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Amino acid supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333681/myotropic-activity-and-immuno-localization-of-selected-neuropeptides-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-coleoptera-silphidae
#1
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333047/assessment-of-nutritional-quality-and-global-antioxidant-response-of-banana-musa-sp-cv-nanjangud-rasa-bale-pseudostem-and-flower
#2
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, K R Anilakumar, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330927/defined-serum-free-medium-for-bioreactor-culture-of-an-immortalized-human-erythroblast-cell-line
#3
Esmond Lee, Zhong Ri Lim, Hong Yu-Chen, Bin Xia Yang, Alan Tin-Lun Lam, Allen Kuan-Liang Chen, Jaichandran Sivalingam, Shaul Reuveny, Yuin-Han Loh, Steve Kah-Weng Oh
Anticipated shortages in donated blood supply have prompted investigation of alternative approaches for in-vitro production of red blood cells (RBCs), such as expansion of conditional immortalization erythroid progenitors. However, there is a bioprocessing challenge wherein factors promoting maximal cell expansion and growth-limiting inhibitory factors are yet to be investigated. We used an erythroblast cell line (ImEry) derived from immortalizing CD71+CD235a+ erythroblast from adult peripheral blood for optimization of expansion culture conditions...
January 13, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330665/a-synthetic-pathway-for-the-production-of-2-hydroxyisovaleric-acid-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Seokjung Cheong, James M Clomburg, Ramon Gonzalez
Synthetic biology, encompassing the design and construction of novel artificial biological pathways and organisms and the redesign of existing natural biological systems, is rapidly expanding the number of applications for which biological systems can play an integral role. In the context of chemical production, the combination of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches continues to unlock the ability to biologically produce novel and complex molecules from a variety of feedstocks. Here, we utilize a synthetic approach to design and build a pathway to produce 2-hydroxyisovaleric acid in Escherichia coli and demonstrate how pathway design can be supplemented with metabolic engineering approaches to improve pathway performance from various carbon sources...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329233/dose-dependent-effects-of-randomized-intraduodenal-whey-protein-loads-on-glucose-gut-hormone-and-amino-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-older-and-younger-men
#5
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327477/nitrogen-sources-affect-productivity-desiccation-tolerance-and-storage-stability-of-beauveria-bassiana-blastospores
#6
Gabriel M Mascarin, Nilce N Kobori, Mark A Jackson, Christopher A Dunlap, Ítalo Delalibera
AIMS: Nitrogen is a critical element in industrial fermentation media. This study investigated the influence of various nitrogen sources on blastospore production, desiccation tolerance, and storage stability using two strains of the cosmopolitan insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. METHODS AND RESULTS: Complex organic sources of nitrogen such as soy flour, autolyzed yeast and cottonseed flour induced great numbers of blastospores after 2-3 days of fermentation, which also survived drying and remained viable (32-56% survival) after 9 months storage at 4 °C, although variations were found between strains...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326050/a-defined-medium-for-leishmania-culture-allows-definition-of-essential-amino-acids
#7
Archana Nayak, Snezhana Akpunarlieva, Michael Barrett, Richard Burchmore
Axenic culture of Leishmania is generally performed in rich, serum-supplemented media which sustain robust growth over multiple passages. The use of such undefined media, however, obscures proteomic analyses and confounds the study of metabolism. We have established a simple, defined culture medium that supports the sustained growth of promastigotes over multiple passages and which yields parasites that have similar infectivity to macrophages to parasites grown in a conventional semi-defined medium. We have exploited this medium to investigate the amino acid requirements of promastigotes in culture and have found that phenylalanine and tryptophan are essential for viability in culture, while the absence of arginine, leucine, lysine, and valine results in significantly impaired, almost negligible growth...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325880/cryoprotective-effect-of-glutamine-taurine-and-proline-on-post-thaw-semen-quality-and-dna-integrity-of-donkey-spermatozoa
#8
M Bottrel, D Acha, I Ortiz, M Hidalgo, J Gósalvez, J Camisão, J Dorado
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition to semen on post-thaw quality of donkey spermatozoa. Eighteen ejaculates were pooled and divided into aliquots which were cryopreserved in Gent A® containing 1% ethylene glycol (Gent-EG) and supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60 mM of glutamine, proline, or taurine. The greatest concentration (60 mM) of glutamine and taurine resulted in greater (P < 0.001) post-thaw sperm motility. Amino acid supplementation did not improve (P > 0...
