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Immunology and hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886092/prediction-of-long-term-outcomes-of-hiv-infected-patients-developing-non-aids-events-using-a-multistate-approach
#2
Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Santiago Moreno, Xavier Barber, Jose A Iribarren, Jorge Del Romero, Juan L Gómez-Sirvent, María Rivero, Francesc Vidal, Antonio A Campins, Félix Gutiérrez
OBJETIVES: Outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH) developing non-AIDS events (NAEs) remain poorly defined. We aimed to classify NAEs according to severity, and to describe clinical outcomes and prognostic factors after NAE occurrence using data from CoRIS, a large Spanish HIV cohort from 2004 to 2013. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. METHODS: Using a multistate approach we estimated 3 transition probabilities: from alive and NAE-free to alive and NAE-experienced ("NAE development"); from alive and NAE-experienced to death ("Death after NAE"); and from alive and NAE-free to death ("Death without NAE")...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884240/the-serological-markers-of-acute-infection-with-hepatitis-a-b-c-d-e-and-g-viruses-revisited
#3
REVIEW
Robério Amorim de Almeida Pondé
Viral hepatitis is a liver infection caused by one of the six hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G virus (HAV to HEV and HGV). These agents differ in their biological, immunological, pathological and epidemiological characteristics. They cause infections that, when symptomatic, lead to clinical manifestations and laboratory findings that are not specific to a particular virus, often making differential diagnosis difficult, especially when no knowledge is available regarding the patient's medical history or the epidemiological background...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883973/vectored-immunoprophylaxis-an-emerging-adjunct-to-traditional-vaccination
#4
REVIEW
John W Sanders, Todd A Ponzio
The successful development of effective vaccines has been elusive for many of the world's most important infectious diseases. Additionally, much of the population, such as the aged or immunocompromised, are unable to mount an effective immunologic response for existing vaccines. Vectored Immunoprophylaxis (VIP) is a novel approach designed to address these challenges. Rather than utilizing an antigen to trigger a response from the host's immune system as is normally done with traditional vaccines, VIP genetically engineers the production of tailored antibodies from non-hematopoietic cells, bypassing the humoral immune system...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881722/hepatic-nk-cell-mediated-hypersensitivity-to-cona-induced-liver-injury-in-mouse-liver-expressing-hepatitis-c-virus-polyprotein
#5
Qiuxia Fu, Shaoduo Yan, Licui Wang, Xiangguo Duan, Lei Wang, Yue Wang, Tao Wu, Xiaohui Wang, Jie An, Yulong Zhang, Qianqian Zhou, Linsheng Zhan
The role of hepatic NK cells in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated hepatic failure is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV on ConA-induced immunological hepatic injury and the influence of HCV on hepatic NK cell activation in the liver after ConA administration. An immunocompetent HCV mouse model that encodes the entire viral polyprotein in a liver-specific manner based on hydrodynamic injection and φC31o integrase was used to study the role of hepatic NK cells. Interestingly, the frequency of hepatic NK cells was reduced in HCV mice, whereas the levels of other intrahepatic lymphocytes remained unaltered...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856282/the-occurrence-of-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-chronic-hcv-infection-including-patients-dialyzed-and-after-kidney-transplantation
#6
Tadeusz W Łapiński, Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Anna Parfieniuk-Kowerda, Magdalena Świderska, Robert Flisiak
INTRODUCTION: There are reports suggesting that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may stimulate the autoimmune process. Studies have been undertaken to evaluate the occurrence and type of autoantibodies in HCV-infected patients with and without immunosuppression. Results were analyzed according to HCV genotype, intensity of inflammation and liver fibrosis stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 105 patients chronically infected with HCV, including 25 with immunological suppression administered for kidney disease or kidney transplantation...
December 2016: Clin Exp Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845855/-role-of-combination-nk-kirs-in-the-natural-history-of-viral-infections
#7
Claudia Colomba, Antonio Cascio, Calogero Caruso, Marcello Trizzino, Claudia Gioè, Giuliana Guadagnino, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto, Annalisa Saracino, Gioacchino Angarano, Danilo Di Bona
Immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of the immune response against viral infections take into account the activation of both innate adaptative response. Innate immune defenses trigger a rapid local response, which is often sufficient to control viral infection, and promotes the subsequent activation of specific immune defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells that constitute a subpopulation of lymphocyte-related cells are a key factor of innate immune response and play a role in defense against viral infections by killing infected cells or by producing cytokines and interacting with adaptative immune system's cells...
