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Barretts, Helicobacter Pylori

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337865/helicobacter-pylori-and-barrett%C3%A2-s-esophagus-a-protective-factor-or-a-real-cause
#1
G Tomasello, F Giordano, M Mazzola, R Jurjus, A Jurjus, P Damiani, S Nobile, F Carini, A Leone
Notwithstanding the definite aetiopathogenetic path of certain diseases, the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Barrett’s esophagus (BE), a condition that increases the risk for dysplasia and consequently adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and esophagogastric junction, remains uncertain. This paper reviews the current scientific literature with emphasis on the protective correlation between H. pylori infection and BE and demonstrates that a causal relationship has not been disproved with certainty...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164846/the-esophageal-and-gastric-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Richard H Hunt, Mohammad Yaghoobi
The esophagus and stomach are host to their own population of bacteria, which differs in health and disease. Helicobacter pylori uniquely colonizes only gastric mucosa, but an increasing number of bacteria is now isolated from the gastric juice and gastric mucosa, including Lactobacillus. The presence of H pylori alters populations of other gastric bacteria with a marked reduction in diversity. Alterations in intragastric acidity may be the cause or the consequence of changes in the microbial populations of the stomach...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124156/helicobacter-pylori-induced-changes-in-gastric-acid-secretion-and-upper-gastrointestinal-disease
#3
Adam J Smolka, Mitchell L Schubert
Appropriate management of Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is evolving and remains a significant clinical challenge. Acute infection results in hypochlorhydria, whereas chronic infection results in either hypo- or hyperchlorhydria, depending upon the anatomic site of infection. Acute hypochlorhydria facilitates survival of the bacterium and its infection of the stomach. Interestingly, most patients chronically infected with H. pylori manifest a pangastritis with reduced acid secretion due to bacterial virulence factors, inflammatory cytokines, and various degrees of gastric atrophy...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062361/redox-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
REVIEW
Salvador Pérez, Raquel Taléns-Visconti, Sergio Rius-Pérez, Isabela Finamor, Juan Sastre
Redox signaling regulates physiological self-renewal, proliferation, migration and differentiation in gastrointestinal epithelium by modulating Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways mainly through NADPH oxidases (NOXs). In the intestine, intracellular and extracellular thiol redox status modulates the proliferative potential of epithelial cells. Furthermore, commensal bacteria contribute to intestine epithelial homeostasis through NOX1- and dual oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). The loss of redox homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis and development of a wide diversity of gastrointestinal disorders, such as Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, ischemic intestinal injury, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer...
March 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053340/population-screening-and-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#5
REVIEW
Anthony O'Connor, Colm A O'Morain, Alexander C Ford
Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen, associated with a substantial burden from both malignant and non-malignant diseases. The bacterium is classed as a human carcinogen, being strongly linked with gastric cancer, the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is also associated with common conditions such as dyspepsia and peptic ulcer. Eradication of H. pylori reduces the incidence of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer, as well as the prevalence and costs of managing dyspepsia. Economic analyses suggest that eradication of H...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904862/risk-factors-for-barrett-s-oesophagus
#6
REVIEW
Neel Sharma, Khek Yu Ho
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Globally, the incidence of OAC is rising. Furthermore, the prognosis regarding the morbidity and mortality of OAC is bleak, with an estimated 5-year survival of 10-15%. Hence, detection of the premalignant phase is paramount. Endoscopy and biopsy sampling is the mainstay of diagnosis. Patients may present with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or be completely asymptomatic...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862104/the-influence-of-helicobacter-pylori-on-the-ethnic-distribution-of-barrett-s-metaplasia
#7
A Sonnenberg, K O Turner, S J Spechler, R M Genta
BACKGROUND: Environmental risk factors associated with ethnicity may contribute to the occurrence of Barrett's metaplasia. AIM: To investigate the interaction between ethnicity and Helicobacter pylori infection in the occurrence of Barrett's metaplasia among patients undergoing oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. METHODS: The Miraca Life Sciences Database is an electronic repository of histopathological patient records. A case-control study evaluated the influence of age, gender, ethnicity and histological diagnosis of H...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785038/association-of-medications-for-lifestyle-related-diseases-with-reflux-esophagitis
#8
Daisuke Asaoka, Akihito Nagahara, Mariko Hojo, Kenshi Matsumoto, Hiroya Ueyama, Kohei Matsumoto, Kentaro Izumi, Tsutomu Takeda, Hiroyuki Komori, Yoichi Akazawa, Yuji Shimada, Taro Osada, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Because of a change in lifestyle, especially adoption of westernized eating habits, lifestyle-related diseases have become increasingly prevalent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medications for lifestyle-related diseases with reflux esophagitis (RE). METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional retrospective study of consecutive outpatients who received an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in our department from February 2008 to November 2014, which was performed by one specialist who was a member of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741173/gut-microbiome-and-gastrointestinal-cancer-les-liaisons-dangereuses
#9
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681974/barrett-s-oesophagus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#10
David C Whiteman, Bradley J Kendall
Barrett's oesophagus is a condition characterised by partial replacement of the normal squamous epithelium of the lower oesophagus by a metaplastic columnar epithelium containing goblet cells (intestinal metaplasia). Barrett's oesophagus is important clinically because those afflicted are predisposed to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Prevalence surveys suggest that up to 2% of the population may be affected; most will be unaware of their diagnosis. Risk factors include age, male sex, gastro-oesophageal acid reflux, central obesity and smoking...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623934/opportunities-for-preventing-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#11
John Maret-Ouda, Hashem El-Serag, Jesper Lagergren
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in incidence in many Western societies, requires demanding treatment and is associated with a poor prognosis, therefore preventive measures are highly warranted. To assess the opportunities for prevention, we reviewed the available literature and identified seven main potentially preventive targets. Preventive effects were found based on medium level observational evidence following treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (both using medication and surgery) and tobacco smoking cessation, which should be clinically recommended among exposed patients...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573783/helicobacter-pylori-and-gastric-cancer-timing-and-impact-of-preventive-measures
#12
REVIEW
Marino Venerito, Riccardo Vasapolli, Peter Malfertheiner
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571792/russell-body-inflammatory-polyp
#13
Ryan F Coates, Nicholas Ferrentino, Michelle X Yang
Russell body gastroenteritis has been reported as a reactive inflammatory process in most cases and many of the reports were from the upper gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach, which may be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and rarely associated with gastric carcinoma. Russell body containing Mott cells have been rarely seen in Barrett's esophagus and duodenum, and only 2 cases have been reported in colon, including a transplant patient with diarrhea and a rectal tubulovillous adenoma...
