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Immunology and hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643186/current-progress-in-host-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Jijing Shi, Yuanyuan Li, Wenxian Chang, Xuexiu Zhang, Fu-Sheng Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people worldwide and is the main cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the newly developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed the treatment of HCV infection, controlling HCV infection on a global scale remains a challenge because of the high cost, low resistance barrier of DAAs and lack of HCV vaccine. The host immune responses associated with HCV infection, especially HCV-specific T cellular immunity, determine the outcome of HCV infection: either acute or chronic infection...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629242/differential-effect-of-p38-and-mk2-kinase-inhibitors-on-the-inflammatory-and-toxicity-biomarkers-in-vitro
#2
R K Singh, M Diwan, S G Dastidar, A K Najmi
BACKGROUND: Many inflammatory responses including chemotaxis, production of nitric oxide, and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunological cells are mediated by p38MAPK. Due to its pivotal role, p38MAPK has been extensively explored as a molecular target for inhibition of chronic inflammation; however, it has not been successful so far due to serious toxicity issues. Among several downstream substrates of p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) has been reported to be a direct and essential downstream component in regulation of innate immune and inflammatory responses...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617830/on-treatment-decrease-of-nkg2d-correlates-to-early-emergence-of-clinically-evident-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-interferon-free-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#3
Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Nobuhito Taniki, Keisuke Ojiro, Takeru Amiya, Yuko Makita, Hiroko Murata, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Aya Ugamura, Akihiko Ikura, Karin Takeda, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. METHODS: We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614389/immunological-dynamics-associated-with-rapid-virological-response-during-the-early-phase-of-type-i-interferon-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#4
Jae-Won Lee, Won Kim, Eun-Kyung Kwon, Yuri Kim, Hyun Mu Shin, Dong-Hyun Kim, Chan-Ki Min, Ji-Yeob Choi, Won-Woo Lee, Myung-Sik Choi, Byeong Gwan Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho
Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in antiviral immunity as well as immunopathogenesis of diverse chronic viral infections. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the multifaceted effects of type I IFNs on the immune system and pathological inflammation still remain unclear. In order to assess the immunological dynamics associated with rapid viral clearance in chronic hepatitis C patients during the acute phase of type I IFN therapy, we analyzed multiple parameters of virological and immunological responses in a cohort of 59 Korean hepatitis C patients who received pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (IFN/RBV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584852/immunological-predictors-of-nonresponse-to-directly-acting-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#5
Kate Childs, Elliot Merritt, Aisling Considine, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo, Kosh Agarwal, Marc Martinez-Llordella, Ivana Carey
BACKGROUND: Sustained virological response rates (SVRs) to directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are lower in decompensated cirrhosis. Markers of innate immunity predict nonresponse to interferon-based HCV treatment; however, whether they are associated with the response to DAAs in patients with decompensation is not known. METHODS: Information on demographics, adherence, viral kinetics, and resistance were gathered prospectively from a cohort with decompensated cirrhosis treated with 12 weeks of DAAs...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567448/type-i-interferon-responses-drive-intrahepatic-t-cells-to-promote-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Magar Ghazarian, Xavier S Revelo, Mark K Nøhr, Helen Luck, Kejing Zeng, Helena Lei, Sue Tsai, Stephanie A Schroer, Yoo Jin Park, Melissa Hui Yen Chng, Lei Shen, June Ann D'Angelo, Peter Horton, William C Chapman, Diane Brockmeier, Minna Woo, Edgar G Engleman, Oyedele Adeyi, Naoto Hirano, Tianru Jin, Adam J Gehring, Shawn Winer, Daniel A Winer
Obesity-related insulin resistance is driven by low-grade chronic inflammation of metabolic tissues. In the liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and systemic glucose dysregulation. However, the immunological factors supporting these processes are poorly understood. We found that the liver accumulates pathogenic CD8+ T cell subsets which control hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis during diet-induced obesity in mice. In a cohort of human patients, CD8+ T cells represent a dominant intrahepatic immune cell population which links to glucose dysregulation...
