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Dimensionality reduction

Maurice Filo, Fadi Karameh, Mariette Awad
The cochlea is an indispensable preliminary processing stage in auditory perception that employs mechanical frequency-tuning and electrical transduction of incoming sound waves. Cochlear mechanical responses are shown to exhibit active nonlinear spatiotemporal response dynamics (e.g., otoacoustic emission). To model such phenomena, it is often necessary to incorporate cochlear fluid-membrane interactions. This results in both excessively high-order model formulations and computationally intensive solutions that limit their practical use in simulating the model and analyzing its response even for simple single-tone inputs...
October 17, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Gen Wang, Zheng Xing, Xiangkang Zeng, Chuanping Feng, David T McCarthy, Ana Deletic, Xiwang Zhang
An ultrathin photocatalytic film of titanium oxide was fabricated using two dimensional (2D) titanium oxide nanosheets (TONs) as building blocks. The as-prepared film was found be able to store photoelectrons upon UV irradiation due to the reduction/oxidation of T(4+)/Ti(3+) on the 2D TONs. Post-illumination discharging of the stored electrons produced antibacterial radicals, and as a result, the as-prepared film showed memory bactericidal activity toward E. faecalis and E. coli in the dark.
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Kun Zhang, Yanxi Chen, Minfei Qiang, Yini Hao
Single, double, and triple hindfoot arthrodeses are used to correct hindfoot deformities and relieve chronic pain. However, joint fusion may lead to dysfunction in adjacent articular surfaces. We compared range of motion in adjacent joints before and after arthrodesis to determine the effects of each procedure on joint motion. The theory of moment of couple, bending moment and balanced loading was applied to each of 16 fresh cadaver feet to induce dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, internal rotation, external rotation, inversion, and eversion...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katia Pasciuti, Shrinivas Kuthpady, Anne Anderson, Bronagh Best, Saleem Waqar, Subhra Chowdhury
To examine tumor׳s and organ׳s response when different radiotherapy plan techniques are used. Ten patients with confirmed bladder tumors were first treated using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and subsequently the original plans were re-optimized using the intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-techniques. Targets coverage in terms of conformity and homogeneity index, TCP, and organs׳ dose limits, including integral dose analysis were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Dongqing Kong, Sai Bi, Zonghua Wang, Jianfei Xia, Feifei Zhang
In this work, an in situ growth protocol is introduced to fabricate three-dimensional graphene films (3D GFs) on gold substrates, which are successfully utilized as working electrode for electrochemical detection of nucleic acid (microRNA) and protein (lysozyme) based on a signal-on sensing mechanism. To realize the bridge between the gold substrate and graphene film, a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol is self-assembled on the substrate, which is then served as connectors for the growth of 3D GFs on the gold substrate by the hydrothermal reduction (HR) technique...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ting Zhang, Xuan Ban, Xuelei Wang, Xiaobin Cai, Enhua Li, Zhi Wang, Chao Yang, Qing Zhang, Xiaorong Lu
A two-dimensional (2D) water quality model was established to determine the response of water quality variables and submerged aquatic vegetation biomass to load reduction from watershed inflows and enclosure aquaculture in Honghu Lake in China. Results showed that the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads from upstream discharge were the major external loads in the lake, accounting for 70% and 63% of the total loads, respectively. Scenario simulation results indicated that 93.2% of the lake area in summer (August) and 89...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Snober Ahmed, John Brockgreitens, Ke Xu, Abdennour Abbas
With increasing biomedical and engineering applications of selenium nanospheres (SeNS), new efficient methods are needed for the synthesis and long-term preservation of these nanomaterials. Currently, SeNS are mostly produced through the biosynthesis route using microorganisms or by using wet chemical reduction, both of which have several limitations in terms of nanoparticle size, yield, production time and long-term stability of the nanoparticles. Here, we introduce a novel approach for rapid synthesis and long-term preservation of SeNS on a solid microporous support by combining a mild hydrothermal process with chemical reduction...
October 17, 2016: Nanotechnology
Taewoon Yoon, Youngjoon Kim
PURPOSE: Nasal bone fracture is the most common type of facial bone fracture. There are 2 main reduction methods for treating nasal bone fractures: open reduction and closed reduction. A secondary operation was required when there was a deviation of shape after the operation, so there have been many studies conducted on patient satisfaction after reduction. However, there was few study on the satisfaction of nasal bone fracture patients with rhinoplasty depending on treatment modality...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Tuo Ji, Long Chen, Liwen Mu, Jiahua Zhu
Converting nitrobenzene to freestanding polyaniline tube arrays has been successfully carried out in a "Water-oil-water" triphasic reaction system, where catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline and aniline polymerization reactions were synergistically integrated. With optimized control over molecular diffusion and reaction at separate solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces, polyaniline nanostructures could be synthesized with different morphologies. Paired molecular diffusion and reaction rate is revealed as the dominating factor that determines the feasibility of reaction system to produce patterned array structure...
October 17, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Samer Toume, Amit Gefen, Daphne Weihs
We observed that radially stretching cell monolayers at a low level (3%) increases the rate at which they migrate to close a gap formed by in vitro injury. Wound healing has been shown to accelerate in vivo when deformations are topically applied, for example, by negative pressure wound therapy. However, the direct effect of deformations on cell migration during gap closure is still unknown. Thus, we have evaluated the effect of radially applied, sustained (static) tensile strain on the kinematics of en mass cell migration...
