite flour was carried out using optimal design model of response surface methodology. The variables were toasted maize flour (75-85%), soy flour (10-20%), and tigernut flour (5-10%); while the responses were proximate composition and mineral contents. Three blends were selected from optimization results; runs 2, 7, and 11. The functional properties, pasting properties, antioxidant, antinutritional, and amino acid profile of the three blends were evaluated...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060208/branched-chain-amino-acids-bcaas-and-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#8
Bhanu Sharma, David W Lawrence, Michael G Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), pharmaceutical treatment options for brain injury remain limited. However, nutritional intervention (such as with branched chain amino acids [BCAAs]) has emerged as a promising treatment option for TBI. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine whether TBI patients have lower levels of endogenous BCAAs postinjury; and (2) to evaluate whether post-TBI BCAA supplementation improves clinical outcome. DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research articles examining the relationship between BCAAs and TBI recovery indexed in Ovid/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057501/cloning-and-characterization-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-gene-responsible-for-calcium-malate-overproduction-in-penicillium-viticola-152-and-its-expression-analysis
#9
Ibrar Khan, Sadia Qayyum, Shehzad Ahmed, Farhana Maqbool, Isfahan Tauseef, Kashif Syed Haleem, Zhen-Ming Chi
In this study, a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC) from a marine fungus Penicillium viticola 152 isolated from marine algae was cloned and characterized by using Genome Walking method. An open reading frame (ORF) of The PYC gene (accession number: KM593097) had 3582bp encoding 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 5.01) with a calculated molecular weight of 131.2757kDa. A putative promoter (intronless) of the gene was located at -666bp and contained a TATA box, several CAAT boxes, the 5'-SYGGRG-3' and a 5'-HGATAR-3' sequences...
January 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053664/the-coptotermes-gestroi-aldo-keto-reductase-a-multipurpose-enzyme-for-biorefinery-applications
#10
Robson Tramontina, João Paulo L Franco Cairo, Marcelo V Liberato, Fernanda Mandelli, Amanda Sousa, Samantha Santos, Sarita Cândida Rabelo, Bruna Campos, Jaciane Ienczak, Roberto Ruller, André R L Damásio, Fabio Marcio Squina
BACKGROUND: In nature, termites can be considered as a model biological system for biofuel research based on their remarkable efficiency for lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Redox enzymes are of interest in second-generation ethanol production because they promote synergic enzymatic activity with classical hydrolases for lignocellulose saccharification and inactivate fermentation inhibitory compounds produced after lignocellulose pretreatment steps. RESULTS: In the present study, the biochemical and structural characteristics of the Coptotermes gestroi aldo-keto reductase (CgAKR-1) were comprehensively investigated...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052337/change-of-the-metabolomic-profile-during-short-term-mononuclear-cell-storage
#11
P A Steininger, E F Strasser, B Ziehe, R Eckstein, M Rauh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Short-term storage of leukapheresis products used for immunotherapeutic mononuclear cell (MNC) products is a frequent event. The analysis of time-related metabolic patterns enables the characterization of storage-related effects in MNCs and the hypothesis-based optimization of the MNC medium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MNC products from seven leukapheresis procedures were stored within a closed bag system for 48 h. Concentrations of amino acids, biogenic amines, phospho- and sphingolipids and hexoses in the medium were measured by targeted metabolomics...
