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Immunology and hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770876/assessment-of-the-underlying-causes-of-the-immune-thrombocytopenia-ten-years-experience
#1
Mehmet Sinan Dal, Abdullah Karakus, Tuba Dal, Berrin Balik Aydin, Elif Hattapoglu, Mehmet Onder Ekmen, Turgay Ulas, Orhan Ayyildiz
OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune haematologic disorder causing platelet destruction mediated by anti-platelet antibodies. In this study we aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory variables of ITP patients in southeast of Turkey. METHODS: In this retrospective study 167 ITP patients between 2005 and 2015 were evaluated. All patients were screened for immunological parameters including ANA (antinuclear antibodies), anti dsDNA (anti-double-stranded-DNA), ACA(anti-cardiolipin) IgM and IgG, LA (lupus anticoagulants)...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749434/unsolved-puzzles-surrounding-hcv-immunity-heterologous-immunity-adds-another-dimension
#2
REVIEW
Babita Agrawal, Shakti Singh, Nancy Gupta, Wen Li, Satish Vedi, Rakesh Kumar
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748166/assessment-of-immunomodulatory-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-calamus-rotang
#3
Amit Gupta, Sushama Ravindra Chaphalkar
OBJECTIVE: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C...
May 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716825/efficiency-and-safety-of-crac-inhibitors-in-human-rheumatoid-arthritis-xenograft-models
#4
Shuang Liu, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Erika Takemasa, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Keizou Oka, Takeshi Kiyoi, Hiroyuki Takeda, Tomio Ogasawara, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Masaki Yasukawa, Kazutaka Maeyama
Store-operated Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and have been studied as therapeutic targets in the management of RA. We investigated the efficacy and safety of CRAC inhibitors, including a neutralizing Ab (hCRACM1-IgG) and YM-58483, in the treatment of RA. Patient-derived T cell and B cell activity was suppressed by hCRACM1-IgG as well as YM-58483. Systemically constant, s.c. infused CRAC inhibitors showed anti-inflammatory activity in a human-NOD/SCID xenograft RA model as well as protective effects against the destruction of cartilage and bone...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706073/mouse-models-of-acute-and-chronic-hepacivirus-infection
#5
Eva Billerbeck, Raphael Wolfisberg, Ulrik Fahnøe, Jing W Xiao, Corrine Quirk, Joseph M Luna, John M Cullen, Alex S Hartlage, Luis Chiriboga, Kalpana Ghoshal, W Ian Lipkin, Jens Bukh, Troels K H Scheel, Amit Kapoor, Charles M Rice
An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections in laboratory mice with immunological features resembling those seen in human viral hepatitis. Whereas immune-compromised mice developed persistent infection, immune-competent mice cleared the virus within 3 to 5 weeks. Acute clearance was T cell dependent and associated with liver injury...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659437/type-2-immunity-is-protective-in-metabolic-disease-but-exacerbates-nafld-collaboratively-with-tgf-%C3%AE
#6
Kevin M Hart, Thomas Fabre, Joshua C Sciurba, Richard L Gieseck, Lee A Borthwick, Kevin M Vannella, Thomas H Acciani, Rafael de Queiroz Prado, Robert W Thompson, Sandra White, Genevieve Soucy, Marc Bilodeau, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Joseph R Arron, Naglaa H Shoukry, Thomas A Wynn
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common progressive liver disease in developed countries and is the second leading indication for liver transplantation due to the extensive fibrosis it causes. NAFLD progression is thought to be tied to chronic low-level type 1 inflammation originating in the adipose tissue during obesity; however, the specific immunological mechanisms regulating the progression of NAFLD-associated fibrosis in the liver are unclear. To investigate the immunopathogenesis of NAFLD more completely, we investigated adipose dysfunction, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis in mice that develop polarized type 1 or type 2 immune responses...
