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Cornelia Wiegand, Peter Mugisha, Grace K Mulyowa, Peter Elsner, Uta-Christina Hipler, Yvonne Gräser, Silke Uhrlaß, Pietro Nenoff
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection common among prepubertal children in sub-Saharan Africa and mainly caused by Trichophyton and Microsporum species. Accurate identification is challenging as conventional methods like culture and microscopy are slow and mostly based on morphological characteristics, which make them less sensitive and specific. Modern molecular methods, like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, are gaining acceptance and are quick as well as accurate. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical patterns of tinea capitis and to accurately identify the most common causative dermatophytes affecting the scalps of children aged 1 to 16 years attending the Skin Clinic at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mbarara, Uganda, East Africa, using both conventional mycological methods and PCR-ELISA for detection of dermatophyte DNA...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Émilie Faway, Ludivine Cambier, Bernard Mignon, Yves Poumay, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit
Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of keratinized structures that exhibits an increasing prevalence in humans and is thus requesting novel prophylactic strategies and therapies. However, precise mechanisms used by dermatophytes to adhere at the surface of the human epidermis and invade its stratum corneum are still incompletely identified, as well as the responses provided by the underlying living keratinocytes during the infection. We hereby report development of an in vitro model of human dermatophytosis through infection of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) by arthroconidia of the anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum species or of the zoophilic Microsporum canis and Arthroderma benhamiae species...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Maud Gits-Muselli, Mazouz Benderdouche, Samia Hamane, Anselme Mingui, Martine Feuilhade de Chauvin, Nicolas Guigue, Marie-Quitterie Picat, Emmanuelle Bourrat, Antoine Petit, Martine Bagot, Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Fabio Seiti Yamada Yoshikawa, Lucas Gonçalves Ferreira, Fernando Gonçalves de Almeida, Sandro Rogerio de Almeida
Diversity in the macrophage models currently employed in immunology studies may lead to opposed results and interpretations. In this study, we aimed to analyze the suitability of J774 macrophage-like cells as a model for the interaction between the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and macrophages. J774 cells were competent in fungal phagocytosis, but succumbed to hyphal growth. Nevertheless, they could also secrete IL-1β in response to the dermatophyte. On the opposite direction, inflammatory, thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages did not succumb to fungal growth and showed no significant IL-1β production...
October 14, 2016: Mycopathologia
Giovanna Simonetti, Felicia Diodata D'Auria, Nadia Mulinacci, Marzia Innocenti, Donato Antonacci, Letizia Angiolella, Anna Rita Santamaria, Alessio Valletta, Livia Donati, Gabriella Pasqua
Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur...
October 13, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Coralie L'Ollivier, Stéphane Ranque
MALDI-TOF MS has become increasingly popular for microorganism identification in the routine laboratory. Compared with conventional morphology-based techniques, MALDI-TOF is relatively inexpensive (per-unit identification), involves a rapid result turnaround time and yields more accurate results without the need for highly qualified staff. However, this technology has been technically difficult to implement for filamentous fungi identification. Identification of dermatophytes, a type of filamentous fungi, remains particularly challenging, partly due to the lack of clear species definition for some taxa or within some species complexes...
October 12, 2016: Mycopathologia
Ludivine Cambier, Marie-Pierre Heinen, Bernard Mignon
Dermatophytoses are common superficial fungal infections affecting both humans and animals. They are provoked by filamentous fungi called dermatophytes specialized in the degradation of keratinized structures, which allows them to induce skin, hair and nail infections. Despite their high incidence, little investigation has been performed for the understanding of these infections compared to fungal opportunistic infections and most of the studies were based on in vitro experiments. The development of animal models for dermatophyte research is required to evaluate new treatments against dermatophytoses or to increase knowledge about fungal pathogenicity factors or host immune response mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Mycopathologia
Marc Pihet, Yohann Le Govic
Dermatophytoses include a wide variety of diseases involving glabrous skin, nails and hair. These superficial infections are a common cause of consultation in dermatology. In many cases, their diagnosis is not clinically obvious, and mycological analysis therefore is required. Direct microscopic examination of the samples using clearing agents provides a quick response to the clinician and is usually combined with cultures on specific media, which must be used to overcome the growth of contaminating moulds that may hamper the recovery of dermatophytes...
October 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
Carlo Romagnoli, Anna Baldisserotto, Chiara B Vicentini, Donatella Mares, Elisa Andreotti, Silvia Vertuani, Stefano Manfredini
In this work, we evaluated the antidermatophytic activities of three resorcinol derivatives that have a history of use in dermo-cosmetic applications to discover molecules with multiple dermatological activities (i.e., multi-target drugs), thereby reducing the cost and time necessary for new drug development. The antidermatophytic activities of the three skin lighteners were evaluated relative to the known antifungal drug fluconazole on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Arthroderma cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Nannizzia gypsea, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans...
