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Immunology and hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761172/loss-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-aggravates-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-inflammation-during-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#1
Tomohiro Suzuki, Shoko Minagawa, Takashi Yamazaki, Takatomo Arai, Mai Kanai, Satoko Shinjo, Nobuhito Goda
Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury is closely associated with acute hepatic inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is activated during immunological processes and regulates gene expressions in various types of immune cells. Although HIF-1 controls the differentiation and functions of conventional T cells in chronic inflammation, the pathological importance of HIF-1 in innate-like T cells during acute inflammation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1 in innate-like γδ T cells during APAP-induced acute liver injury...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744934/modelling-how-reversal-of-immune-exhaustion-elicits-cure-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-the-end-of-treatment-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#2
Subhasish Baral, Rahul Roy, Narendra M Dixit
A fraction of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) achieved sustained virological responses (SVR), or cure, despite having detectable viremia at the end of treatment (EOT). This observation, termed EOT+ /SVR, remains puzzling and precludes rational optimization of treatment durations. One hypothesis to explain EOT+ /SVR, the immunologic hypothesis, argues that the viral decline induced by DAAs during treatment reverses the exhaustion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which then clear the infection after treatment...
May 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743799/advances-in-hcv-and-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis-in-the-era-of-daas-are-we-at-the-end-of-the-road
#3
REVIEW
Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul, Robert Mitrani, K Rajender Reddy
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-related Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MC) is a unique condition with complex pathogenesis that involves HCV antigen-driven B-lymphocyte clonal proliferation and mutagenesis. Clinical spectrum of MC ranges from asymptomatic state to clinically-apparent vasculitis involving multiple organs. In the era of Direct-Acting Antiviral (DAA) therapy, patients with HCV-related MC achieve high rates of viral clearance that is commonly accompanied by an improvement in clinical symptoms as well as immunological profiles...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731749/adaptive-nkg2c-cd57-natural-killer-cell-and-tim-3-expression-during-viral-infections
#4
Hassen Kared, Serena Martelli, Shu Wen Tan, Yannick Simoni, Meng Li Chong, Siew Hwei Yap, Evan W Newell, Sylvia L F Pender, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Anis Larbi
Repetitive stimulation by persistent pathogens such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces the differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells. This maturation pathway is characterized by the acquisition of phenotypic markers, CD2, CD57, and NKG2C, and effector functions-a process regulated by Tim-3 and orchestrated by a complex network of transcriptional factors, involving T-bet, Eomes, Zeb2, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, and Foxo3. Here, we show that persistent immune activation during chronic viral co-infections (HCMV, hepatitis C virus, and HIV) interferes with the functional phenotype of NK cells by modulating the Tim-3 pathway; a decrease in Tim-3 expression combined with the acquisition of inhibitory receptors skewed NK cells toward an exhausted and cytotoxic phenotype in an inflammatory environment during chronic HIV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725605/hepatitis-c-infection-and-periodontal-disease-is-there-a-common-immunological-link
#5
REVIEW
Dorin Nicolae Gheorghe, Liliana Foia, Vasilica Toma, Amelia Surdu, Elena Herascu, Dora Maria Popescu, Petra Surlin, Cristin Constantin Vere, Ion Rogoveanu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections could have an important impact on the oral health status of patients, favoring conditions such as periodontal disease and oral cancer. The review of the existing scientific literature written in English was performed, searching for oral and periodontal manifestations of HCV infection and its impact on the oral fluids. HCV infection can determine direct extrahepatic manifestations at the oral and periodontal level including oral lichen planus, Sjögren-like sialadenitis, and oral cancer...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721164/novel-therapeutic-features-of-disulfiram-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-with-inhibitory-effects-on-a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-10
#6
Kaku Goto, Jun Arai, Anthony Stephanou, Naoya Kato
Our previous genome-wide association study identified the anti-tumor ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A ( MICA ) as a susceptibility gene for hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We subsequently proved that pharmacological restoration of membrane-bound MICA in HCC cells boosted natural killer cell-mediated anti-cancer effects, confirming that a MICA sheddase, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10), is a therapeutic target. We here searched for approved drugs with inhibitory effects on ADAM10 in vitro , and the anti-alcoholism agent, disulfiram, was identified...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705529/long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-hcv-associated-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis-after-virologic-cure
#7
Martín Bonacci, Sabela Lens, Zoe Mariño, María-Carlota Londoño, Sergio Rodriguez-Tajes, José M Sánchez-Tapias, Manel Ramos-Casals, José Hernández-Rodríguez, Xavier Forns
Patients with hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (HCV-CV) have high rates of clinical remission after treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs),but circulating cryoglobulins persist and vascular disorders reappear in some patients shortly after DAA treatment ends. We performed a prospective study to assess the long-term clinical and immune system effects of HCV eradication with DAAs in 46 patients with HCV-CV and 42 asymptomatic patients with circulating cryoglobulins. A median of 24 months after DAA treatment (range, 17-41 months), 66% of patients with HCV-CV and 70% of asymptomatic patients with circulating cryoglobulins had immunologic response, with comparable reductions in cryocrit from 2...
