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Immunology and hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441176/long-term-nitrite-inhalant-exposure-and-cancer-risk-in-msm
#1
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among MSM and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404136/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-hiv
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Verna
Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, and in this era of safer and more effective hepatitis C therapy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could soon emerge as the most common liver disease in this population. NAFLD is common among patients with HIV, and might be more likely to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD-related fibrosis or cirrhosis in these patients than in individuals without HIV. Several mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are postulated to explain the disease severity in patients with HIV; these mechanisms include the influence of the gut microbiome, and also metabolic, genetic, and immunological factors...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403327/internal-control-for-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-on-ms2-bacteriophage-for-rna-viruses-diagnostics
#3
Miriam Ribas Zambenedetti, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Andreia Cristine Dallabona, Alejandro Correa Dominguez, Celina de Oliveira Poersch, Stenio Perdigão Fragoso, Marco Aurélio Krieger
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is routinely used to detect viral infections. In Brazil, it is mandatory the use of nucleic acid tests to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus in blood banks because of the immunological window. The use of an internal control (IC) is necessary to differentiate the true negative results from those consequent from a failure in some step of the nucleic acid test. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was the construction of virus-modified particles, based on MS2 bacteriophage, to be used as IC for the diagnosis of RNA viruses...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388935/direct-acting-antiviral-agents-in-the-therapy-of-hepatitis-c-virus-related-mixed-cryoglobulinaemia-a-single-centre-experience
#4
Gianfranco Lauletta, Sabino Russi, Fabio Pavone, Angelo Vacca, Franco Dammacco
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) were evaluated in a cohort of prospectively enrolled patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC), an immune complex-mediated vasculitis of small and medium vessels in which the pathogenetic role of HCV has been clearly established. METHODS: Twenty-two patients received DAAs. Clinical and laboratory features were recorded at baseline, every 4 weeks until the end of treatment (EoT), and 12 weeks afterwards...
April 8, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329932/-an-investigation-on-immunological-effect-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-amongst-adult-population-in-high-labor-export-rural-regions-under-4-different-strategies
#5
X Y Zheng, Z H Ji, Z W Guo, Y W Liu, Z J Shao, Y P Yan
Objective: To grope for an ideal immune strategy in grown-ups via comparison of immunological effects under 4 different vaccination schemes. Methods: Study population was selected by stratified random cluster sampling. A total of 4 different vaccination proposals, including Strategy A (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-6 months), Strategy B (2 doses, 20 μg, administrated into the bilateral deltoid muscles simultaneously), Strategy C (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-2 months) and Strategy D (2 doses, 10 μg, administrated to the bilateral deltoid muscles at the same time), were conducted in Liangzhou, Minqin Gulang, and the Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomic county respectively, in Wuwei city, Gansu province...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317886/systems-pharmacology-based-strategy-to-screen-new-adjuvant-for-hepatitis-b-vaccine-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#6
Jingbo Wang, Rui Liu, Baoxiu Liu, Yan Yang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Adjuvants are common component for many vaccines but there are still few licensed for human use due to low efficiency or side effects. The present work adopted Systems Pharmacology analysis as a new strategy to screen adjuvants from traditional Chinese medicine. Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used for many years in China and other Asian countries with many biological properties, but the pharmacological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. First in this study, 190 putative targets for 17 active compounds in Ophiocordyceps sinensis were retrieved and a systems pharmacology-based approach was applied to provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of the drug...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317093/non-neutralizing-epitopes-induce-robust-hcv-specific-antibody-dependent-cd56-nk-cell-responses-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#7
Lu Long, Manxue Jia, Xueying Fan, Hua Liang, Jiahua Wang, Liyan Zhu, Zhe Xie, Tao Shen
NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (NK-ADCC) is of considerable interest in viral infection. However, little is known about NK-ADCC responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, impaired nonspecific antibody-dependent CD56(+) NK cell responses were observed in chronic HCV infection, as shown by decreased degranulation (extracellular CD107a expression) and IFN-γ production in response to antibody-bound P815 cells. A peptide pool composed of epitopes recognized by anti-HCV-E1/E2 antibodies could induce pronounced HCV-specific antibody-dependent NK cell responses in sera from approximately half of the chronic HCV carriers...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303031/a-biologically-validated-hcv-e1e2-heterodimer-structural-model
#8
Matteo Castelli, Nicola Clementi, Jennifer Pfaff, Giuseppe A Sautto, Roberta A Diotti, Roberto Burioni, Benjamin J Doranz, Matteo Dal Peraro, Massimo Clementi, Nicasio Mancini
The design of vaccine strategies and the development of drugs targeting the early stages of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are hampered by the lack of structural information about its surface glycoproteins E1 and E2, the two constituents of HCV entry machinery. Despite the recent crystal resolution of limited versions of both proteins in truncated form, a complete picture of the E1E2 complex is still missing. Here we combined deep computational analysis of E1E2 secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure with functional and immunological mutational analysis across E1E2 in order to propose an in silico model for the ectodomain of the E1E2 heterodimer...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295463/immune-phenotype-and-function-of-nk-and-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-who-received-a-single-dose-of-anti-mir-122-rg-101
#9
Femke Stelma, Meike H van der Ree, Marjan J Sinnige, Anthony Brown, Leo Swadling, J Marleen L de Vree, Sophie B Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Paul Klenerman, Eleanor Barnes, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is an important host factor for the hepatitis C (HCV) virus. Treatment with RG-101, a GalNAc conjugated anti-miR-122 oligonucleotide, resulted in a significant viral load reduction in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Here, we analyzed the effects of RG-101 therapy on antiviral immunity. 32 CHC patients HCV genotype 1, 3 and 4 received a single subcutaneous administration with RG-101 at 2 mg/kg (n=14), 4 mg/kg (n=14) or placebo (n=2 per dosing group). Plasma and PBMCs were collected at multiple time points and comprehensive immunological analyses were performed...
March 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293236/interferon-lambda-modulating-immunity-in-infectious-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Adrian Egli
Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293078/hepatitis-c-infected-patients-need-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals-treatment
#11
EDITORIAL
Yasuteru Kondo
It has been reported that the serum level of vitamin D3 (VitD3) could affect the natural course of chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) and the response to treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin. Although several mechanisms for the favorable effects of VitD3 supplementation were reported, the total effect of VitD3 supplementation remains unclear. Previously, we reported that supplementation with 1(OH)VitD3 could enhance the Th1 response inducing not only a favorable immune response for viral eradication but also HCC control...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291241/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-mixed-cryoglobulinemia
#12
Joel S Emery, Magdalena Kuczynski, Danie La, Saeed Almarzooqi, Matthew Kowgier, Hemant Shah, David Wong, Harry L A Janssen, Jordan J Feld
OBJECTIVES: Mixed cryoglobulinemia is strongly associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and ranges from being asymptomatic to causing life-threatening vasculitis. In those with symptoms, treatment with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) reduces mortality. However, few data are available on the safety and efficacy of antiviral therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in the treatment of HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. METHODS: Patients treated for HCV-related cryoglobulinemia with DAA±pegIFN were retrospectively evaluated at a tertiary care center...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275182/modulation-of-hcv-specific-cd8-effector-t-cell-function-with-antiviral-effect-in-infectious-hepatitis-c-virus-co-culture-model
#13
Keisuke Ojiro, Xiaowang Qu, Hyosun Cho, Jang-June Park, Annelise Vuidepot, Nikolai Lissin, Peter E Molloy, Alan Bennett, Bent K Jakobsen, David E Kaplan, James L Riley, Kyong-Mi Chang
Antiviral effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 T-cells have been shown in HCV replicon, but not in authentic infectious cell culture system (HCVcc). Here, we developed tools to examine the antigenicity of HCV-infected HLA A2+ Huh7.5 hepatoma cells (Huh7.5A2) in activating HCV-specific CD8 T-cells with downstream antiviral effects. Infectious HCV epitope mutants encoding well-defined genotype 1a-derived HLA A2-restricted HCV NS3 1073 or NS5 2594 epitope were generated from genotype 2a-derived HCV clone (Jc1Gluc2A) by site-directed mutagenesis...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267900/augmentation-of-hcv-specific-immunity-and-sustained-virological-response-svr
