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Dimensionality reduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812074/three-dimensional-microtissues-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-personalized-radiation-therapy
#1
Yuting Qiu, Dandan Ning, Peipei Zhang, Stephanie Curly, Yong Qiao, Liyuan Ma, Ming Su
This paper describes the use of 3D microtissues as an intermediate model between the 2D cell culture and the animal model to assess radiation-induced cellular and DNA damage in the context of personalized radiation therapy. An agarose microwell array was used to generate 3D microtissues with controlled size and shape. The microtissues were exposed to X-ray radiation of various doses, and the radiation damage to cells was examined using a variety of techniques with different end points. Damage to cell membranes and reduction in metabolic activity were examined with the MTT assay and dye inclusion assay...
August 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811111/cell-cultures-in-drug-discovery-and-development-the-need-of-reliable-in-vitro-in-vivo-extrapolation-for-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-assessment
#2
REVIEW
Karol Jaroch, Alina Jaroch, Barbara Bojko
For ethical and cost-related reasons, use of animals for the assessment of mode of action, metabolism and/or toxicity of new drug candidates has been increasingly scrutinized in research and industrial applications. Implementation of the 3 "Rs"(1); rule (Reduction, Replacement, Refinement) through development of in silico or in vitro assays has become an essential element of risk assessment. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK(2)) modeling is the most potent in silico tool used for extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters to animal or human models from results obtained in vitro...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810228/evolution-of-molecular-weight-and-fluorescence-of-effluent-organic-matter-efom-during-oxidation-processes-revealed-by-advanced-spectrographic-and-chromatographic-tools
#3
Zhiqiang Chen, Mo Li, Qinxue Wen, Nanqi Ren
Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is an emerging concern to receiving aquatic environment due to its refractory property. The degradation of EfOM in ozonation and other two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UV/H2O2 and UV/persulfate (PS), was investigated in this study. Fluorescence spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and two-dimensional correlation gel permeation chromatography (2D-GPC) were used to track the evolution of EfOM during each oxidation process. Results showed that the degradation of EfOM indicated by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and fluorescence components, fitted well with pseudo-first-order kinetic model during the oxidation processes...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809629/-talar-neck-fractures-treated-using-percutaneous-screw-fixation
#4
R Veselý, M Kelbl, J Kacián, V Hulka, J Kočiš, R Kunovský
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation of nondisplaced talar neck fractures have been applied by some authors. The aim of this paper is to assess the results and complications of this minimally invasive technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2009 to 2014, twenty-one patients with a talar neck fracture were observed after closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation in the Traumatological Hospital in Brno. The mean age of the patients was 38 years (range 18-56 years)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809412/charging-assisted-structural-phase-transitions-in-monolayer-inse
#5
Liangzhi Kou, Aijun Du, Yandong Ma, Ting Liao, Changfeng Chen
A recently synthesized InSe monolayer exhibits highly promising electronic and transport properties; it also possesses intricate intralayer atomic bonding configurations that are conducive to modulations of crystal and electronic structures. Here we identify by first-principles calculations two new structural phases of monolayer InSe distinct from the experimentally synthesized β phase. The first, α phase, has the Se atom positions displaced relative to those in the β phase, and exhibits outstanding electronic properties similar to those of the β phase...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808622/radiation-exposure-and-reduction-in-the-operating-room-perspectives-and-future-directions-in-spine-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Ankur S Narain, Fady Y Hijji, Kelly H Yom, Krishna T Kudaravalli, Brittany E Haws, Kern Singh
Intraoperative imaging is vital for accurate placement of instrumentation in spine surgery. However, the use of biplanar fluoroscopy and other intraoperative imaging modalities is associated with the risk of significant radiation exposure in the patient, surgeon, and surgical staff. Radiation exposure in the form of ionizing radiation can lead to cellular damage via the induction of DNA lesions and the production of reactive oxygen species. These effects often result in cell death or genomic instability, leading to various radiation-associated pathologies including an increased risk of malignancy...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806714/f-norm-distance-metric-based-robust-2dpca-and-face-recognition
#7
Tao Li, Mengyuan Li, Quanxue Gao, Deyan Xie
Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) employs squared F-norm as the distance metric for dimensionality reduction. It is commonly known that squared F-norm is sensitive to the presence of outliers. To address this problem, we use F-norm instead of squared F-norm as the distance metric in the objective function and develop a non-greedy algorithm, which has a closed-form solution in each iteration and can maximize the criterion function, to solve the optimal solution. Our approach not only is robust to outliers but also well characterizes the geometric structure of data...