September 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tamara Angelo, Lívia Neves Borgheti-Cardoso, Guilherme Martins Gelfuso, Stephânia Fleury Taveira, Tais Gratieri
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the fingernails or toenails caused by dermatophytes, nondermatophytes, moulds, and yeasts. This condition affects around 10-30% people worldwide, negatively influencing patients' quality of life, with severe outcomes in some cases. Since the nail unit acts as a barrier to exogenous substances, its physiological features hampers drug penetration, turning the onychomycosis treatment a challenge. Currently, there are several oral and topical therapies available; nevertheless, cure rates are still low and relapse rates achieves 10-53%...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Dongmei Shi, Guixia Lu, Huan Mei, G Sybren de Hoog, Hailin Zheng, Guanzhao Liang, Yongnian Shen, Tianhang Li, Weida Liu
Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, although also other filamentous and yeast-like fungi are associated with nail invasion. Chaetomium is an environmental genus of ascomycetes exhibiting a certain degree of extremotolerance. We report the first case of onychomycosis in a 46-year-old woman in China caused by Chaetomium globosum. The patient showed yellowish black discoloration with periungual inflammation on the left first toenail. We confirmed the causative agent, C. globosum, by KOH mount, culture, micromorphology and DNA sequence analysis...
September 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Ann M John, Robert A Schwartz, Camila K Janniger
Tinea capitis has a high incidence with a global changing pathogen distribution, making this condition a public health concern around the world. As the infection is initially asymptomatic, it is easily spread. Moreover, it is present in many fomites, including hairbrushes, pillows, and bedding. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary for kerion, an inflammatory subtype characterized by tender boggy plaques with purulent drainage. Kerion is usually associated with infection by zoophilic dermatophytes, although other sources have been described...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Banu Metin, Joseph Heitman
Sexual reproduction is a rich source of genetic variation and commonly observed among fungi. Basically two different modes of sexual reproduction are observed in fungi, namely heterothallism where two compatible mating types are required to undergo mating and homothallism in which the organism is self-fertile. The genomic region governing the process of sexual reproduction and sex determination is called the mating type (MAT) locus. In filamentous ascomycetes including dermatophytes, the MAT locus harbors two different transcription factor genes in two different mating types...
September 30, 2016: Mycopathologia
Imran Majid, Gousia Sheikh, Farhath Kanth, Rubeena Hakak
BACKGROUND: The incidence of recurrent tinea infections after oral terbinafine therapy is on the rise. AIM: This study aims to identify the appearance of incomplete cure and relapse after 2-week oral terbinafine therapy in tinea corporis and/or tinea cruris. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive patients clinically and mycologically diagnosed to have tinea corporis and/or tinea cruris were included in the study. The enrolled patients were administered oral terbinafine 250 mg once daily for 2 weeks...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Layal Fahed, Madona Khoury, Didier Stien, Naïm Ouaini, Véronique Eparvier, Marc El Beyrouthy
The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) of six conifers harvested in Lebanon, Abies cilicica, Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus oxycedrus, Cedrus libani and Cupressus macrocarpa gold crest, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC-MS analyses. A principal components analysis based on Pearson correlation between essential oils chemical analyses was also conducted. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these essentials oils were determined against a range of bacteria and fungi responsible for cutaneous infections in human, using the broth microdilution technique...
September 29, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Kenneth S Thomson, Gina K Thomson, John Biehle, Andrew Deeb, Jamaal Crawford, R Herrera
BACKGROUND: The use of topical antimicrobial agents for management of minor skin infections is a clinical strategy that is commonly practiced in the community. Coupled with the use of topical antimicrobial agents is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens leading to the need for alternative treatments. OBJECTIVE: A novel topical combination ointment consisting of salicylic acid, oak bark extract, benzoic acid, and polyethylene glycol (Bensal HP, Sonar products Inc...
2016: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Yasemin Oz, Iman Qoraan, Ali Oz, Ilknur Balta
BACKGROUND: Diabetes patients are particularly susceptible to fungal infections because their vascular and immunological systems are compromised. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine prevalences of tinea pedis and onychomycosis, factors predisposing to their development, and antifungal susceptibilities of causative fungal species against fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Study groups were defined according to hemoglobin A1C rates of ≥6...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Mona M Abousamra, Alaa Hamed Salama
Tolnaftate is a thiocarbamate antifungal drug which is therapeutically active against dermatophytes that cause various forms of tinea. Due to the small amount of tolnaftate released from ordinary ointment bases and insufficient penetration through the infected skin layers the need to incorporate the drug in a more suitable pharmaceutical form has evolved. A provesicular system is one such form that can solve these problems. Once in contact with the skin, dilution with moisture occurs and the provesicular system rapidly transforms into a vesicular one...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Liposome Research
Alexandru Oanţă, Marius Irimie
In the last twenty years, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos in the general population has increased in Europe (1) as well as in Australia (2) and the United States of America (3). A series of complications such as acute inflammatory reactions, allergic contact dermatitis (4,5), photoinduced, lichenoid, and granulomatous reactions (6, 7), pseudolymphoma (8), pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (9), skin infections (6), and skin cancers (10) may occur on tattoos. Infectious complications on tattoos include bacterial infections (pyoderma, leprosy, syphilis, cutaneous tuberculosis, mycobacteriosis) (11-14), viral infections (molluscum contagiosum, warts, herpes simplex, hepatitis B and C) (15-17), and fungal infections (sporotrichosis, dermatophytosis) (18,19)...
August 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
W P Silva-Rocha, M F de Azevedo, G M Chaves
OBJECTIVE: Dermatomycoses are superficial fungal infections which affect the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. Male and female patients of all ages are affected by this condition. The main etiological agents of dermatomycoses are the dermatophytes fungi of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, while the main yeasts belong to the genera Candida, Malassezia and Trichosporon. The variation in the distribution of dermatomycoses worldwide justify the conduction of epidemiological studies in order to contribute for the better understanding of patterns of mycological cutaneous infections...
September 20, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
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