December 30, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325118/interactive-effects-of-phosphorus-calcium-and-phytase-supplements-on-products-of-phytate-degradation-in-the-digestive-tract-of-broiler-chickens
#9
V Sommerfeld, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
This study aimed to distinguish between the single and interactive effects of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and phytase on products of phytate degradation, including the disappearance of myo-inositol (MI), P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) in different segments of the digestive tract in broiler chickens. Additionally, all dephosphorylation steps from myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) to MI were investigated in the digesta of the terminal ileum. Unsexed Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to 56 pens with 19 birds per pen, and assigned to one of 8 dietary treatments...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321810/metabolic-engineering-of-pichia-pastoris-for-production-of-isobutanol-and-isobutyl-acetate
#10
Wiparat Siripong, Philipp Wolf, Theodora Puspowangi Kusumoputri, Joe James Downes, Kanokarn Kocharin, Sutipa Tanapongpipat, Weerawat Runguphan
Background: Interests in renewable fuels have exploded in recent years as the serious effects of global climate change become apparent. Microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered Pichia pastoris, an industrial workhorse in heterologous enzyme production, to produce the biofuel isobutanol from two renewable carbon sources, glucose and glycerol...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315422/dietary-therapy-restores-glutamatergic-input-to-orexin-hypocretin-neurons-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#11
Jonathan E Elliott, Samuel E De Luche, Madeline J Churchill, Cindy Moore, Akiva S Cohen, Charles K Meshul, Miranda M Lim
Study Objectives: In previous work, dietary branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation, precursors to de novo glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis, restored impaired sleep-wake regulation and orexin neuronal activity post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. TBI was speculated to reduce orexin neuronal activity through decreased regional excitatory (glutamate) and/or increased inhibitory (GABA) input. Therefore, we hypothesized TBI would decrease synaptic glutamate and/or increase synaptic GABA in nerve terminals contacting orexin neurons, and BCAA supplementation would restore TBI-induced changes in synaptic glutamate and/or GABA...
January 5, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#12
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305240/a-pilot-study-of-a-non-invasive-oral-nitrate-stable-isotopic-method-suggests-that-arginine-and-citrulline-supplementation-increases-whole-body-no-production-in-tanzanian-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#13
Alphonce I Marealle, Mario Siervo, Sara Wassel, Les Bluck, Andrew M Prentice, Omary Minzi, Philip Sasi, Appolinary Kamuhabwa, Deogratias Soka, Julie Makani, Sharon E Cox
BACKGROUND: Low bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). We designed a nested pilot study to be conducted within a clinical trial testing the effects of a daily ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) fortified with arginine (Arg) and citrulline (Citr) vs. non-fortified RUSF in children with SCD. The pilot study evaluated 1) the feasibility of a non-invasive stable isotope method to measure whole-body NO production and 2) whether Arg+Citr supplementation was associated with increased whole-body NO production...
January 2, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302817/characterization-of-a-long-chain-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-papiliotrema-flavescens
#14
Barbora Stratilová, Jaroslav Klaudiny, Pavel Řehulka, Eva Stratilová, Csilla Mészárosová, Soňa Garajová, Barbora Pavlatovská, Helena Řehulková, Stanislav Kozmon, Sergej Šesták, Zuzana Firáková, Renáta Vadkertiová
α-Galactosidases are assigned to the class of hydrolases and the subclass of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). They belong to six GH families and include the only characterized α-galactosidases from yeasts (GH 27, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The present study focuses on an investigation of the lactose-inducible α-galactosidase produced by Papiliotrema flavescens. The enzyme was present on the surface of cells and in the cytosol. Its temperature optimum was about 60 °C and the pH optimum was 4.8; the pH stability ranged from 3...