June 28, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658732/-good-s-syndrome-report-of-case
#7
Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez, José Israel León-Pedroza, María Eugenia Vargas-Camaño, María Isabel Castrejón-Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Good's syndrome is an association of thymoma and immunodeficiency. The symptoms are recurrent sinopulmonary infections in addition to the compressive side of thymoma. A laboratory finding is notable for the absence or decrease of B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, inversion ratio CD4/CD8 and abnormal proliferative response to mitogens. CASE REPORT: Female, 49-year-old started five months earlier with lower limb edema, postprandial vomiting, dysphagia, chronic diarrhea and weight loss...
April 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643186/current-progress-in-host-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Jijing Shi, Yuanyuan Li, Wenxian Chang, Xuexiu Zhang, Fu-Sheng Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people worldwide and is the main cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the newly developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed the treatment of HCV infection, controlling HCV infection on a global scale remains a challenge because of the high cost, low resistance barrier of DAAs and lack of HCV vaccine. The host immune responses associated with HCV infection, especially HCV-specific T cellular immunity, determine the outcome of HCV infection: either acute or chronic infection...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629242/differential-effect-of-p38-and-mk2-kinase-inhibitors-on-the-inflammatory-and-toxicity-biomarkers-in-vitro
#9
R K Singh, M Diwan, S G Dastidar, A K Najmi
BACKGROUND: Many inflammatory responses including chemotaxis, production of nitric oxide, and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunological cells are mediated by p38MAPK. Due to its pivotal role, p38MAPK has been extensively explored as a molecular target for inhibition of chronic inflammation; however, it has not been successful so far due to serious toxicity issues. Among several downstream substrates of p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) has been reported to be a direct and essential downstream component in regulation of innate immune and inflammatory responses...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617830/on-treatment-decrease-of-nkg2d-correlates-to-early-emergence-of-clinically-evident-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-interferon-free-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#10
Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Nobuhito Taniki, Keisuke Ojiro, Takeru Amiya, Yuko Makita, Hiroko Murata, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Aya Ugamura, Akihiko Ikura, Karin Takeda, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. METHODS: We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614389/immunological-dynamics-associated-with-rapid-virological-response-during-the-early-phase-of-type-i-interferon-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#11
Jae-Won Lee, Won Kim, Eun-Kyung Kwon, Yuri Kim, Hyun Mu Shin, Dong-Hyun Kim, Chan-Ki Min, Ji-Yeob Choi, Won-Woo Lee, Myung-Sik Choi, Byeong Gwan Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho
Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in antiviral immunity as well as immunopathogenesis of diverse chronic viral infections. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the multifaceted effects of type I IFNs on the immune system and pathological inflammation still remain unclear. In order to assess the immunological dynamics associated with rapid viral clearance in chronic hepatitis C patients during the acute phase of type I IFN therapy, we analyzed multiple parameters of virological and immunological responses in a cohort of 59 Korean hepatitis C patients who received pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (IFN/RBV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584852/immunological-predictors-of-nonresponse-to-directly-acting-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#12
Kate Childs, Elliot Merritt, Aisling Considine, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo, Kosh Agarwal, Marc Martinez-Llordella, Ivana Carey
BACKGROUND: Sustained virological response rates (SVRs) to directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are lower in decompensated cirrhosis. Markers of innate immunity predict nonresponse to interferon-based HCV treatment; however, whether they are associated with the response to DAAs in patients with decompensation is not known. METHODS: Information on demographics, adherence, viral kinetics, and resistance were gathered prospectively from a cohort with decompensated cirrhosis treated with 12 weeks of DAAs...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567448/type-i-interferon-responses-drive-intrahepatic-t-cells-to-promote-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Magar Ghazarian, Xavier S Revelo, Mark K Nøhr, Helen Luck, Kejing Zeng, Helena Lei, Sue Tsai, Stephanie A Schroer, Yoo Jin Park, Melissa Hui Yen Chng, Lei Shen, June Ann D'Angelo, Peter Horton, William C Chapman, Diane Brockmeier, Minna Woo, Edgar G Engleman, Oyedele Adeyi, Naoto Hirano, Tianru Jin, Adam J Gehring, Shawn Winer, Daniel A Winer
Obesity-related insulin resistance is driven by low-grade chronic inflammation of metabolic tissues. In the liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and systemic glucose dysregulation. However, the immunological factors supporting these processes are poorly understood. We found that the liver accumulates pathogenic CD8+ T cell subsets which control hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis during diet-induced obesity in mice. In a cohort of human patients, CD8+ T cells represent a dominant intrahepatic immune cell population which links to glucose dysregulation...