July 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845109/liver-stiffness-is-not-associated-with-short-and-long-term-plasma-hiv-rna-replication-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-with-hiv-hcv-coinfection
#8
Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Monica Basso, Carlo Mengoli, Renzo Scaggiante, Samantha Andreis, Marzia Maria Franzetti, Anna Maria Cattelan, Daniela Zago, Mario Cruciani, Massimo Andreoni, Sara Piovesan, Giorgio Palù, Alfredo Alberti
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be directly responsible for liver damage but there are contrasting data regarding the influence of detectable plasma viremia. We analyzed the influence of plasma HIV RNA (pHIV) detectability and of other clinical and viro-immunological variables on liver stiffness (LS) measurement in adult immunocompetent HIV-monoinfected patients and in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was performed using the value of LS>7...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840696/-effects-of-curcumae-rhizoma-vinegar-processed-curcumae-rhizoma-on-immune-hepatic-fibrosis-proliferation-of-hsc-t6-and-expression-of-%C3%AE-sma-and-procollagen-i
#9
Ji Zhang, Yan Song, Qiao-Han Wang, Lin Li, De Ji, Wei Gu, Min Hao, Tu-Lin Lu, Chun-Qin Mao
To compare the effects of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizomaon immune hepatic fibrosis, proliferation of HSC-T6, and expressions of α-SMA and Procollagen I. The immunological liver fibrosis model was prepared through intraperitoneal injection with porcine serum 0.5 mL in each rat, twice a week, for 14 weeks. Expressions of serum ALT, AST, PC-Ⅲ, IV-C, LN, HA and HYP, MDA in liver tissues were observed after administration of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma (0.95, 1.90 g•kg⁻¹)...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838454/acute-graft-rejection-and-formation-of-de-novo-donor-specific-antibodies-triggered-by-low-cyclosporine-levels-and-interferon-therapy-for-recurrent-hepatitis-c-infection-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#10
R Nakano, M Ohira, K Ishiyama, K Ide, T Kobayashi, H Tahara, S Shimizu, K Arihiro, M Imamura, K Chayama, Y Tanaka, H Ohdan
BACKGROUND: We report a case of acute rejection of a liver graft, together with the occurrence of de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), in a 53-year-old Japanese man who had undergone deceased-donor liver transplantation. METHODS: The graft rejection was triggered by low cyclosporine levels and pegylated interferon treatment for the recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection 18 months after transplantation. Although the graft was ABO-compatible, pre-formed DSA B51 was detected; therefore, total plasma exchange was performed and intravenous rituximab (500 mg/body) was administered before transplantation...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770876/assessment-of-the-underlying-causes-of-the-immune-thrombocytopenia-ten-years-experience
#11
Mehmet Sinan Dal, Abdullah Karakus, Tuba Dal, Berrin Balik Aydin, Elif Hattapoglu, Mehmet Onder Ekmen, Turgay Ulas, Orhan Ayyildiz
OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune haematologic disorder causing platelet destruction mediated by anti-platelet antibodies. In this study we aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory variables of ITP patients in southeast of Turkey. METHODS: In this retrospective study 167 ITP patients between 2005 and 2015 were evaluated. All patients were screened for immunological parameters including ANA (antinuclear antibodies), anti dsDNA (anti-double-stranded-DNA), ACA(anti-cardiolipin) IgM and IgG, LA (lupus anticoagulants)...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749434/unsolved-puzzles-surrounding-hcv-immunity-heterologous-immunity-adds-another-dimension
#12
REVIEW
Babita Agrawal, Shakti Singh, Nancy Gupta, Wen Li, Satish Vedi, Rakesh Kumar
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748166/assessment-of-immunomodulatory-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-calamus-rotang
#13
Amit Gupta, Sushama Ravindra Chaphalkar
OBJECTIVE: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C...