April 26, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705238/hcv-modifies-egf-signalling-and-upregulates-production-of-cxcr2-ligands-role-in-inflammation-and-antiviral-immune-response
#8
Christina Groepper, Kerstin Rufinatscha, Nadja Schröder, Sabine Stindt, Christian Ehlting, Ute Albrecht, Hans H Bock, Ralf Bartenschlager, Dieter Häussinger, Johannes G Bode
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To affect immune response and inflammation, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) substantially influences intercellular communication pathways that are decisive for immune cell recruitment. The present study investigates mechanisms by which HCV modulates chemokine-mediated intercellular communication of the infected cells. METHODS: Chemokine expression is studied in HCVcc -infected cell lines or cell lines harbouring a subgenomic replicon as well as in serum samples from patients...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692819/correlation-between-vitamin-d3-level-and-extrahepatic-manifestation-in-chronic-hepatitis-type-c-virus-patients
#9
Hamid Kalantari, Hadi Karimzadeh, Saeed Kalantari, Majid Talebi, Majid Yaran, Javad Golpayegani
Background: Chronic hepatitis type-C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common worldwide viral disorders, which leads to various clinical complications as well as extrahepatic manifestations. Furthermore, Vitamin D3 has also been reported to have relationship with the mentioned complications. The aim is to evaluate the correlation between Vitamin D3 level and extrahepatic manifestation in chronic HCV patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been carried out on 90 patients with chronic hepatitis C...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691437/immunological-responses-following-administration-of-a-genotype-1a-1b-2-3a-quadrivalent-hcv-vlp-vaccine
#10
D Christiansen, L Earnest-Silveira, B Chua, P Meuleman, I Boo, B Grubor-Bauk, D C Jackson, Z Y Keck, S K H Foung, H E Drummer, E J Gowans, J Torresi
The significant public health problem of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been partially addressed with the advent of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, the development of an effective preventative vaccine would have a significant impact on HCV incidence and would represent a major advance towards controlling and possibly eradicating HCV globally. We previously reported a genotype 1a HCV viral-like particle (VLP) vaccine that produced neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and T cell responses to HCV. To advance this approach, we produced a quadrivalent genotype 1a/1b/2a/3a HCV VLP vaccine to produce broader immune responses...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685024/oral-lichen-planus
#11
L Giannetti, A M Dello Diago, E Spinas
Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is the most frequent mucosal localization of Lichen planus, affecting about 1-2% of the population. It is associated with skin lesions in 60-70% of cases, while occurring as the only manifestations in 15-25% of patients. Six clinical forms of OLP are identified: reticular (the most common), plaque, papular, atrophic, vesicles/bullous and erosive. The evolution is chronic, especially in the erosive form. A 1% incidence of squamous-cell carcinoma has been reported, thus considering OLP as a potential premalignant condition...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685011/glucocorticoids-in-combination-with-ursodesoxycholic-acid-in-the-treatment-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#12
W Y Li, X S Yang, Y C Wang
Autoimmune hepatitis (AH) is usually manifested as chronic hepatitis in clinics; it may evolve to liver cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and even death if treatment is delayed. To investigate the clinical efficacy of glucocorticoids in combination with ursodesoxycholic acid in the treatment of glucocorticoids in combination with ursodesoxycholic acid, one hundred and twenty patients with AH who were admitted to the hospital from February 2014 and February 2016 were selected and randomly divided into an observation group and a control group using random number table...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668078/adherence-and-immune-response-to-revaccination-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-at-a-pediatric-onco-hematology-reference-center
#13
Fernanda Gouveia-Alves, Roseane Gouveia, Valéria C Ginani, Adriana Seber, Danielle A Kuramoto, Gabriel F A Murad, Fernanda G Spina, Antonio S Petrilli, Victor G Zecchin, Celso Granato, Fabianne Carlesse, M Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients. METHODS: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. After written informed consent, a questionnaire was filled in, the vaccination card was analyzed, a blood sample was collected and tested by ELISA for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, measles, rubella and varicella antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607532/an-efficient-method-to-isolate-kupffer-cells-eliminating-endothelial-cell-contamination-and-selective-bias
#14
Ruairi W Lynch, Catherine A Hawley, Antonella Pellicoro, Calum C Bain, John P Iredale, Stephen J Jenkins
Multicolor flow cytometry and cell sorting are powerful immunologic tools for the study of hepatic mϕ, yet there is no consensus on the optimal method to prepare liver homogenates for these analyses. Using a combination of mϕ and endothelial cell reporter mice, flow cytometry, and confocal imaging, we have shown that conventional flow-cytometric strategies for identification of Kupffer cells (KCs) leads to inclusion of a significant proportion of CD31hi endothelial cells. These cells were present regardless of the method used to prepare cells for flow cytometry and represented endothelium tightly adhered to remnants of KC membrane...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596181/chapter-6-0-history-of-paediatric-hepatology-in-espghan