January 4, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051178/muscle-specific-deletion-of-bdk-amplifies-loss-of-myofibrillar-protein-during-protein-undernutrition
#12
Takuya Ishikawa, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Yoshihiro Kadota, Yukako Morishita, Miki Ota, Fumiya Yamanaka, Minjun Xu, Masahito Ikawa, Naokazu Inoue, Fuminori Kawano, Naoya Nakai, Taro Murakami, Shinji Miura, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei, Yoshiharu Shimomura
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids for mammals and play key roles in the regulation of protein metabolism. However, the effect of BCAA deficiency on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo remains unclear. Here we generated mice with lower BCAA concentrations by specifically accelerating BCAA catabolism in skeletal muscle and heart (BDK-mKO mice). The mice appeared to be healthy without any obvious defects when fed a protein-rich diet; however, bolus ingestion of BCAAs showed that mTORC1 sensitivity in skeletal muscle was enhanced in BDK-mKO mice compared to the corresponding control mice...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049867/elephant-s-breast-milk-contains-large-amounts-of-glucosamine
#13
Zenta Takatsu, Muneya Tsuda, Akio Yamada, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Akira Takai, Yasuhiro Takeda, Mitsunori Takase
Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant's breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant's breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046182/regulation-in-free-amino-acid-profile-and-protein-synthesis-pathway-of-growing-pig-skeletal-muscles-by-low-protein-diets-for-different-time-periods
#14
Y H Li, H K Wei, F N Li, S W Kim, C Y Wen, Y H Duan, Q P Guo, W L Wang, H N Liu, Y L Yin
The objective of the study was to explore the extent to which the dietary CP level can be reduced for maintaining muscle protein deposition in growing pigs as well as the related mechanism and whether the response to dietary protein restriction is diversely modified throughout the 2 trial periods. A total of 36 pigs (9.57 ± 0.64 kg initial BW) were individually penned and fed 1 of 3 diets for 10 or 25 d. During each period, the diets contained 20, 17, and 14% CP, respectively. Both the 17% CP diet and the 14% CP diet were supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp to provide the same total concentrations as those in the 20% CP diet...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046153/energy-content-and-amino-acid-digestibility-of-flaxseed-expellers-fed-to-growing-pigs
#15
Y F Chen, F Wu, P L Li, Z Q Lyu, L Liu, M B Lyu, F L Wang, C H Lai
This study was conducted to determine the DE and ME as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in flaxseed expellers fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the DE and ME were determined using 66 crossbred growing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; 54.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) fed 1 of 11 diets in a completely randomized design. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 10 experimental diets containing 29.16% flaxseed expellers supplemented at the expense of corn and soybean meal...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045943/arginine-and-lysine-transporters-are-essential-for-trypanosoma-brucei
#16
Christoph Mathieu, Juan P Macêdo, Daniel Hürlimann, Corina Wirdnam, Alexander C Haindrich, Marianne Suter Grotemeyer, Amaia González-Salgado, Remo S Schmidt, Ehud Inbar, Pascal Mäser, Peter Bütikofer, Dan Zilberstein, Doris Rentsch
For Trypanosoma brucei arginine and lysine are essential amino acids and therefore have to be imported from the host. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants identified cationic amino acid transporters among members of the T. brucei AAAP (amino acid/auxin permease) family. TbAAT5-3 showed high affinity arginine uptake (Km 3.6 ± 0.4 μM) and high selectivity for L-arginine. L-arginine transport was reduced by a 10-times excess of L-arginine, homo-arginine, canavanine or arginine-β-naphthylamide, while lysine was inhibitory only at 100-times excess, and histidine or ornithine did not reduce arginine uptake rates significantly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045644/pet-based-imaging-of-chemokine-receptor-2-in-experimental-and-disease-related-lung-inflammation
#17
Yongjian Liu, Sean P Gunsten, Deborah H Sultan, Hannah P Luehmann, Yongfeng Zhao, T Scott Blackwell, Zachary Bollermann-Nowlis, Jie-Hong Pan, Derek E Byers, Jeffrey J Atkinson, Daniel Kreisel, Michael J Holtzman, Robert J Gropler, Christophe Combadiere, Steven L Brody
Purpose To characterize a chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-binding peptide adapted for use as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for noninvasive detection of lung inflammation in a mouse model of lung injury and in human tissues from subjects with lung disease. Materials and Methods The study was approved by institutional animal and human studies committees. Informed consent was obtained from patients. A 7-amino acid CCR2 binding peptide (extracellular loop 1 inverso [ECL1i]) was conjugated to tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with copper 64 ((64)Cu) or fluorescent dye...
January 3, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036059/methionine-and-choline-supply-during-the-periparturient-period-alter-plasma-amino-acid-and-one-carbon-metabolism-profiles-to-various-extents-potential-role-in-hepatic-metabolism-and-antioxidant-status
#18
Zheng Zhou, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Daniel N Luchini, Juan J Loor
The objective of this study was to profile plasma amino acids (AA) and derivatives of their metabolism during the periparturient period in response to supplemental rumen-protected methionine (MET) or rumen-protected choline (CHOL). Forty cows were fed from -21 through 30 days around parturition in a 2 × 2 factorial design a diet containing MET or CHOL. MET supply led to greater circulating methionine and proportion of methionine in the essential AA pool, total AA, and total sulfur-containing compounds. Lysine in total AA also was greater in these cows, indicating a better overall AA profile...
December 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036018/effects-of-supplementation-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-to-reduced-protein-diet-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-the-fed-and-fasted-states-in-a-piglet-model
#19
Liufeng Zheng, Hongkui Wei, Pingli He, Shengjun Zhao, Quanhang Xiang, Jiaman Pang, Jian Peng
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA...
December 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036002/novel-peptide-with-specific-calcium-binding-capacity-from-schizochytrium-sp-protein-hydrolysates-and-calcium-bioavailability-in-caco-2-cells
#20
Xixi Cai, Jiaping Lin, Shaoyun Wang
Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites...
December 27, 2016: Marine Drugs
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