May 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716825/efficiency-and-safety-of-crac-inhibitors-in-human-rheumatoid-arthritis-xenograft-models
#14
Shuang Liu, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Erika Takemasa, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Keizou Oka, Takeshi Kiyoi, Hiroyuki Takeda, Tomio Ogasawara, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Masaki Yasukawa, Kazutaka Maeyama
Store-operated Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and have been studied as therapeutic targets in the management of RA. We investigated the efficacy and safety of CRAC inhibitors, including a neutralizing Ab (hCRACM1-IgG) and YM-58483, in the treatment of RA. Patient-derived T cell and B cell activity was suppressed by hCRACM1-IgG as well as YM-58483. Systemically constant, s.c. infused CRAC inhibitors showed anti-inflammatory activity in a human-NOD/SCID xenograft RA model as well as protective effects against the destruction of cartilage and bone...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706073/mouse-models-of-acute-and-chronic-hepacivirus-infection
#15
Eva Billerbeck, Raphael Wolfisberg, Ulrik Fahnøe, Jing W Xiao, Corrine Quirk, Joseph M Luna, John M Cullen, Alex S Hartlage, Luis Chiriboga, Kalpana Ghoshal, W Ian Lipkin, Jens Bukh, Troels K H Scheel, Amit Kapoor, Charles M Rice
An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections in laboratory mice with immunological features resembling those seen in human viral hepatitis. Whereas immune-compromised mice developed persistent infection, immune-competent mice cleared the virus within 3 to 5 weeks. Acute clearance was T cell dependent and associated with liver injury...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659437/type-2-immunity-is-protective-in-metabolic-disease-but-exacerbates-nafld-collaboratively-with-tgf-%C3%AE
#16
Kevin M Hart, Thomas Fabre, Joshua C Sciurba, Richard L Gieseck, Lee A Borthwick, Kevin M Vannella, Thomas H Acciani, Rafael de Queiroz Prado, Robert W Thompson, Sandra White, Genevieve Soucy, Marc Bilodeau, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Joseph R Arron, Naglaa H Shoukry, Thomas A Wynn
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common progressive liver disease in developed countries and is the second leading indication for liver transplantation due to the extensive fibrosis it causes. NAFLD progression is thought to be tied to chronic low-level type 1 inflammation originating in the adipose tissue during obesity; however, the specific immunological mechanisms regulating the progression of NAFLD-associated fibrosis in the liver are unclear. To investigate the immunopathogenesis of NAFLD more completely, we investigated adipose dysfunction, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis in mice that develop polarized type 1 or type 2 immune responses...
June 28, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658732/-good-s-syndrome-report-of-case
#17
Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez, José Israel León-Pedroza, María Eugenia Vargas-Camaño, María Isabel Castrejón-Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Good's syndrome is an association of thymoma and immunodeficiency. The symptoms are recurrent sinopulmonary infections in addition to the compressive side of thymoma. A laboratory finding is notable for the absence or decrease of B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, inversion ratio CD4/CD8 and abnormal proliferative response to mitogens. CASE REPORT: Female, 49-year-old started five months earlier with lower limb edema, postprandial vomiting, dysphagia, chronic diarrhea and weight loss...
April 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643186/current-progress-in-host-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
REVIEW
Jijing Shi, Yuanyuan Li, Wenxian Chang, Xuexiu Zhang, Fu-Sheng Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people worldwide and is the main cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the newly developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed the treatment of HCV infection, controlling HCV infection on a global scale remains a challenge because of the high cost, low resistance barrier of DAAs and lack of HCV vaccine. The host immune responses associated with HCV infection, especially HCV-specific T cellular immunity, determine the outcome of HCV infection: either acute or chronic infection...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629242/differential-effect-of-p38-and-mk2-kinase-inhibitors-on-the-inflammatory-and-toxicity-biomarkers-in-vitro
#19
R K Singh, M Diwan, S G Dastidar, A K Najmi
BACKGROUND: Many inflammatory responses including chemotaxis, production of nitric oxide, and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunological cells are mediated by p38MAPK. Due to its pivotal role, p38MAPK has been extensively explored as a molecular target for inhibition of chronic inflammation; however, it has not been successful so far due to serious toxicity issues. Among several downstream substrates of p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) has been reported to be a direct and essential downstream component in regulation of innate immune and inflammatory responses...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617830/on-treatment-decrease-of-nkg2d-correlates-to-early-emergence-of-clinically-evident-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-interferon-free-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#20
Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Nobuhito Taniki, Keisuke Ojiro, Takeru Amiya, Yuko Makita, Hiroko Murata, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Aya Ugamura, Akihiko Ikura, Karin Takeda, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. METHODS: We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i...
2017: PloS One
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