January 4, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301558/leucine-and-ace-inhibitors-as-therapies-for-sarcopenia-lace-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Margaret M Band, Deepa Sumukadas, Allan D Struthers, Alison Avenell, Peter T Donnan, Paul R Kemp, Karen T Smith, Cheryl L Hume, Adrian Hapca, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia (the age-related loss of muscle mass and function) is a major contributor to loss of mobility, falls, loss of independence, morbidity and mortality in older people. Although resistance training is effective in preventing and reversing sarcopenia, many older people are sedentary and either cannot or do not want to exercise. This trial examines the efficacy of supplementation with the amino acid leucine and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition to potentially improve muscle mass and function in people with sarcopenia...
January 4, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301095/metabolic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-the-production-of-indirubin-from-glucose
#16
Jikun Du, Dongsoo Yang, Zi Wei Luo, Sang Yup Lee
Indirubin is an indole alkaloid that can be used to treat various diseases including granulocytic leukemia, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. Microbial production of indirubin has so far been achieved by supplementation of rather expensive substrates such as indole or tryptophan. Here, we report the development of metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain capable of producing indirubin directly from glucose. First, the Methylophaga aminisulfidivorans flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and E. coli tryptophanase (TnaA) were introduced into E...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300969/influence-of-phytase-or-myo-inositol-supplements-on-performance-and-phytate-degradation-products-in-the-crop-ileum-and-blood-of-broiler-chickens
#17
V Sommerfeld, S Künzel, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with free myo-inositol (MI) or graded levels of phytase on inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation, concentrations of MI in the digestive tract and blood, bone mineralization, and prececal digestibility of amino acids (AA). Ross 308 broiler hatchlings were allocated to 40 pens with 11 birds each and assigned to one of 5 treatments. The birds were fed a starter diet until d 11 and a grower diet from d 11 to d 22. All diets were based on wheat, soybean meal, and corn...
December 29, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300431/effects-of-protein-essential-amino-acids-b-hydroxy-b-methylbutyrate-creatine-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-muscle-mass-muscle-strength-and-physical-performance-in-older-people-aged-60-years-and-over-a-systematic-review-on-the-literature
#18
C Beaudart, V Rabenda, M Simmons, A Geerinck, I Araujo De Carvalho, J-Y Reginster, J Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, O Bruyère
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to investigate the effects protein, essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), creatine, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and fatty acid supplementation on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance of elderly subjects. METHODS: Using the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE we identified RCTs published until February 2016 which assessed the effects of these nutrient supplementation on muscle strength, muscle mass or physical performance...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299441/effects-of-partial-dietary-supplementation-of-fish-meal-with-soymeal-on-the-stress-and-apoptosis-response-in-the-digestive-system-of-common-dentex-dentex-dentex
#19
Efthimia Antonopoulou, Eleni Chouri, Konstantinos Feidantsis, Antigone Lazou, Stavros Chatzifotis
Background: Soybean is a common alternative protein source of plant origin in aquafeeds as it has a reasonably balanced amino acid profile and is widely available. This study aimed to investigate the influence of partial substitution of fish meal with soy meal on cytoprotective pathways and apoptosis in the digestive system of common dentex (Dentex dentex), using the activation of Hsp70, p38 MAPK, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. The experimental approach involved feeding of common dentex with three isoprotein and isoenergetic diets that contained fish meal as a protein source (FM), partial replacement of fish meal by soy meal 25% (SM25) and 40% (SM40) for 3 months...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298044/epr-characterization-of-the-triheme-cytochrome-from-geobacter-sulfurreducens
#20
Nina Ponomarenko, Jens Niklas, Phani Raj Pokkuluri, Oleg G Poluektov, David Michael Tiede
Periplasmic cytochrome A (PpcA) is a representative of a broad class of multi-heme cytochromes functioning as protein "nanowires" for storage and extracellular transfer of multiple electrons in the δ-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. PpcA contains three bis-His coordinated hemes held in a spatial arrangement that is highly conserved among the multi-heme cytochromes c3 and c7 families, carries low potential hemes and is notable for having one of the lowest number of amino acids utilized to maintain a characteristic protein fold and site specific heme function...
January 3, 2018: Biochemistry
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