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Amino acid supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772553/establishment-of-a-porcine-model-of-indomethacin-induced-intestinal-injury
#1
Dan Yi, Wenkai Liu, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Tao Wu, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
A useful animal model of intestinal injury is pivotal for studying its pathogenesis and developing nutritional interventions (e.g., amino acid supplementation). Here, we propose the use of indomethacin (IDMT) to induce intestinal inflammation in neonatal pigs. Fourteen-day-old piglets fed a milk replacer diet receive intraperitoneal administration of IDMT (5 mg/kg body weight) for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, blood and intestinal samples are obtained for physiological and biochemical analyses. IDMT increases blood DAO activity, I-FABP concentration, neutrophil and eosinophil numbers; intestinal MMP3 mRNA levels, MPO activity, and MDA concentration; but reduces the plasma concentration of citrulline (synthesized exclusively by enterocytes of the small intestine), intestinal GSH-Px activity, and mRNA levels for villin , I-FABP , TRPV6 , AQP10 , and KCNJ13 ...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771700/the-effect-of-iv-amino-acid-supplementation-on-mortality-in-icu-patients-may-be-dependent-on-kidney-function-post-hoc-subgroup-analyses-of-a-multicenter-randomized-trial
#2
Ran Zhu, Matilde J Allingstrup, Anders Perner, Gordon S Doig
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether preexisting kidney function determines if ICU patients may benefit from increased (2.0 g/kg/d) protein intake. DESIGN: Post hoc, hypothesis-generating, subgroup analysis of a multicenter, phase 2, randomized clinical trial. All analyses were conducted by intention to treat and maintained group allocation. Ninety-day mortality was the primary outcome. SETTING: ICUs of 16 hospitals throughout Australia and New Zealand...
May 15, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770871/the-effects-of-acute-leucine-or-leucine-glutamine-co-ingestion-on-recovery-from-eccentrically-biased-exercise
#3
Mark Waldron, Cameron Ralph, Owen Jeffries, Jamie Tallent, Nicola Theis, Stephen David Patterson
This study investigated the effects of leucine or leucine + glutamine supplementation on recovery from eccentric exercise. In a double-blind independent groups design, 23 men were randomly assigned to a leucine (0.087 g/kg; n = 8), leucine + glutamine (0.087 g/kg + glutamine 0.3 g/kg; n = 8) or placebo (0.3 g/kg maltodextrin; n = 7) group. Participants performed 5 sets of drop jumps, with each set comprising 20 repetitions. Isometric knee-extensor strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) height, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured at baseline, 1, 24, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#4
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770108/gc-ms-analysis-of-the-ruminal-metabolome-response-to-thiamine-supplementation-during-high-grain-feeding-in-dairy-cows
#5
Fuguang Xue, Xiaohua Pan, Linshu Jiang, Yuming Guo, Benhai Xiong
Introduction: Thiamine is known to attenuate high-concentrate diet induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objectives: The major objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic mechanisms of thiamine supplementation on high-concentrate diet induced SARA. Methods: Six multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769004/regulatory-role-of-amino-acids-in-pigs-fed-on-protein-restricted-diets
#6
Sung Woo Kim, Hongyu Chen, Wanpuech Parnsen
The high inclusion of dietary protein and the imbalance of amino acid (AA) composition in animal husbandry result in inefficient utilization of protein resources and increased nitrogen excretion. Therefore, an efficient approach to alleviate the nitrogen excretion and increase the utilization of protein resources is to formulate the AA-balance protein-restricted diet with crystalline AA supplementation. Nowadays, it is essential to thoroughly understand the regulatory mechanisms of AAs on body metabolism and their vital roles in protein-restricted diets...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767080/optimal-sulfur-amino-acid-to-lysine-ratio-for-post-weaning-piglets-reared-under-clean-or-unclean-sanitary-conditions
#7
Roselyn Kahindi, Alemu Regassa, John Htoo, Martin Nyachoti
Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg) piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA) to lysine (Lys) ratio (SAA:Lys) for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764464/daytime-and-nighttime-casein-supplements-similarly-increase-muscle-size-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-training-earlier-in-the-day-a-preliminary-investigation
#8
Jordan M Joy, Roxanne M Vogel, K Shane Broughton, Urszula Kudla, Nathaniel Y Kerr, Jason M Davison, Robert E C Wildman, Nancy M DiMarco
