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Dimensionality reduction

Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Jiarui Ding, Anne Condon, Sohrab P Shah
Single-cell RNA-sequencing has great potential to discover cell types, identify cell states, trace development lineages, and reconstruct the spatial organization of cells. However, dimension reduction to interpret structure in single-cell sequencing data remains a challenge. Existing algorithms are either not able to uncover the clustering structures in the data or lose global information such as groups of clusters that are close to each other. We present a robust statistical model, scvis, to capture and visualize the low-dimensional structures in single-cell gene expression data...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Andres Enriquez, Luis C Saenz, Raphael Rosso, Frank E Silvestry, David Callans, Francis E Marchlinski, Fermin Garcia
The indications for catheter-based structural and electrophysiological procedures have recently expanded to more complex scenarios, in which an accurate definition of the variable individual cardiac anatomy is key to obtain optimal results. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a unique imaging modality able to provide high-resolution real-time visualization of cardiac structures, continuous monitoring of catheter location within the heart, and early recognition of procedural complications, such as pericardial effusion or thrombus formation...
May 22, 2018: Circulation
Yujin Myung, Yousung Son, Tae-Hyun Nam, Eunyoung Kang, Eun-Kyu Kim, In Ah Kim, Keun-Yong Eom, Chan Yeong Heo, Jae Hoon Jeong
BACKGROUND: The use of immediate breast reconstruction and adjuvant radiation therapy is increasing in breast cancer patients. This study aimed to analyze the aesthetic outcome and changes in flap volume in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy of the surgical site after immediate autologous tissue reconstruction. METHODS: Immediate abdominal free flap breast reconstruction following unilateral mastectomy was performed in 42 patients; 21 patients received adjuvant radiation (study group) and 21 patients did not (control group)...
2018: PloS One
Mohamed T Ellabban, Ahmed I Abdul-Aziz, Mona M Salah Fayed, Mai H AboulFotouh, Ehab S Elkattan, Mushira M Dahaba
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the positional and dimensional temporomandibular joint (TMJ) changes after correction of posterior crossbite in growing patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic unrestricted search was done in six databases until June 27, 2017. A manual search in the reference lists of the included studies and gray literature was also performed. The eligibility criteria included randomized controlled trials and prospective nonrandomized controlled clinical trials and a sample of growing subjects with posterior crossbite that required maxillary expansion...
May 22, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Andrij Vasylenko, Samuel Marks, Jamie M Wynn, Paulo V C Medeiros, Quentin M Ramasse, Andrew J Morris, Jeremy Sloan, David Quigley
Nanostructuring, e.g. reduction of dimensionality in materials offers a viable route towards regulation of materials electronic and hence functional properties. Here, we present the extreme case of nanostructuring, exploiting capillarity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for synthesis of the smallest possible SnTe nanowires with cross sections as small as a single atom column. We demonstrate that by choosing the appropriate diameter of a template SWCNT, we can manipulate the structure of the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) SnTe and to design electronic behaviour...
May 21, 2018: ACS Nano
Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Tomoko Negishi, Marc-Andre Coté, Martin Penicka, Richard Massey, Goo-Yeong Cho, Krassimira Hristova, Dragos Vinereanu, Bogdan A Popescu, Masaki Izumo, Kazuaki Negishi, Thomas H Marwick
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to compare echocardiographic measurements of global longitudinal strain (GLS) (using 3 apical views) with single-view longitudinal strain (LS, 4- or 2-chamber [4CV_LS and 2CV_LS, respectively]) for detection of cancer-therapy related cardiotoxicity. BACKGROUND: GLS is useful for the detection of cardiotoxicity, but the need for repeated measurements poses a significant burden on busy echocardiography laboratories. A single-view LS measurement, possibly at point of care, could improve efficiency...
May 11, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
I M H R Antunes, M T D Albuquerque, N Roque
Potential toxic elements (PTE), in stream sediments, were used as contamination indicators for the definition of high-/low-grade spatial clusters in the Monfortinho area (Central Portugal). A set of 271 stream sediment samples was used for spatial modelling and further definition of rings of enrichment-high and low rings. A three-step multivariate statistical and geostatistical approach was used: (1) principal components analysis for PTE's association evaluation and dimensionality reduction; (2) ordinary kriging as an unbiased interpolator for content inference and construction of a continuous representation of the considered attributes, at any arbitrary spatial location; (3) G clustering algorithm for the definition of high and low significance clusters...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
P Sprenger, M A Hoefer, G A El
A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Sophia Hulbert, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer, Vicki Goodwin, Carolyn Fitton, Kim Chivers-Seymour, Ann Ashburn
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease demonstrates a spectrum of motor and non-motor symptoms. Falling is common and disabling. Current medical management shows minimal impact to reduce falls or fall-related risk factors, such as deficits in gait, strength, and postural instability. Despite evidence supporting rehabilitation in reducing fall risk factors, the most appropriate intervention to reduce overall fall rate remains inconclusive. This article aims to 1) synthesise current evidence and conceptual models of falls rehabilitation in Parkinson's in a narrative review; and based on this evidence, 2) introduce the treatment protocol used in the falls prevention and multi-centre clinical trial "PDSAFE"...
