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Lung cancer biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223555/emerging-roles-of-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0000064-in-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-lung-cancer
#1
Yan-Hong Luo, Xiang-Zhi Zhu, Ke-Wei Huang, Qian Zhang, Yan-Xin Fan, Peng-Wei Yan, Jing Wen
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of widespread and diverse endogenous RNAs, can regulate gene expression in mammals. CircRNAs have recently been identified as microRNA sponges and involved in the development of some human diseases. However, the role of circRNAs in the process of tumorigenesis and development of lung cancer remains vague. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of circRNAs in the lung cancer. In this study, we chose hsa_circ_0000064 as a targeted circRNA to investigate its clinical significances in lung cancer patients...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218678/low-dose-ct-for-lung-cancer-screening-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
Hongbing Shen
Lung cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in both males and females. Screening for lung cancer coupled with earlier intervention has long been studied as an approach to mortality reduction. However, minimal progress was achieved until recently, when lowdose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) screening demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality from lung cancer in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the National Lung Screening Trial, from the United States...
December 7, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218273/potential-future-consideration-for-imaging-and-blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer
#3
EDITORIAL
Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Fred R Hirsch, Mitchell Machtay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218272/blood-based-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-prognosis-and-treatment-decisions
#4
REVIEW
Meng Xu-Welliver, David P Carbone
Despite recent advances, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a devastating disease with overall poor prognosis. Major contributing factors include obstacles to diagnosing the disease early in its course during the asymptomatic stage as well as diversity and complexity of its biology underlying tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Advances in molecularly targeted therapies which drives the development of personalized cancer care require precise and comprehensive understanding of tumor biology, not only at the time of diagnosis but also during treatment course and surveillance...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218269/blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-precision-radiation-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Dirk De Ruysscher, Jianyue Jin, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Jin-Xiong She, Zhongxing Liao, Feng-Ming Spring Kong
Both tumors and patients are complex and models that determine survival and toxicity of radiotherapy or any other treatment ideally must take into account this variability as well as its dynamic state. The genetic features of the tumor and the host, and increasingly also the epi-genetic and proteomic characteristics, are being unraveled. Multiple techniques, including histological examination, blood sampling, measurement of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and functional and molecular imaging, can be used for this purpose...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218268/blood-based-tumor-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-for-detection-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Hirva Mamdani, Shahid Ahmed, Samantha Armstrong, Tony Mok, Shadia I Jalal
The therapeutic landscape of lung cancer has expanded significantly over the past decade. Advancements in molecularly targeted therapies, strategies to discover and treat resistance mutations, and development of personalized cancer treatments in the context of tumor heterogeneity and dynamic tumor biology have made it imperative to obtain tumor samples on several different occasions through the course of patient treatment. While this approach is critical to the delivery of optimal cancer treatment, it is fraught with a number of barriers including the need for invasive procedures with associated complications, access to limited amount of tissue, logistical delays in obtaining the biopsy, high healthcare cost, and in many cases inability to obtain tissue because of technically difficult location of the tumor...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218263/research-in-imaging-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-national-cancer-institute-funding-opportunities
#7
EDITORIAL
Bhadrasain Vikram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216787/mek-inhibitors-under-development-for-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Chul Kim, Giuseppe Giaccone
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is intimately implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aberrant MAPK signaling resulting from the upstream activating mutations converges on mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), making MEK inhibition an attractive strategy for the treatment of NSCLC. Several MEK inhibitors have demonstrated anticancer activity in patients with NSCLC. Areas covered: In this article, we discuss the biological rationale for the use of MEK inhibitors and summarize the clinical experience with MEK1/2 inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC, from initial phase I studies to phase II/III studies, both as monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer agents...
December 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216508/quantitative-biomarkers-for-prediction-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Liwen Zhang, Bojiang Chen, Xia Liu, Jiangdian Song, Mengjie Fang, Chaoen Hu, Di Dong, Weimin Li, Jie Tian
OBJECTIVES: To predict epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status using quantitative radiomic biomarkers and representative clinical variables. METHODS: The study included 180 patients diagnosed as of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with their pre-therapy computed tomography (CT) scans. Using a radiomic method, 485 features that reflect the heterogeneity and phenotype of tumors were extracted. Afterwards, these radiomic features were used for predicting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status by a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) based on multivariable logistic regression...