February 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567957/increased-oxidative-stress-in-the-proximal-stomach-of-patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus-and-adenocarcinoma-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction
#14
Juha Kauppi, Jari Räsänen, Eero Sihvo, Urpo Nieminen, Perttu Arkkila, Markku Ahotupa, Jarmo Salo
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress (OS) is an essential element in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its transformation to adenocarcinoma (EAC). The state of OS in the proximal stomach of patients with BE and EAC is unknown. Isoprostanes are a specific marker of OS not previously used to determine OS from BE/EAC tissue samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: OS was measured in 42 patients with BE (n = 9), EAC (n = 9), or both (n = 24) and 15 control patients. A STAT-8-Isoprostane EIA Kit served to identify 8-Isoprostanes (8-IP), and a Glutathione Assay Kit was used to measure glutathione reduced form (GSH) and glutathione oxidized form...
August 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531536/helicobacter-pylori-and-non-malignant-upper-gastrointestinal-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Riccardo Vasapolli, Peter Malfertheiner, Arne Kandulski
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H...
September 2016: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520775/management-of-helicobacter-pylori-infections
#16
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Johannes G Kusters
BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. DISCUSSION: With half of the world's population being infected with H, pylori and only few antibiotics result in an effective eradication, a successful antibiotic driven worldwide eradication program seems unlikely...
August 12, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430081/gastric-polyp-growth-during-endoscopic-surveillance-for-esophageal-varices-or-barrett-s-esophagus
#17
Dan M Livovsky, Orit Pappo, Galina Skarzhinsky, Asaf Peretz, Elliot Turvall, Zvi Ackerman
BACKGROUND: We recently observed patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) or chronic reflux symptoms (CRS) who developed gastric polyps (GPs) while undergoing surveillance gastroscopies for the detection of esophageal varices or Barrett's esophagus, respectively. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for GP growth and estimate its growth rate. METHODS: GP growth rate was defined as the number of days since the first gastroscopy (without polyps) in the surveillance program, until the gastroscopy when a GP was discovered...
May 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381266/risk-factors-for-erosive-and-non-erosive-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-barrett-s-esophagus-in-nothern-sardinia
#18
Maria Pina Dore, Giovanni Mario Pes, Gabrio Bassotti, Maria Antonietta Farina, Giuseppina Marras, David Yates Graham
OBJECTIVE: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma have been increasing. We studied the relationship of conventional risk factors and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with erosive and non-erosive GERD and Barrett's esophagus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of dyspeptic patients undergoing upper endoscopy between 2002 and 2013. Following endoscopy, those with previously undiagnosed GERD were sub-grouped into non-erosive GERD (NERD), erosive GERD (eGERD), or Barrett's esophagus...
November 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102559/importance-of-the-alternative-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-pathway-in-inflammation-associated-gastrointestinal-carcinogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Yvette J Merga, Adrian O'Hara, Michael D Burkitt, Carrie A Duckworth, Christopher S Probert, Barry J Campbell, D Mark Pritchard
Chronic inflammation is a common factor in the development of many gastrointestinal malignancies. Examples include inflammatory bowel disease predisposing to colorectal cancer, Barrett's esophagus as a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer. The classical activation pathway of NF-κB signaling has been identified as regulating several sporadic and inflammation-associated gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Emerging evidence suggests that the alternative NF-κB signaling pathway also exerts a distinct influence on these processes...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840528/prevalence-of-upper-gastrointestinal-endoscopic-findings-in-the-community-a-systematic-review-of-studies-in-unselected-samples-of-subjects
#20
Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Stefano Rabitti, Laura Cristoferi, Amanda Vestito, Nico Pagano, Franco Bazzoli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings, such as esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, peptic ulcer, and malignancy, represent a public health problem. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings in the community. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PUBMED and EMBASE to May 2015. Studies were eligible if they reported the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings in unselected samples of the community...
September 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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