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veterinary clinics

S Salavati, C S Taylor, J D Harris, G K Paterson
Acinetobacter species can be important opportunistic pathogens in humans, especially in healthcare settings. We report here the first isolation of Acinetobacter ursingii from an animal species; it was isolated from a canine urinary tract infection, and phenotypic identification proved unreliable.
March 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Susan Little, Meriam Saleh, Megan Wohltjen, Yoko Nagamori
Detection of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis has been a mainstay of identifying heartworm infection in clinical practice for the past three decades. Several validated commercial antigen tests have very good sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values, especially when used in patients for which heartworm infection is likely. In some dogs and cats infected with heartworm, antigen may not be available for detection although present in the patient sample; heat pretreatment of these samples reveals the antigen, changing the false negative to positive...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ana Margarida Alho, Clara Lima, Vito Colella, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Domenico Otranto, Luís Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Qatar is one of the wealthiest and fastest growing economies in the world, experiencing a rapid increase in human and pet populations. Given the paucity of data on prophylactic measures against endo- and ectoparasites of pets in Qatar, as well as on the owners' awareness of zoonotic diseases, a questionnaire was conducted. METHODS: From July to November 2017, 150 multiple-choice questionnaires were administered to dog and/or cat owners who attended two veterinary clinics in Doha...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Lisa Gamsjaeger, Munashe Chigerwe
OBJECTIVE To characterize indications for and clinical outcomes of limb amputation in goats and sheep. DESIGN Retrospective case series and observational study. ANIMALS Goats (n = 15) and sheep (7) that underwent partial or complete limb amputation at the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records of qualifying goats and sheep were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment, use of animal, characteristics of the amputated limb, duration of hospitalization, outcome, and surgery-associated complications...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Eva M Pérez-Merino, Jesús Usón-Gargallo, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Jesús M Usón-Casaús
OBJECTIVE To compare the usefulness of fresh-frozen canine cadavers (FFCCs) and a validated canine simulator model for training veterinary students in basic gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. DESIGN Randomized trial. SAMPLE 48 veterinary students in their final year of training. PROCEDURES Students were randomly assigned to receive basic gastrointestinal endoscopic training on a canine simulator or FFCC. All students were trained as assigned in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic gastric biopsy, and gastric foreign body removal for 2 h/d for 5 days...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Orit Chai, Tamar Harrosh, Tali Bdolah-Avram, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Merav H Shamir
OBJECTIVE To characterize and identify risk factors for intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE) in Pekingese. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 426 Pekingese (81 with confirmed IVDE and 345 without IVDE) admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital from 2005 through 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data were extracted regarding age, sex, body weight, body condition score, coat color, chief reason for initial evaluation, body system involved, and diagnosis. Survey radiographs of the vertebral column were examined...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Mark W H Hiew, Aubrey N Baird, Peter D Constable
OBJECTIVE To characterize signalment, clinical signs, reproductive history, surgical management, and outcomes of beef cattle undergoing cesarean section because of dystocia at a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study. ANIMALS 173 beef cattle admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital from 2001 through 2010 that underwent cesarean section because of dystocia. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and information collected on cattle signalment; reproductive history; cause of dystocia; anesthetic protocol; surgical management; number, sex, and body weight of calves delivered (alive or dead); perioperative treatment; duration of hospitalization; and discharge status...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Jole Mariella, Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Caterina Palermo, Lee Morris, Carolina Castagnetti
The umbilical cord (UC), the connection between mother and fetus via the umbilical vessels, carries nutrients and oxygenated blood to the fetus through the umbilical vein and removes deoxygenated blood and waste products via the umbilical arteries. It is designed to protect blood flow to the fetus during pregnancy. In equine medicine, only a few studies have described the UC, and most of these involved Thoroughbreds. The present study describes and compares the macroscopic features of the equine umbilical cord in three different breeds and in relation to the foal's gender...
March 7, 2018: Theriogenology
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Marina V Mavromatis, Mauricio Solano, Michael Y Thelen
There are clear differences in the normal radiographic appearance of the abdominal organs between a left lateral vs. a right lateral view. While a few veterinary academic institutions have transitioned to a three-view abdominal radiographic study protocol, obtaining only two views of the canine abdomen remains the current standard in veterinary medicine. In this combined retrospective and prospective, case-controlled study, 48 canine patients presenting with signs of acute abdomen were recruited. Four board-certified veterinary radiologists and four general practice veterinarians with greater than 3 years of experience in small animal practice were asked to determine if 10 predetermined findings were present within the set of images and if surgery was recommended based on those findings...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Congming Wu, Yingchao Wang, Xiaomin Shi, Shuang Wang, Hongwei Ren, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Juchun Lin, Shaolin Wang
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) strains are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. mcr-1 is a novel plasmid-mediated gene conferring resistance to colistin. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-EC mcr-1 of chicken origin in the different provinces of China during 2008-2014. Overall, 341 of 821 isolates were determined to be ESBL-EC strains, and the proportion of ESBL-positive strains almost doubled from 2008 to 2014...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jolanta Kolodziejek, Christof Jungbauer, Stephan W Aberle, Franz Allerberger, Zoltán Bagó, Jeremy V Camp, Katharina Dimmel, Phebe de Heus, Michael Kolodziejek, Peter Schiefer, Bernhard Seidel, Karin Stiasny, Norbert Nowotny
The results of integrated human and veterinary surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) infections in Austria during the transmission seasons 2015 and 2016 are shown. Altogether WNV nucleic acid was detected in 21 humans, horses, wild birds and mosquito pools. In detail: in four human clinical cases [two cases of West Nile fever (WNF) and two cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND)]; eight blood donors [among 145,541 tested donations], of which three remained asymptomatic and five subsequently developed mild WNF; two horses with WNND, of which one recovered and one had to be euthanized; two wild birds [one goshawk and one falcon, both succumbed to WNND]; and five Culex pipiens mosquito pools...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Guillaume Sallé, Roz Laing, James A Cotton, Kirsty Maitland, Axel Martinelli, Nancy Holroyd, Alan Tracey, Matthew Berriman, W David Smith, George F J Newlands, Eve Hanks, Eileen Devaney, Collette Britton
Some nematode species are economically important parasites of livestock, while others are important human pathogens causing some of the most important neglected tropical diseases. In both humans and animals, anthelmintic drug administration is the main control strategy, but the emergence of drug-resistant worms has stimulated the development of alternative control approaches. Among these, vaccination is considered to be a sustainable and cost effective strategy. Currently, Barbervax® for the ruminant strongylid Haemonchus contortus is the only registered subunit vaccine for a nematode parasite, although a vaccine for the human hookworm Necator americanus is undergoing clinical trials (HOOKVAC consortium)...