April 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567369/dynamic-changes-of-the-frequency-of-classic-and-inflammatory-monocytes-subsets-and-natural-killer-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-by-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#7
Gang Ning, Yi-Ting Li, You-Ming Chen, Ying Zhang, Ying-Fu Zeng, Chao-Shuang Lin
OBJECTIVE: Up to now, little was known about the immunological changes of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs); we try to explore the effect of DAAs on the frequency of monocytes, NK cells, and cytokines that promote their activation. METHODS: 15 treatment-naive CHC patients and 10 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were examined before DAAs therapy (0 w) and at week 4 (4 w) and week 12 (12 w) of therapy...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532574/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-inflammatory-arthritis-in-a-population-based-cohort
#8
Elizabeth D Ferucci, Tammy L Choromanski, Danielle T Varney, Holly S Ryan, Lisa J Townshend-Bulson, Brian J McMahon, Mark H Wener
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-associated inflammatory arthritis, to describe its clinical and immunologic correlates, and to identify features that are characteristic of arthritis in chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Participants with chronic hepatitis C infection enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Alaska and who had not received anti-viral treatment for hepatitis C were recruited. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed joint symptoms and signs, performed autoantibody and cytokine testing, and abstracted medical records for features of hepatitis C and arthritis...
April 24, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467688/effectiveness-and-cost-of-hepatitis-c-virus-cryoglobulinemia-vasculitis-treatment-from-interferon-based-to-direct-acting-antivirals-era
#9
Patrice Cacoub, Mathieu Vautier, Anne Claire Desbois, Antoine Lafuma, David Saadoun
BACKGROUND: The net benefits of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct acting antiviral drugs (DAA) in patients with cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (CryoVas) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness and cost of all treatments used for HCV-CryoVas in the DAA versus pre-DAA era. METHODS: A chart review of all HCV-CryoVas patients who received antivirals from 1993 to 2016 in a tertiary center was performed. Treatment effectiveness was analyzed for clinical, immunological and virological responses...
May 3, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459511/protective-effect-of-yiguanjian-decoction-against-dna-damage-on-concanavalin-a-induced-liver-injury-mice-model
#10
Mengxi Tian, Wenlan Liu, Hongjie You, Qingzhou Zhao, Luodan Ouyang, Biane Gao, Xin Zhang, Niancong Che
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Yiguanjian decoction (YD) on DNA damage in Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury mice model and to explain the possible mechanism. METHODS: METHODS: Totally 120 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, 20 mice each: normal group, model group, Bifendate group, YD low dose group, YD middle dose group and YD high dose group. Except normal group, liver injury model induced by Con A was established...
August 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457424/what-can-we-do-when-all-collapses-fatal-outcome-of-collapsing-glomerulopathy-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-with-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-case-report
#11
H Pinto, R Leal, L Rodrigues, L Santos, C Romãozinho, F Macário, R Alves, J Pratas, V Sousa, C Marinho, L Prado E Castro, F Costa, M Campos, A Mota, A Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION: Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a rare form of glomerular injury. Although commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it can occur in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 50-year-old man, with chronic kidney disease secondary to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, who received a cadaveric kidney transplant in 2007. There were no relevant intercurrences until May 2015, when he presented with nephrotic range proteinuria (± 4 g/d)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441176/long-term-nitrite-inhalant-exposure-and-cancer-risk-in-msm
#12
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among MSM and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404136/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-hiv
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Verna
Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, and in this era of safer and more effective hepatitis C therapy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could soon emerge as the most common liver disease in this population. NAFLD is common among patients with HIV, and might be more likely to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD-related fibrosis or cirrhosis in these patients than in individuals without HIV. Several mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are postulated to explain the disease severity in patients with HIV; these mechanisms include the influence of the gut microbiome, and also metabolic, genetic, and immunological factors...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403327/internal-control-for-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-on-ms2-bacteriophage-for-rna-viruses-diagnostics
#14
Miriam Ribas Zambenedetti, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Andreia Cristine Dallabona, Alejandro Correa Dominguez, Celina de Oliveira Poersch, Stenio Perdigão Fragoso, Marco Aurélio Krieger
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is routinely used to detect viral infections. In Brazil, it is mandatory the use of nucleic acid tests to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus in blood banks because of the immunological window. The use of an internal control (IC) is necessary to differentiate the true negative results from those consequent from a failure in some step of the nucleic acid test. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was the construction of virus-modified particles, based on MS2 bacteriophage, to be used as IC for the diagnosis of RNA viruses...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388935/direct-acting-antiviral-agents-in-the-therapy-of-hepatitis-c-virus-related-mixed-cryoglobulinaemia-a-single-centre-experience
#15
Gianfranco Lauletta, Sabino Russi, Fabio Pavone, Angelo Vacca, Franco Dammacco
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) were evaluated in a cohort of prospectively enrolled patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC), an immune complex-mediated vasculitis of small and medium vessels in which the pathogenetic role of HCV has been clearly established. METHODS: Twenty-two patients received DAAs. Clinical and laboratory features were recorded at baseline, every 4 weeks until the end of treatment (EoT), and 12 weeks afterwards...