October 17, 2016: International Wound Journal
Allen Q Ye, Olusola A Ajilore, Giorgio Conte, Johnson GadElkarim, Galen Thomas-Ramos, Liang Zhan, Shaolin Yang, Anand Kumar, Richard L Magin, Angus G Forbes, Alex D Leow
This paper describes novel methods for constructing the intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome using dimensionality-reduction techniques. We posit that the high-dimensional, complex geometry that represents this intrinsic topology can be mathematically embedded into lower dimensions using coupling patterns encoded in the corresponding brain connectivity graphs. We tested both linear and nonlinear dimensionality-reduction techniques using the diffusion-weighted structural connectome data acquired from a sample of healthy subjects...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Samuel A Neymotin, Zoe N Talbot, Jeeyune Q Jung, André A Fenton, William W Lytton
BACKGROUND: Correlated neuronal activity in the brain is hypothesized to contribute to information representation, and is important for gauging brain dynamics in health and disease. Due to high dimensional neural datasets, it is difficult to study temporal variations in correlation structure. NEW METHOD: We developed a multiscale method, Population Coordination (PCo), to assess neural population structure in multiunit single neuron ensemble and multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Kerstin Mueller, Rebecca Fahrig, Michael Manhart, Yu Deuerling-Zheng, Jarrett Rosenberg, Teri Moore, Arundhuti Ganguly, Nishita Kothary
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Intra-procedural measurement of hepatic perfusion following liver embolization continues to be a challenge. Blood volume imaging before and after interventional procedures would allow identifying the treatment end point or even allow predicting treatment outcome. Recent liver oncology studies showed the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume (PBV) imaging using an angiographic C-arm system. This study was done to evaluate the reproducibility of PBV measurements using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) before and after embolization of the liver in a swine model...
October 10, 2016: Academic Radiology
Miao Ai, Zhiyun Du, Siqi Zhu, Hongjuan Geng, Xu Zhang, Qing Cai, Xiaoping Yang
OBJECTIVE: The object is to find a functional one-dimensional nanofibrous filler for composite resin, which is able to provide both efficient reinforcement and high antibacterial activity. METHODS: Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal technique using calcium oleate as the precursor. Polydopamine (PDA)-coated HA (HA-PDA) nanowires were prepared by soaking HA nanowires in dopamine (DA) aqueous solution. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-laden HA (HA-PDA-Ag) nanowires were prepared via reduction reaction by adding silver nitrate and glucose into HA-PDA suspensions in DI water...
October 10, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Brett K Beaulieu-Jones, Casey S Greene
Patient interactions with health care providers result in entries to electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs were built for clinical and billing purposes but contain many data points about an individual. Mining these records provides opportunities to extract electronic phenotypes, which can be paired with genetic data to identify genes underlying common human diseases. This task remains challenging: high quality phenotyping is costly and requires physician review; many fields in the records are sparsely filled; and our definitions of diseases are continuing to improve over time...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Lorenzo Massimi, Michela Fratini, Inna Bukreeva, Francesco Brun, Alberto Mittone, Gaetano Campi, Raffaele Spanò, Milena Mastrogiacomo, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, Alberto Bravin, Antonio Uccelli, Alessia Cedola
High resolution Synchrotron-based X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography (XPCT) allows the simultaneous detection of three dimensional neuronal and vascular networks without using contrast agents or invasive casting preparation. We show and discuss the different features observed in reconstructed XPCT volumes of the ex vivo mouse spinal cord in the lumbo-sacral region, including motor neurons and blood vessels. We report the application of an intensity-based segmentation method to detect and quantitatively characterize the modification in the vascular networks in terms of reduction in experimental visibility...
October 12, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Cédric Barroo, Yannick De Decker, Thierry Visart de Bocarmé, Norbert Kruse
This work investigates experimentally the mechanism by which chemical oscillations emerge in a nanometric system. We monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of an oscillating reaction on the surface of a nanosized three-dimensional Pt model catalyst. Using high-resolution field emission techniques, we are able to show that the oscillations are generated by nanoscale chemical target patterns of much shorter characteristic time than the period with which the oscillations occur. Our observations are made for a specific reaction system-NO_{2} reduction with hydrogen-and represent the first experimental evidence for the presence of target patterns at the nanoscale...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Fernando Haas, Shahzad Mahmood
Nonlinear ion-acoustic waves are analyzed in a nonrelativistic magnetized quantum plasma with arbitrary degeneracy of electrons. Quantum statistics is taken into account by means of the equation of state for ideal fermions at arbitrary temperature. Quantum diffraction is described by a modified Bohm potential consistent with finite-temperature quantum kinetic theory in the long-wavelength limit. The dispersion relation of the obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in magnetized quantum plasma with arbitrary degeneracy of electrons is obtained...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Vasilios Kamperidis, Charalampos Loutradis, Konstantinos Tsilonis, Fani Mpoutsiouki, Athanasios Saratzis, Georgios Giannakoulas, Georgios Sianos, Haralambos Karvounis
BACKGROUND: The effect of acute preload reduction during haemodialysis on left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) function is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate acute changes in novel echocardiographic and tissue Doppler-derived indices of LV and RV function during the first and a standard weekly dialysis session and to examine the possible effect of acute intradialytic volume changes in LV and RV diastolic function and pulmonary circulation loading. METHODS: Forty-one adult patients receiving standard thrice-weekly haemodialysis participated in this study...
October 13, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
F Economou, S Katranas, G Giannoglou, K Gemitzis, I Styliadis, G Efthimiadis, H Karvounis, A Ziakas
BACKGROUND: Endothelial shear stress (ESS) may play a key role in the pathobiology of stent restenosis (SR). Nevertheless, limited data are available about ESS and its relation to SR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 14 patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this study. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of 14 coronary arteries before and after stent implantation was performed. Using computational fluid dynamics, mean ESS was calculated proximally, in tertiles within and distal to the stent, both before and after stent implantation...
October 12, 2016: Herz
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