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Auditory cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534502/engaging-and-disengaging-recurrent-inhibition-coincides-with-sensing-and-unsensing-of-a-sensory-stimulus
#1
Debajit Saha, Wensheng Sun, Chao Li, Srinath Nizampatnam, William Padovano, Zhengdao Chen, Alex Chen, Ege Altan, Ray Lo, Dennis L Barbour, Baranidharan Raman
Even simple sensory stimuli evoke neural responses that are dynamic and complex. Are the temporally patterned neural activities important for controlling the behavioral output? Here, we investigated this issue. Our results reveal that in the insect antennal lobe, due to circuit interactions, distinct neural ensembles are activated during and immediately following the termination of every odorant. Such non-overlapping response patterns are not observed even when the stimulus intensity or identities were changed...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533517/vortioxetine-reduces-bold-signal-during-performance-of-the-n-back-working-memory-task-a-randomised-neuroimaging-trial-in-remitted-depressed-patients-and-healthy-controls
#2
J Smith, M Browning, S Conen, R Smallman, J Buchbjerg, K G Larsen, C K Olsen, S R Christensen, G R Dawson, J F Deakin, P Hawkins, R Morris, G Goodwin, C J Harmer
Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20 mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532686/mismatch-negativity-mmn-to-spatial-deviants-and-behavioral-spatial-discrimination-ability-in-the-etiology-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia
#3
Megan A Perrin, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Gail Silipo, Elisa Dias, Omar Jabado, Daniel C Javitt
Persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are increasingly tied to dysfunction at the level of auditory cortex. AVH may reflect in part misattribution of internally generated thoughts to external spatial locations. Here, we investigated the association between persistent AVH and spatial localization abilities assessed both behaviorally and by mismatch negativity (MMN) to location deviants. METHODS: Spatial- and tonal- discrimination abilities were assessed in patients (n=20) and controls (n=20) using free-field tones...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#4
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528846/the-multi-level-impact-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-central-auditory-processing
#5
Eddie Wong, Bin Yang, Lida Du, Wai Hong Ho, Condon Lau, Ya Ke, Ying Shing Chan, Wing Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3 to 7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527790/visual-cortex-signals-a-mismatch-between-regularity-of-auditory-and-visual-streams
#6
Michael Andric, Ben Davis, Uri Hasson
Understanding how humans code for and respond to environmental uncertainty/regularity is a question shared by current computational and neurobiological approaches to human cognition. To date, studies investigating neurobiological systems that track input uncertainty have examined responses to uni-sensory streams. It is not known, however, whether there exist brain systems that combine information about the regularity of input streams presented to different senses. We report an fMRI study that aimed to identify brain systems that relate statistical information across sensory modalities...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#7
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523232/male-to-female-gender-dysphoria-gender-specific-differences-in-resting-state-networks
#8
Benjamin Clemens, Jessica Junger, Katharina Pauly, Josef Neulen, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube, Dirk Frölich, Gianluca Mingoia, Birgit Derntl, Ute Habel
INTRODUCTION: Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). METHODS: To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516807/neurofeedback-based-enhancement-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-feasibility-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Kathryn Rieger, Marie-Helene Rarra, Nicolas Moor, Laura Diaz Hernandez, Anja Baenninger, Nadja Razavi, Thomas Dierks, Daniela Hubl, Thomas Koenig
Previous studies showed a global reduction of the event-related potential component N100 in patients with schizophrenia, a phenomenon that is even more pronounced during auditory verbal hallucinations. This reduction assumingly results from dysfunctional activation of the primary auditory cortex by inner speech, which reduces its responsiveness to external stimuli. With this study, we tested the feasibility of enhancing the responsiveness of the primary auditory cortex to external stimuli with an upregulation of the event-related potential component N100 in healthy control subjects...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515283/anisomorphic-cortical-reorganization-in-asymmetric-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Steven W Cheung, Craig Anthony Atencio, Eliott R J Levy, Robert C Froemke, Christoph E Schreiner
Acoustic trauma or inner ear disease may predominantly injure one ear, causing asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). While characteristic frequency (CF) map plasticity of primary auditory cortex (AI) contralateral to the injured ear has been detailed, there is no study that also evaluates ipsilateral AI to compare cortical reorganization across both hemispheres. We assess whether normal isomorphic mirror image relationship between the two hemispheres is maintained or disrupted in mild-to-moderate asymmetric SNHL of adult squirrel monkeys...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511977/role-of-acetylcholine-and-serotonin-in-novelty-processing-using-an-oddball-paradigm
#11
S Caldenhove, L G J M Borghans, A Blokland, A Sambeth
The processing of novel stimuli is known to take place in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and is influenced by the cholinergic system. This ability is crucial to help detect changes in the environment and adapt behavior accordingly. Previous research has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) can interact with serotonin (5-HT) at the hippocampal level, which may have consequences for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about the exact nature of this ACh and 5-HT interaction as well their possible interactive effects on novelty processing...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507127/development-of-visual-category-selectivity-in-ventral-visual-cortex-does-not-require-visual-experience
#12
Job van den Hurk, Marc Van Baelen, Hans P Op de Beeck
To what extent does functional brain organization rely on sensory input? Here, we show that for the penultimate visual-processing region, ventral-temporal cortex (VTC), visual experience is not the origin of its fundamental organizational property, category selectivity. In the fMRI study reported here, we presented 14 congenitally blind participants with face-, body-, scene-, and object-related natural sounds and presented 20 healthy controls with both auditory and visual stimuli from these categories. Using macroanatomical alignment, response mapping, and surface-based multivoxel pattern analysis, we demonstrated that VTC in blind individuals shows robust discriminatory responses elicited by the four categories and that these patterns of activity in blind subjects could successfully predict the visual categories in sighted controls...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#13
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505528/acuity-in-ranging-based-on-delay-tuned-combination-sensitive-neurons-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-mustached-bats
#14
Masakiyo Suzuki, Nobuo Suga
A 1.0-ms echo delay from an emitted bio-sonar pulse at 25 °C corresponds to a 17.3-cm target distance. In the auditory cortex of the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii, neurons tuned to a specific delay (best delay) of an echo from an emitted pulse are clustered in the FF, dorsal fringe and ventral fringe areas. ("FF" stands for the frequency-modulated components of a pulse and its echo.) Those delay-tuned neurons are systematically arranged in the FF area according to their best delays and form a 18-ms-long delay axis...