July 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805976/ethics-of-animal-research-in-human-disease-remediation-its-institutional-teaching-and-alternatives-to-animal-experimentation
#8
REVIEW
Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Paul Scowen, Rajaraman Eri
Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805727/leaf-physiological-and-proteomic-analysis-to-elucidate-silicon-induced-adaptive-response-under-salt-stress-in-rosa-hybrida-rock-fire
#9
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Chung Ho Ko, Sowbiya Muneer, Byoung Ryong Jeong
Beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire' were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM), NaCl (50 mM), and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805678/sodium-chloride-and-its-influence-on-the-aroma-profile-of-yeasted-bread
#10
Markus C E Belz, Claudia Axel, Jonathan Beauchamp, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K Arendt, Michael Czerny
The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. High-sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify 2-phenylethanol in the headspace of the bread dough during fermentation...
August 12, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805649/aging-resistant-nanofluids-containing-covalent-functionalized-boron-nitride-nanosheets
#11
Dongju Lee, Jin-Ju Park, Min-Ku Lee, Gyoung-Ja Lee
Developing a thermally stable nanofluid that can maintain good thermo-conductive and flow performance at moderate or elevated temperatures for prolonged periods of time is a great challenge in heat transfer applications. Here, the thermal conductivity and rheological properties as well as their thermal stability characteristics of a nanofluid containing two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNSs) in ethylene glycol (EG) are presented, in comparison with those for a graphene oxide (GO) nanofluid as a counterpart...
August 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803404/polymorphisms-in-xrcc1-ercc2-and-ercc3-dna-repair-genes-cyp1a1-xenobiotic-metabolism-gene-and-tobacco-are-associated-with-bladder-cancer-susceptibility-in-tunisian-population
#12
Molka Feki-Tounsi, Rim Khlifi, Ibtihel Louati, Mohamed Fourati, Mohamed-Nabil Mhiri, Amel Hamza-Chaffai, Ahmed Rebai
Other than the established environmental risk factors associated with bladder cancer (BC), little is known about the genetic variations determining the individual susceptibility of this complex disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of BC with environmental agents and polymorphisms in XRCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC3 DNA repair genes and CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1, and NAT2 xenobiotic metabolism genes through a hospital-based case-control study in Tunisia. The selection of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs25487, rs 13181, rs415407, rs446421, rs1058172, rs4921880, and rs1208) was performed using the dbSNP database...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800252/progressive-changes-in-walking-kinematics-and-kinetics-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-and-reconstruction-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart, Adam R Kelly, Christopher M Kuenze
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and ACL reconstruction (ACLR) result in persistent alterations in lower extremity movement patterns. The progression of lower extremity biomechanics from the time of injury has not been described. OBJECTIVE:   To compare the 3-dimensional (3D) lower extremity kinematics and kinetics of walking among individuals with ACL deficiency (ACLD), individuals with ACLR, and healthy control participants from 3 to 64 months after ACLR...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799976/effect-of-gene-gene-and-gene-environment-interactions-associated-with-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#14
Julián G Chamorro, Jorge P Castagnino, Omar Aidar, Rosa M Musella, Ana Frías, Mabel Visca, Mabel Nogueras, Lucas Costa, Alessandro Perez, Fabio Caradonna, Gabriela F de Larrañaga
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association between environmental factors and genetic variations in enzymes that metabolize antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs [arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and glutathione S-transferase mu 1] with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH). We also investigated the potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions as well as their association with ATDH development in a population of hospitalized TB patients from Buenos Aires...
August 9, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797564/impact-of-anxiety-apathy-and-reduced-functional-autonomy-on-perceived-quality-of-life-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Alfonsina D'Iorio, Carmine Vitale, Fausta Piscopo, Chiara Baiano, Anna Paola Falanga, Katia Longo, Marianna Amboni, Paolo Barone, Gabriella Santangelo
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms that may impact negatively on the activities of the patient's daily life and reduce Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study explored the impact of specific non-motor symptoms on the HRQoL in PD. METHODS: Eighty-four outpatients underwent the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) assessing global functioning and several questionnaires to assess depression, apathy, impulse control disorders (ICD), anxiety, anhedonia and functional impact of cognitive impairment...