April 8, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329932/-an-investigation-on-immunological-effect-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-amongst-adult-population-in-high-labor-export-rural-regions-under-4-different-strategies
#16
X Y Zheng, Z H Ji, Z W Guo, Y W Liu, Z J Shao, Y P Yan
Objective: To grope for an ideal immune strategy in grown-ups via comparison of immunological effects under 4 different vaccination schemes. Methods: Study population was selected by stratified random cluster sampling. A total of 4 different vaccination proposals, including Strategy A (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-6 months), Strategy B (2 doses, 20 μg, administrated into the bilateral deltoid muscles simultaneously), Strategy C (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-2 months) and Strategy D (2 doses, 10 μg, administrated to the bilateral deltoid muscles at the same time), were conducted in Liangzhou, Minqin Gulang, and the Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomic county respectively, in Wuwei city, Gansu province...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317886/systems-pharmacology-based-strategy-to-screen-new-adjuvant-for-hepatitis-b-vaccine-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#17
Jingbo Wang, Rui Liu, Baoxiu Liu, Yan Yang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Adjuvants are common component for many vaccines but there are still few licensed for human use due to low efficiency or side effects. The present work adopted Systems Pharmacology analysis as a new strategy to screen adjuvants from traditional Chinese medicine. Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used for many years in China and other Asian countries with many biological properties, but the pharmacological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. First in this study, 190 putative targets for 17 active compounds in Ophiocordyceps sinensis were retrieved and a systems pharmacology-based approach was applied to provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of the drug...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317093/non-neutralizing-epitopes-induce-robust-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-specific-antibody-dependent-cd56-natural-killer-cell-responses-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#18
L Long, M Jia, X Fan, H Liang, J Wang, L Zhu, Z Xie, T Shen
Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (NK-ADCC) is of considerable interest in viral infection. However, little is known about NK-ADCC responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, impaired non-specific antibody-dependent CD56(+) NK cell responses were observed in chronic HCV infection, as shown by decreased degranulation (extracellular CD107a expression) and interferon (IFN)-γ production in response to antibody-bound P815 cells. A peptide pool composed of epitopes recognized by anti-HCV-E1/E2 antibodies could induce pronounced HCV-specific antibody-dependent NK cell responses in sera from approximately half the chronic HCV carriers...
July 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303031/a-biologically-validated-hcv-e1e2-heterodimer-structural-model
#19
Matteo Castelli, Nicola Clementi, Jennifer Pfaff, Giuseppe A Sautto, Roberta A Diotti, Roberto Burioni, Benjamin J Doranz, Matteo Dal Peraro, Massimo Clementi, Nicasio Mancini
The design of vaccine strategies and the development of drugs targeting the early stages of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are hampered by the lack of structural information about its surface glycoproteins E1 and E2, the two constituents of HCV entry machinery. Despite the recent crystal resolution of limited versions of both proteins in truncated form, a complete picture of the E1E2 complex is still missing. Here we combined deep computational analysis of E1E2 secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure with functional and immunological mutational analysis across E1E2 in order to propose an in silico model for the ectodomain of the E1E2 heterodimer...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295463/immune-phenotype-and-function-of-natural-killer-and-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-who-received-a-single-dose-of-anti-microrna-122-rg-101
#20
Femke Stelma, Meike H van der Ree, Marjan J Sinnige, Anthony Brown, Leo Swadling, J Marleen L de Vree, Sophie B Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Paul Klenerman, Eleanor Barnes, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
MicroRNA-122 is an important host factor for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment with RG-101, an N-acetylgalactosamine-conjugated anti-microRNA-122 oligonucleotide, resulted in a significant viral load reduction in patients with chronic HCV infection. Here, we analyzed the effects of RG-101 therapy on antiviral immunity. Thirty-two chronic HCV patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 3, and 4 received a single subcutaneous administration of RG-101 at 2 mg/kg (n = 14) or 4 mg/kg (n = 14) or received a placebo (n = 2/dosing group)...
July 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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