#15
Martin Burdelski
Hepatology played an important role in ESPGAN from the beginning. In 1989, the Hepatology Committee was started. In the early 1990s H for hepatology was included in ESPGHAN. Hepatology Summer schools were held from 1995 and later monothematic conferences met the needs of many young ESPGHAN members. The role of ESPGHAN members in the progress of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in hepatitis B and C will be elucidated (Chapter 6.1) as well as the role of other ESPGHAN members in the understanding of immunological hepatic disorders of childhood (Chapter 6...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593047/il-27r-signalling-mediates-early-viral-containment-and-impacts-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-after-chronic-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-infection
#16
James A Harker, Kurt A Wong, Simone Dallari, Phuc Bao, Aleksandr Dolgoter, Yeara Jo, Ellen J Wehrens, Monica Macal, Elina I Zuniga
Chronic viral infections represent a major challenge to host's immune response and a unique network of immunological elements, including cytokines, are required for their containment. By using a model persistent infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) we investigated the role of one such cytokine, interleukin 27 (IL-27), in the control of chronic infection. We found that IL-27R signalling promoted control of LCMV Cl13 as early as day 1 and 5 after infection and that il27p28 transcripts were rapidly elevated in multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528012/morphologic-and-immunologic-characteristics-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-for-prognosis-of-surgical-intervention
#17
Gulziya Ismailova, Eugene Yenin, Shokan Kaniev, Dinara Bayguisova, Talgat Tajibaev
OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the predominant malignancy in patients with cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. Our aim was to assess the morphologic, radiologic, and immunologic charac teristics of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis concerning surgical treatment tactics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study performed at the JSC National Scientific Center of Surgery (named after A. Syzganov). The study included 58 patients: 31 with hepatocellular carcinoma (53...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498078/stopping-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-in-caucasian-hepatitis-b-patients-after-hbeag-seroconversion-is-associated-with-high-relapse-rates-and-fatal-outcomes
#18
S Van Hees, S Bourgeois, H Van Vlierberghe, T Sersté, S Francque, P Michielsen, D Sprengers, H Reynaert, J Henrion, S Negrin Dastis, J Delwaide, L Lasser, J Decaestecker, H Orlent, F Janssens, G Robaeys, I Colle, P Stärkel, C Moreno, F Nevens, T Vanwolleghem
BACKGROUND: Stopping nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is associated with high relapse rates in Asian patients, but data in Caucasian cohorts are scarce. Clinical course, outcomes and immunological aspects of chronic hepatitis B infections differ substantially between distinct ethnicities. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine relapse rates, factors predicting relapse and clinical outcomes after nucleos(t)ide analogue cessation in a large, predominantly Caucasian cohort of chronic hepatitis B patients with nucleos(t)ide analogue-induced HBeAg seroconversion...
April 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477639/critical-challenges-and-emerging-opportunities-in-hepatitis-c-virus-research-in-an-era-of-potent-antiviral-therapy-considerations-for-scientists-and-funding-agencies
#19
REVIEW
Ralf Bartenschlager, Thomas F Baumert, Jens Bukh, Michael Houghton, Stanley M Lemon, Brett D Lindenbach, Volker Lohmann, Darius Moradpour, Thomas Pietschmann, Charles M Rice, Robert Thimme, Takaji Wakita
The development and clinical implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Infection with any hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype can now be eliminated in more than 95% of patients with short courses of all-oral, well-tolerated drugs, even in those with advanced liver disease and liver transplant recipients. DAAs have proven so successful that some now consider HCV amenable to eradication, and continued research on the virus of little remaining medical relevance...
March 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467758/predicting-early-viral-control-under-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-using-pretreatment-immunological-markers
#20
James A Hutchinson, Kilian Weigand, Akinbami Adenugba, Katharina Kronenberg, Jan Haarer, Florian Zeman, Paloma Riquelme, Matthias Hornung, Norbert Ahrens, Hans J Schlitt, Edward K Geissler, Jens M Werner
Recent introduction of all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment has revolutionized care of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Regrettably, the high cost of DAA treatment is burdensome for healthcare systems and may be prohibitive for some patients who would otherwise benefit. Understanding how patient-related factors influence individual responses to DAA treatment may lead to more efficient prescribing. In this observational study, patients with chronic HCV infection were comprehensively monitored by flow cytometry to identify pretreatment immunological variables that predicted HCV RNA negativity within 4 weeks of commencing DAA treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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