December 4, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214427/characterization-of-pd-l1-expression-in-chinese-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-pten-expression-as-a-means-for-tissue-quality-screening
#10
Xu-Chao Zhang, Xu Cao, Chun Sun, Zhi Xie, Jian-Jun Guo, Jin-Ji Yang, Xue-Ning Yang, Hang-Jun Dai, Su-Chun Li, Xin-Ran Xu, Yun-Xia Zuo, Meng Chen, Hartmut Koeppen, Jing He, Astrid Kiermaier, David Shames, Gang Cheng, Yi-Long Wu
The goal of this study is to evaluate PD-L1 prevalence and its association with major clinical characteristics in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to inform the clinical development of anti-PD1/PD-L1 agents in this population. We used phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression through IHC as a surrogate tissue quality marker to screen surgical NSCLC samples in tissue microarray (TMA; 172 cases) or whole-section (268 cases) format. The samples were then analyzed with a clinically validated PD-L1 IHC assay...
December 6, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212506/chromosome-9p-copy-number-gains-involving-pd-l1-are-associated-with-a-specific-proliferation-and-immune-modulating-gene-expression-program-active-across-major-cancer-types
#11
Jan Budczies, Carsten Denkert, Balázs Győrffy, Peter Schirmacher, Albrecht Stenzinger
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint axis represents one of the most promising approaches of immunotherapy for various cancer types. However, immune checkpoint inhibition is successful only in subpopulations of patients emphasizing the need for powerful biomarkers that adequately reflect the complex interaction between the tumor and the immune system. Recently, recurrent copy number gains (CNG) in chromosome 9p involving PD-L1 were detected in many cancer types including lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, cervical cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, prostate cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212284/systematic-review-and-critique-of-circulating-mirnas-as-biomarkers-of-stage-i-ii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Francesca Moretti, Paola D'Antona, Emanuele Finardi, Marco Barbetta, Lorenzo Dominioni, Albino Poli, Elisabetta Gini, Douglas M Noonan, Andrea Imperatori, Nicola Rotolo, Maria Cattoni, Paola Campomenosi
Selected circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested for non-invasive screening of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however the numerous proposed miRNA signatures are inconsistent. Aiming to identify miRNAs suitable specifically for stage I-II NSCLC screening in serum/plasma samples, we searched the databases "Pubmed", "Medline", "Scopus", "Embase" and "WOS" and systematically reviewed the publications reporting quantitative data on the efficacy [sensitivity, specificity and/or area under the curve (AUC)] of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of NSCLC stage I and/or II...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212272/polymorphisms-of-rs1347093-and-rs1397529-are-associated-with-lung-cancer-risk-in-northeast-chinese-population
#13
Xiaoying Li, XueLian Li, Yangwu Ren, Zhihua Yin, Xiaowei Quan, Xiaoxia Xue, Baosen Zhou
Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality all over the world. Here we researched the association between two SNPs (rs1347093 in MIR217HG and rs1397529 in Gab1) and the risk of lung cancer in northeast Chinese population, including 825 cases and 766 controls. We carried out χ2 test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and crossover analysis to estimate the relationship between SNPs and lung cancer risk and the interaction between SNPs and smoking on susceptibility to lung cancer...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212238/quantification-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-to-predict-patient-survival-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Myung Han Hyun, Jae Sook Sung, Eun Joo Kang, Yoon Ji Choi, Kyong Hwa Park, Sang Won Shin, Sung Yong Lee, Yeul Hong Kim
We used computed tomography (CT) to explore the prognostic value of cell-free (cf) DNA quantification and its predictive efficacy over time after chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In total, 177 NSCLC patients were enrolled in a prospective biomarker trial. Consecutive paired blood collection was performed to determine cfDNA concentrations at baseline CT and throughout serial follow-ups. The best cfDNA cut-off value to predict progression-free and overall survival was determined using X-tile analysis...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212038/co-chaperone-bag2-determines-the-pro-oncogenic-role-of-cathepsin-b-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#15
Kyung-Min Yang, Eunjin Bae, Sung Gwe Ahn, Kyoungwha Pang, Yuna Park, Jinah Park, Jihee Lee, Akira Ooshima, Bora Park, Junil Kim, Yunshin Jung, Satoru Takahashi, Joon Jeong, Seok Hee Park, Seong-Jin Kim