BACKGROUND: Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762899/metagenomics-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mouse-model-fed-with-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3-me
#9
Xin Zhang, Yuhui Chen, Jieyu Zhu, Man Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang, Jinxuan Cao
SCOPE: (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) has been shown to have a modulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota, and the relationship between intestinal flora and obesity has attracted more and more attention recently. Here, we investigated the potential link between EGCG3''Me and gut microbiota composition, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of EGCG3''Me. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG3''Me was prepared from oolong tea by column chromatography, and the influence of EGCG3''Me on intestinal microbiota was analysed using a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model by metagenomics...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762790/dietary-supplementation-with-clostridium-butyricum-modulates-serum-lipid-metabolism-meat-quality-and-the-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-peking-ducks
#10
Yanhan Liu, Yiyu Li, Xiancheng Feng, Zhong Wang, Zhaofei Xia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on the performance, serum lipid metabolism, muscle morphology, meat quality, and fatty acid profiles of Peking ducks. A total of 1,500 Peking ducks were randomly divided into five groups with five replicates and were fed a non-antibiotic basal diet (Control) or a basal diet supplemented with either 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of C. butyricum (2.0 × 109 CFU/g) or 150 mg of aureomycin/kg for 42 d. Compared with the control group, supplementation with C...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762760/evaluation-of-different-dietary-alterations-in-their-ability-to-mitigate-the-incidence-and-severity-of-woody-breast-and-white-striping-in-commercial-male-broilers
#11
B C Bodle, C Alvarado, R B Shirley, Y Mercier, J T Lee
The following study was conducted to define how multiple nutritional strategies affect broiler performance, meat yield, and the presence and severity of white striping (WS) and woody breast (WB) in high-yielding broilers. Relative to a commercial set of reference broiler diets (Commercial reference diet; Trt 1) that were fed in a 4-phase program, the following nutritional strategies were investigated: increasing the ratio of digestible arginine: digestible lysine (dArg: dLys ranged from 113 to 126; Trt 2), supplementing Trt 1 with 94...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758980/metabolomics-for-the-effect-of-biotin-and-nicotinamide-on-transition-dairy-cows
#12
Xiaoshi Wei, Qingyan Yin, Huihui Zhao, Yangchun Cao, Chuanjiang Cai, Junhu Yao
The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in serum metabolites of transition dairy cows affected by biotin (BIO) and nicotinamide (NAM) supplementation. Forty multiparous Holsteins were paired and assigned randomly within block to 1 of the following 4 treatments: control (T0), 30 mg/d BIO (TB), 45 g/d NAM (TN), and 30 mg/d BIO + 45 g/d NAM (TB+N). Supplemental BIO and NAM were drenched to cows from 14 days before the expected calving date. GC-TOF/MS was used to analyze serum samples collected from 8 cows in every groups at 14 days after calving...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757279/engineering-golden-fluorescence-by-selective-pressure-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids-and-protein-analysis-by-mass-spectrometry-and-fluorescence
#13
Tobias Baumann, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Almut Pelzer, Vivian Jeanette Spiering, Georg Johannes Freiherr von Sass, Thomas Friedrich, Nediljko Budisa
Fluorescent proteins are fundamental tools for the life sciences, in particular for fluorescence microscopy of living cells. While wild-type and engineered variants of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria (avGFP) as well as homologs from other species already cover large parts of the optical spectrum, a spectral gap remains in the near-infrared region, for which avGFP-based fluorophores are not available. Red-shifted fluorescent protein (FP) variants would substantially expand the toolkit for spectral unmixing of multiple molecular species, but the naturally occurring red-shifted FPs derived from corals or sea anemones have lower fluorescence quantum yield and inferior photo-stability compared to the avGFP variants...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756576/improving-feed-protein-utilization-rate-in-cattle-through-nutritional-approaches
#14
Guangyong Zhao