March 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Patricia G Rosenstein, Brett S Tennent-Brown, Dez Hughes
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature pertaining to the use of lactate as a prognostic indicator and therapeutic guide, the utility of measuring lactate concentrations in body fluids other than blood or plasma, and the clinical management of hyperlactatemia in dogs, cats, and horses. DATA SOURCES: Articles were retrieved without date restrictions primarily via PubMed, Scopus, and CAB Abstracts as well as by manual selection. HUMAN AND VETERINARY DATA SYNTHESIS: Increased plasma lactate concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Patricia G Rosenstein, Brett S Tennent-Brown, Dez Hughes
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature with respect to the physiology, pathophysiology, and measurement of lactate. DATA SOURCES: Data were sourced from veterinary and human clinical trials, retrospective studies, experimental studies, and review articles. Articles were retrieved without date restrictions and were sourced primarily via PubMed, Scopus, and CAB Abstracts as well as by manual selection. HUMAN AND VETERINARY DATA SYNTHESIS: Lactate is an important energy storage molecule, the production of which preserves cellular energy production and mitigates the acidosis from ATP hydrolysis...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Cyndi Mangano, Michela Pugliese, Giuseppe Mazzullo, Nicola M Iannelli, Vito Angileri, Simona Morabito, Massimo De Majo
BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography allowed the accurate quantification of liver, splenic and kidney vascularization in healthy dogs and the differentiation between malignant and benign hepatic, renal, and splenic nodules in dogs and cats based on perfusion patterns. The utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in other applications is still under study. The aim of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 8 client-owned adult dogs affected by urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma with definitive diagnosis made by cytopathologic evaluation after suction biopsy...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Virginia Carfora, Fabia Scarampella, Manuela Iurescia, Valentina Donati, Fiorentino Stravino, Serena Lorenzetti, Erika Menichini, Alessia Franco, Andrea Caprioli, Antonio Battisti
Corynebacterium ulcerans, an emerging pathogen related to C. diphtheriae and C. pseudotuberculosis, is able to cause disease in both human and animal hosts. C. ulcerans may harbor acquired virulence factors such as dermonecrotic exotoxin phospholipase D (PLD) and the prophage-encoded diphtheria toxin (DT). Infections typically occur in persons reporting close contact with animals. In pets, C. ulcerans has been isolated from both asymptomatic carriers and clinically affected dogs and cats. We describe the isolation and characterization of C...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Angelina J Mosley, E Rachel Roberts, Hazel Partington, Katharina Gaertner, Peter Fisher, A L B Lex Rutten, Robert T Mathie, Steven J Cartwright, Alison Fixsen, Maria Olga Kokornaczyk, Anezka Marie Sokol, Alexander L Tournier
The third international conference on "Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy" organised by the Homeopathy Research Institute (HRI) was held on the inspiring and historic island of Malta from 9th to 11th of June, 2017. One hundred and two abstracts underwent peer review by the HRI Scientific Advisory Committee and external experts to produce the programme of 36 oral presentations and 37 posters, presented by researchers from 19 countries. The 2.5-day programme covered a diverse range of topics, including quantitative and qualitative clinical research, basic research, veterinary research, and provings...
February 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Larry P Hoscheit, Hock Gan Heng, Chee Kin Lim, Hsin-Yi Weng
Image quality in B-mode ultrasound is important as it reflects the diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic information provided during clinical scanning. Quality assurance programs for B-mode ultrasound systems/components are comprised of initial quality acceptance testing and subsequent regularly scheduled quality control testing. The importance of quality assurance programs for B-mode ultrasound image quality using ultrasound phantoms is well documented in the human medical and medical physics literature. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional, survey study was to determine the prevalence and methodology of quality acceptance testing and quality control testing of image quality for ultrasound system/components among veterinary sonographers...
March 12, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Mohsen Nosratabadi, Reza Kachuei, Sassan Rezaie, Asghar Beigi Harchegani
Fusarium species belong to one of the most important fungal groups in the medical, agricultural, and veterinary fields. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of PCR-RFLP analysis of the beta (β)-tubulin region for differentiating Fusarium species. A total of 107 strains of Fusarium spp. were studied, including isolates from environmental, clinical, and reference sources. The β-tubulin genes of all isolates were successfully amplified with primer pairs (T1 and T22). A PCR product of approximately 1400 base pairs was generated for each Fusarium sp...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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