#14
Shikha Shrivastava, E Wilson, B Poonia, L Tang, A Osinusi, A Kohli, Shyam Kottilil
BACKGROUND: Treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has rapidly evolved into interferon-free directly acting antiviral regimens (DAA) that result in high sustained-virologic-response. DAAs primarily work by suppressing HCV replication and rely less on the immune system than interferon-based therapies. However it is unclear whether the immune system recovers with suppression of HCV replication and contributes to HCV clearance with DAA therapy. We previously demonstrated HCV clearance is associated with increased HCV-specific-immunity in CHCV-GT-1 infected patients during treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF)+ribavirin (RBV)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240761/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-cxcr3-chemokines-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
E Giusy, F Poupak
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from several factors like viral hepatitis infection [hepatitis B, or C (25%)] or occupational exposure. T-helper (Th)1 inflammatory cells, characterized by interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion, predominate in the liver during chronic HCV infection, and chemokines attracting these cells are particularly important in disease progression. Among C-X-C chemokines, the non-ELR group [as IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) and IFN-inducible T-cell-alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)], attracts Th1-cells interacting with chemokine C-X-C receptor (CXCR3)...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228595/hepatitis-c-virus-specific-t-cell-receptor-mrna-engineered-human-t-cells-impact-of-antigen-specificity-on-functional-properties
#16
Anangi Balasiddaiah, Haleh Davanian, Soo Aleman, Anna Pasetto, Lars Frelin, Matti Sällberg, Volker Lohmann, Sarene Koh, Antonio Bertoletti, Margaret Chen
Therapy with genetically modified autologous T cells has shown great promise in cancer therapy. For an efficient control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cytotoxic T cells (CTL) are pivotal but persistence of activated T cells may lead to liver toxicity. Here, anti-HCV T cell receptors (TCRs) recognising the HCV non-structural (NS) NS3 or NS5 viral peptide target were examined by mRNA transfection of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) derived from healthy donors as well as chronically infected HCV patients...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219772/evidence-based-recommendations-on-the-management-of-extrahepatic-manifestations-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#17
REVIEW
Manuel Ramos-Casals, Anna Linda Zignego, Clodoveo Ferri, Pilar Brito-Zerón, Soledad Retamozo, Milvia Casato, Peter Lamprecht, Alessandra Mangia, David Saadoun, Athanasios G Tzioufas, Zobair M Younossi, Patrice Cacoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217922/characterization-of-e-ntpdase-ec-3-6-1-5-activity-in-hepatic-lymphocytes-a-different-activity-profile-from-peripheral-lymphocytes
#18
Pedro H Doleski, Stephen A Adefegha, Fernanda L Cabral, Daniela B R Leal
The activity of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase; EC 3.6.1.5) was characterized in hepatic lymphocytes (HL) of rats. For this purpose, a specific method for the isolation of lymphocytes from hepatic tissue was developed. Subsequently, E-NTPDase activity of rat HL was compared with that of rat peripheral lymphocytes. The HL showed high cell count and viability. Also, the characterization test revealed that the optimal E-NTPDase activities were attained at 37°C and pH 8.0 in the presence of Ca(2+) ...
March 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217218/high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-the-age-range-of-20-39-years-old-individuals-in-lome
#19
Malewe Kolou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Mounerou Salou, Komlan Selom Gozo-Akakpo, Sika Dossim, Alexander Kwarteng, Mireille Prince-David
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo...
2017: Open Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214926/role-of-serum-level-and-genetic-variation-of-il-28b-in-interferon-responsiveness-and-advanced-liver-disease-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#20
Abdolvahab Alborzi, Tayebeh Hashempour, Javad Moayedi, Zahra Musavi, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Shahin Merat
Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) is suspected to be associated with response to treatment and one of the basic immunological backgrounds in liver transplant candidate (LTC). We aimed to assess whether genotypes of IL-28B can play a role in therapeutic response or advanced stages of liver disease. A total of 364 subjects were genotyped for IL-28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNPs using PCR-RFLP assay. Moreover, IL-28 serum level, HCV loads, and genotype were performed. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of unfavorable rs12979860 genotypes/CT + TT in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and LTC groups...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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