August 5, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796644/magnetic-targeting-to-enhance-microbubble-delivery-in-an-occluded-microarterial-bifurcation
#16
Marie de Saint Victor, Dario Carugo, Lester C Barnsley, Joshua Owen, Constantin C Coussios, Eleanor Stride
Ultrasound and microbubbles have been shown to accelerate the breakdown of blood clots both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical translation of this technology is still limited, however, in part by inefficient microbubble delivery to the thrombus. This study examines the obstacles to delivery posed by fluid dynamic conditions in occluded vasculature and investigates whether magnetic targeting can improve microbubble delivery. A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a fully occluded Y-shaped microarterial bifurcation was developed to determine: (i) the fluid dynamic field in the vessel with inlet velocities from 1-100mm/s (corresponding to Reynolds numbers 0...
August 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796623/dimensionality-reduction-using-similarity-induced-embeddings
#17
Nikolaos Passalis, Anastasios Tefas
The vast majority of dimensionality reduction (DR) techniques rely on the second-order statistics to define their optimization objective. Even though this provides adequate results in most cases, it comes with several shortcomings. The methods require carefully designed regularizers and they are usually prone to outliers. In this paper, a new DR framework that can directly model the target distribution using the notion of similarity instead of distance is introduced. The proposed framework, called similarity embedding framework (SEF), can overcome the aforementioned limitations and provides a conceptually simpler way to express optimization targets similar to existing DR techniques...
August 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796605/pulse-inversion-subharmonic-ultrafast-active-cavitation-imaging-in-tissue-using-fast-eigenspace-based-adaptive-beamforming-and-cavitation-deconvolution
#18
Chen Bai, Shanshan Xu, Junbo Duan, Bowen Jing, Miao Yang, Mingxi Wan
Pulse-inversion subharmonic (PISH) imaging can display information relating to pure cavitation bubbles while excluding that of tissue. Although plane-wave-based ultrafast active cavitation imaging (UACI) can monitor the transient activities of cavitation bubbles, its resolution and cavitation-to-tissue ratio (CTR) are barely satisfactory but can be significantly improved by introducing eigenspace-based (ESB) adaptive beamforming. PISH and UACI are a natural combination for imaging of pure cavitation activity in tissue; however, it raises two problems: 1) the ESB beamforming is hard to implement in real time due to the enormous amount of computation associated with the covariance matrix inversion and eigendecomposition and 2) the narrowband characteristic of the subharmonic filter will incur a drastic degradation in resolution...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792432/a-unique-3d-nitrogen-doped-carbon-composite-as-high-performance-oxygen-reduction-catalyst
#19
Ramesh Karunagaran, Tran Thanh Tung, Cameron Shearer, Diana Tran, Campbell Coghlan, Christian Doonan, Dusan Losic
The synthesis and properties of an oxygen reduction catalyst based on a unique 3-dimensional (3D) nitrogen doped (N-doped) carbon composite are described. The composite material is synthesised via a two-step hydrothermal and pyrolysis method using bio-source low-cost materials of galactose and melamine. Firstly, the use of iron salts and galactose to hydrothermally produceiron oxide (Fe₂O₃) magnetic nanoparticle clusters embedded carbon spheres. Secondly, magnetic nanoparticles diffused out of the carbon sphere when pyrolysed in the presence of melamine as nitrogen precursor...
August 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791582/physiological-mitral-annular-dynamics-preserved-after-ring-annuloplasty-in-mid-term-period
#20
Masaaki Ryomoto, Masataka Mitsuno, Mitsuhiro Yamamura, Hiroe Tanaka, Naosumi Sekiya, Hisashi Uemura, Ayaka Sato, Daisuke Ueda, Yuji Miyamoto
OBJECTIVE: Mitral annular structure and dynamics after mitral ring annuloplasty using transesophageal echocardiography during the operation have been reported. We evaluated mitral annular structure and dynamics of three different rings in the mid-term period postoperatively. METHODS: Thirty-one patients underwent mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral insufficiency. The MEMO 3D ring (semi-flexible), Carpentier-Edwards Physio II ring (semi-rigid), and St. Jude Medical Rigid Saddle Ring (rigid) were implanted in 15, 12, and eight patients, respectively, from September 2009 to February 2015...
August 8, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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