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered incurable with currently available treatments, highlighting the need for therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers. Here, we report a unique role for Bcl-2-associated athanogene 2 (BAG2), which is significantly overexpressed in TNBC, in regulating the dual functions of cathepsin B as either a pro- or anti-oncogenic enzyme. Silencing BAG2 suppresses tumorigenesis and lung metastasis and induces apoptosis by increasing the intracellular mature form of cathepsin B, whereas BAG2 expression induces metastasis by blocking the auto-cleavage processing of pro-cathepsin B via interaction with the propeptide region...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211692/a-molecular-and-cytogenetic-update-on-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#16
Maximilian Becker, Lori Ryan, Alexis Dowiak, Carlos A Tirado
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Among patients with lung cancer, approximately 85% have non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The discovery of oncogenic driver mutations in NSCLC opened new personalized treatment options. Several methods that can identify these biomarkers are used routinely in a clinical setting to stratify patients for targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the most clinically relevant driver genes, discuss the advantages and limitations of current clinical detection methods, and highlight the benefits of personalized treatment over standard chemotherapy...
2017: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211297/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Hazem I Assi, Alice O Kamphorst, Nour M Moukalled, Suresh S Ramalingam
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of cancer has led to major changes to the therapeutic landscape of lung cancer. Improvements in overall survival relative to standard chemotherapy have been observed in the first-line and second-line therapy settings for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Consequently, every patient with advanced-stage NSCLC is now a candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. However, it is clear that the benefit from therapy is not universal, and identification of biomarkers to select therapy has assumed importance...
December 6, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209918/molecular-classification-and-precision-therapy-of-cancer-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#18
Yingyan Yu
On May 23, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a treatment for cancer patients with positive microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) markers or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) markers. This approach is the first approved tumor treatment using a common biomarker rather than specified tumor locations in the body. FDA previously approved Keytruda for treatment of several types of malignancies, such as metastatic melanoma, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer, refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, and urothelial carcinoma, all of which carry positive programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 biomarkers...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209560/pd-l1-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-circulating-tumor-cells-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-molecular-shield-to-evade-immune-system
#19
Cristina Raimondi, Guido Carpino, Chiara Nicolazzo, Angela Gradilone, Walter Gianni, Alain Gelibter, Eugenio Gaudio, Enrico Cortesi, Paola Gazzaniga
The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway has emerged as a critical inhibitory pathway regulating T-cell response in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the development of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors has changed the landscape of NSCLC therapy. Nevertheless, the high degree of non-responders demonstrates that we are still far from completely understanding the events underlying tumor immune resistance. Although the expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissue has been correlated with clinical response to anti PD-1 inhibitors, the ability of this marker to discriminate the subgroup of patients who derive benefit from immunotherapy is suboptimal...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208669/vimentin-is-required-for-lung-adenocarcinoma-metastasis-via-heterotypic-tumor-cell-cancer-associated-fibroblast-interactions-during-collective-invasion
#20
Alessandra M Richardson, Lauren Havel, Allyson E Koyen, Jessica M Konen, John A Shupe, W G Wiles, W David Martin, Hans Grossniklaus, Gabriel L Sica, Melissa Gilbert-Ross, Adam Marcus
PURPOSE: Vimentin is an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarker and intermediate filament protein that functions during cell migration to maintain structure and motility. Despite the abundance of clinical data linking vimentin to poor patient outcome, it is unclear if vimentin is required for metastasis or is a correlative biomarker. We developed a novel genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) to probe vimentin in lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used the LSL-Kras G12D/Lkb1 fl/fl/Vim-/-model (KLV-/-), which incorporates a whole-body knockout of vimentin and is derived from the Cre-dependent LSL-Kras G12D/Lkb1 fl/fl model (KLV+/+)...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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