April 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567369/dynamic-changes-of-the-frequency-of-classic-and-inflammatory-monocytes-subsets-and-natural-killer-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-by-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#14
Gang Ning, Yi-Ting Li, You-Ming Chen, Ying Zhang, Ying-Fu Zeng, Chao-Shuang Lin
OBJECTIVE: Up to now, little was known about the immunological changes of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs); we try to explore the effect of DAAs on the frequency of monocytes, NK cells, and cytokines that promote their activation. METHODS: 15 treatment-naive CHC patients and 10 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were examined before DAAs therapy (0 w) and at week 4 (4 w) and week 12 (12 w) of therapy...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532574/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-inflammatory-arthritis-in-a-population-based-cohort
#15
Elizabeth D Ferucci, Tammy L Choromanski, Danielle T Varney, Holly S Ryan, Lisa J Townshend-Bulson, Brian J McMahon, Mark H Wener
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-associated inflammatory arthritis, to describe its clinical and immunologic correlates, and to identify features that are characteristic of arthritis in chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Participants with chronic hepatitis C infection enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Alaska and who had not received anti-viral treatment for hepatitis C were recruited. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed joint symptoms and signs, performed autoantibody and cytokine testing, and abstracted medical records for features of hepatitis C and arthritis...
April 24, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467688/effectiveness-and-cost-of-hepatitis-c-virus-cryoglobulinaemia-vasculitis-treatment-from-interferon-based-to-direct-acting-antivirals-era
#16
Patrice Cacoub, Mathieu Vautier, Anne Claire Desbois, Antoine Lafuma, David Saadoun
BACKGROUND: The net benefits of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAA) in patients with cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis (CryoVas) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effectiveness and cost of all treatments used for HCV-CryoVas in the DAA vs pre-DAA era. METHODS: A chart review of all HCV-CryoVas patients who received antivirals from 1993 to 2016 in a tertiary centre was performed. Treatment effectiveness was analysed for clinical, immunological and virological responses...
May 3, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459511/protective-effect-of-yiguanjian-decoction-against-dna-damage-on-concanavalin-a-induced-liver-injury-mice-model
#17
Mengxi Tian, Wenlan Liu, Hongjie You, Qingzhou Zhao, Luodan Ouyang, Biane Gao, Xin Zhang, Niancong Che
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Yiguanjian decoction (YD) on DNA damage in Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury mice model and to explain the possible mechanism. METHODS: METHODS: Totally 120 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, 20 mice each: normal group, model group, Bifendate group, YD low dose group, YD middle dose group and YD high dose group. Except normal group, liver injury model induced by Con A was established...
August 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457424/what-can-we-do-when-all-collapses-fatal-outcome-of-collapsing-glomerulopathy-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-with-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-case-report
#18
H Pinto, R Leal, L Rodrigues, L Santos, C Romãozinho, F Macário, R Alves, J Pratas, V Sousa, C Marinho, L Prado E Castro, F Costa, M Campos, A Mota, A Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION: Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a rare form of glomerular injury. Although commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it can occur in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 50-year-old man, with chronic kidney disease secondary to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, who received a cadaveric kidney transplant in 2007. There were no relevant intercurrences until May 2015, when he presented with nephrotic range proteinuria (± 4 g/d)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441176/long-term-nitrite-inhalant-exposure-and-cancer-risk-in-msm
#19
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among MSM and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404136/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-hiv
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Verna
Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, and in this era of safer and more effective hepatitis C therapy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could soon emerge as the most common liver disease in this population. NAFLD is common among patients with HIV, and might be more likely to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD-related fibrosis or cirrhosis in these patients than in individuals without HIV. Several mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are postulated to explain the disease severity in patients with HIV; these mechanisms include the influence of the gut microbiome, and also metabolic, genetic, and immunological factors...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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