May 2, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505527/amino-acid-and-acetylcholine-chemistry-in-the-central-auditory-system-of-young-middle-aged-and-old-rats
#15
Donald A Godfrey, Kejian Chen, Thomas R O'Toole, Abdurrahman I A A Mustapha
Older adults generally experience difficulties with hearing. Age-related changes in the chemistry of central auditory regions, especially the chemistry underlying synaptic transmission between neurons, may be of particular relevance for hearing changes. In this study, we used quantitative microchemical methods to map concentrations of amino acids, including the major neurotransmitters of the brain, in all the major central auditory structures of young (6 months), middle-aged (22 months), and old (33 months old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats...
May 4, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504672/identification-of-a-motor-to-auditory-pathway-important-for-vocal-learning
#16
Todd F Roberts, Erin Hisey, Masashi Tanaka, Matthew G Kearney, Gaurav Chattree, Cindy F Yang, Nirao M Shah, Richard Mooney
Learning to vocalize depends on the ability to adaptively modify the temporal and spectral features of vocal elements. Neurons that convey motor-related signals to the auditory system are theorized to facilitate vocal learning, but the identity and function of such neurons remain unknown. Here we identify a previously unknown neuron type in the songbird brain that transmits vocal motor signals to the auditory cortex. Genetically ablating these neurons in juveniles disrupted their ability to imitate features of an adult tutor's song...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498725/evaluation-of-abbott-s-burstdr-stimulation-device-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#17
Timothy R Deer, Lucas W Campos, Jason E Pope
Burst stimulation, as described by DeRidder, is a novel waveform made up of closely spaced, high-frequency electrical impulses delivered in packets, which are followed by a quiescent period or interburst interval. Electrically generated burst waveforms were initially designed to treat neural pathology in the auditory cortex and were later applied to the spinal cord through spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices to treat chronic pain states. When Burst stimulation is applied to the spinal cord, the impulses travel to the thalamus and then diverge, targeting both the somatosensory cortex and the limbic system where they treat both the sensory, affective and attentional components of neuropathic pain...
May 12, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496095/duration-of-motherhood-has-incremental-effects-on-mothers-neural-processing-of-infant-vocal-cues-a-neuroimaging-study-of-women
#18
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Mikkel V Petersen, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Peter Vuust, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
The transition to motherhood, and the resultant experience of caregiving, may change the way women respond to affective, infant signals in their environments. Nonhuman animal studies have robustly demonstrated that mothers process both infant and other salient signals differently from nonmothers. Here, we investigated how women with and without young infants respond to vocalisations from infants and adults (both crying and neutral). We examined mothers with infants ranging in age (1-14 months) to examine the effects of duration of maternal experience...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495609/acute-low-level-alcohol-consumption-reduces-phase-locking-of-event-related-oscillations-in-rodents
#19
Leslie R Amodeo, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations...
May 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495599/effects-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-polymorphism-and-resting-brain-functional-connectivity-on-individual-differences-in-tactile-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-young-adults
#20
Xuejuan Yang, Ziliang Xu, Lin Liu, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Lingmin Jin, Yuanqiang Zhu, Ningbo Fei, Wei Qin
Cognitive processes involve input from multiple sensory modalities and obvious differences in the level of cognitive function can be observed between individuals. Evidence to date understanding the biological basis of tactile cognitive variability, however, is limited compared with other forms of sensory cognition. Data from auditory and visual cognition research suggest that variations in both genetics and intrinsic brain function might contribute to individual differences in tactile cognitive performance...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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