May 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Zhonghua Sun, Dongting Liu
The aim of this systematic review is to analyse current literature related to the clinical value of three-dimensional (3D) printed models in renal disease. A literature search of PubMed and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies reporting the clinical application and usefulness of 3D printed models in renal disease. Fifteen studies were found to meet the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Eight of them provided quantitative assessments with five studies focusing on dimensional accuracy of 3D printed models in replicating renal anatomy and tumour, and on measuring tumour volume between 3D printed models and original source images and surgical specimens, with mean difference less than 10%...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Li Xiong, Wei Liu, Li Gao, Qiwen Mu, Xindong Liu, Yuhuan Feng, Zhi Tang, Huanyu Tang, Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke (IS) is considered to be a heterogeneous, multifactorial disease with a strong genetic background. This study aims to determine whether variants in the antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) gene are associated with IS in Han Chinese, as well as whether there is evidence of a gene-environment interactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-controlled association study was conducted in which only patients with atherothrombotic stroke (ATS) were enrolled...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Hongcheng Liu, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Inverse planning involves iterative optimization of a large number of parameters and is known to be a labor-intensive procedure. To reduce the scale of computation and improve characterization of isodose plan, this paper presents an isodose feature-preserving voxelization (IFPV) framework for radiation therapy applications and demonstrate an implementation of inverse planning in the IFPV domain. METHODS: A dose distribution in IFPV scheme is characterized by partitioning the voxels into subgroups according to their geometric and dosimetric values...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
Stephen A Montzka, Geoff S Dutton, Pengfei Yu, Eric Ray, Robert W Portmann, John S Daniel, Lambert Kuijpers, Brad D Hall, Debra Mondeel, Carolina Siso, J David Nance, Matt Rigby, Alistair J Manning, Lei Hu, Fred Moore, Ben R Miller, James W Elkins
The Montreal Protocol was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by enabling reductions in the abundance of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere1-3 . The reduction in the atmospheric concentration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) has made the second-largest contribution to the decline in the total atmospheric concentration of ozone-depleting chlorine since the 1990s 1 . However, CFC-11 still contributes one-quarter of all chlorine reaching the stratosphere, and a timely recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer depends on a sustained decline in CFC-11 concentrations 1 ...
May 2018: Nature
Kevin Faust, Quin Xie, Dominick Han, Kartikay Goyle, Zoya Volynskaya, Ugljesa Djuric, Phedias Diamandis
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in utilizing artificial intelligence, and particularly deep learning, for computer vision in histopathology. While accumulating studies highlight expert-level performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on focused classification tasks, most studies rely on probability distribution scores with empirically defined cutoff values based on post-hoc analysis. More generalizable tools that allow humans to visualize histology-based deep learning inferences and decision making are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Yadong Yu, Na Wu, Gang Peng, Tao Li, Ling Jiang, He Huang
Convenient and sensitive methods for the detection of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) will be beneficial for biomedical diagnosis and microbial fermentation industry. In this work, reduced MoS2 nanoparticles (rMNs) were prepared by ultrasonication and electrochemical reduction. The rMNs were then decorated with gold nanoparticles (Aunano) to fabricate rMNs-Aunano nanocomposite. The glass carbon electrode modified with rMNs-Aunano nanocomposite (rMNs-Aunano-GCE) showed excellent electro-catalytic oxidation toward NADH with a satisfied reproducibility and exhibited linear response in the range of 38...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Mami Horie, Kazuki Takahashi, Hidetaka Nanao, Masayuki Shirai
Platinum nanosheets between graphite layers were prepared by a thermal treatment of the mixture of platinum chloride (IV) and graphite powder under 0.3 MPa of chlorine at 723 K for 7 days, followed by the reduction under 40 kPa of hydrogen at 573 K for 1 h. Two-dimensional platinum metal nanosheets of 1-3 nm thickness and of 100-200 nm width were intercalated between graphite layers (Pt-GIC). The platinum nanosheets had a number of hexagonal holes and edges with angle of 120°. Liquid phase hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CAL) was studied over Pt-GIC which was compared with that over platinum metal particles supported on graphite layers (Pt/Gmix)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sangik Lee, Chansoo Yoon, Ji Hye Lee, Yeon Soo Kim, Mi Jung Lee, Wondong Kim, Jaeyoon Baik, Quanxi Jia, Bae Ho Park
Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconducting materials with considerable bandgaps are emerging as a new class of materials applicable to next-generation devices. Particularly, black phosphorus (BP) is considered to be very promising for next-generation 2D electrical and optical devices due to its high carrier mobility of 200-1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large on/off ratio of 104 -105 in field effect transistors. However, its environmental instability in air requires fabrication processes in a glove box filled with nitrogen or argon gas followed by encapsulation, passivation, and chemical functionalization of BP...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hansu Im, Jineun Kim, Changeun Sim, Tae Ho Kim
The title compound, (systematic name: N , N '-dibenzyl-3,3'-dimeth-oxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-di-amine), C28 H28 N2 O2 , was synthesized by the reduction of a Schiff base prepared via a condensation reaction between o -dianisidine and benzaldehyde under acidic conditions. The mol-ecule lies on a crystallographic inversion centre so that the asymmetric unit contains one half-mol-ecule. The biphenyl moiety compound is essentially planar. Two intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur. The dihedral angle between the terminal phenyl and phenyl-ene rings of a benzidine unit is 48...
March 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
D Crevillén-García
Time-consuming numerical simulators for solving groundwater flow and dissolution models of physico-chemical processes in deep aquifers normally require some of the model inputs to be defined in high-dimensional spaces in order to return realistic results. Sometimes, the outputs of interest are spatial fields leading to high-dimensional output spaces. Although Gaussian process emulation has been satisfactorily used for computing faithful and inexpensive approximations of complex simulators, these have been mostly applied to problems defined in low-dimensional input spaces...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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