Cattle supply important amounts of nutritious products such as beef and milk for human consumption. However, cattle excrete large amounts of feces and urine with low utilization rate of dietary crude protein (CP). These not only negatively affect the global environment by emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and N bleaching the soil and underground water, but also increase the feed cost. The low nitrogen (N) utilization rate of cattle could possibly result from the activity of rumen microorganisms degrading feed protein...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#15
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754319/responses-of-rainbow-trout-intestinal-epithelial-cells-to-different-kinds-of-nutritional-deprivation
#16
Patrick G Pumputis, Vivian R Dayeh, Lucy E J Lee, Phuc H Pham, Zhenzhen Liu, Senthuri Viththiyapaskaran, Niels C Bols
In order to develop an in vitro system to study the cell biology of starvation in the fish intestine, rainbow trout intestinal epithelial cells were subjected to three kinds of nutrient deprivation and evaluated for 7 days. The RTgutGC cell line was grown into monolayers in Leibovitz's basal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (L15/FBS) and then subjected to deprivation of serum (L15); of serum, amino acids, and vitamin (L15/ex); and of all nutrients (L15/salts). After 7 days of nutrient deprivation, the cells remained attached to the plastic surface as monolayers but changes were seen in shape, with the cells becoming more polygonal, actin and α-tubulin cytoskeleton organization, and in tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1) localization...
May 12, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753202/effects-of-supplementing-corn-silage-with-different-nitrogen-sources-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-microbial-populations-in-vitro
#17
Maren Witzig, Melanie B Lengowski, Karin H R Zuber, Jens Möhring, Markus Rodehutscord
Compared to grass silage (GS)-, corn silage (CS)-based diets appear to increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS) in the rumen. Opposite results for the EMPS obtained in vitro have raised the question of whether an inadequate supply of amino N for microbes might explain the low EMPS. We examined the effects of supplementation with different N sources in CS on the EMPS and microbial populations in vitro. GS and CS were used as substrates for in vitro incubation. CS was non-supplemented or supplemented with urea, mixed amino acids (AA), peptone, or protein to adjust the N content to that of GS...
May 1, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753143/the-function-of-eriocheir-sinensis-transferrin-and-iron-in-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-infection
#18
Xuechuan Xu, Yuhan Liu, Mengyue Tang, Yuye Yan, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Transferrin, a member of the iron binding superfamily protein, plays an extremely important role in the transport of iron in the biological process of cells. The result of preliminary proteomic study on E. sinensis hemocytes infected Spiroplasma eriocheiris showed the expression of transferrin (EsTF) and ferrin (EsFe) significantly changed. In addition, other reports have confirmed that transferrin, ferritin and iron are involved in the immune response of hosts. In order to validate the immune function of EsTF, the whole length of EsTF was successfully amplified by the gene cloning and RACE technique...
May 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752731/metabolomic-comparison-between-wild-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-and-artificial-cultured-cordyceps-militaris
#19
Lin Chen, Yuetao Liu, Qingfeng Guo, Qingxia Zheng, Wancun Zhang
In this study, a systematic research on the metabolome differences between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis) and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal components analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) results showed that C. militaris grown on solid rice medium (R-CM) and C. militaris grown on tussah pupa (T-CM) evidently separated and individually separated from wild O...
May 11, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750251/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-and-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-for-24-weeks-on-physical-function-body-composition-and-muscle-metabolism-in-healthy-independent-older-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Melissa M Markofski, Kristofer Jennings, Kyle L Timmerman, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Rachel R Deer, Amanda Randolph, Blake B Rasmussen, Elena Volpi
Background: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: In this Phase 1, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Methods: We phone screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, non-frail, non-diabetic older adults (age 72±1 yrs)...
May 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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