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Auditory cortex

Jennifer M Staib, Rebecca Della Valle, Dayan K Knox
In classical fear conditioning, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), which leads to a fear memory. If the CS is repeatedly presented without the US after fear conditioning, the formation of an extinction memory occurs, which inhibits fear memory expression. A previous study has demonstrated that selective cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) prior to fear and extinction learning disrupt contextual fear memory discrimination and acquisition of extinction memory...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Garrett Cardon, Anu Sharma
Under conditions of profound sensory deprivation, the brain has the propensity to reorganize. For example, intact sensory modalities often recruit deficient modalities' cortices for neural processing. This process is known as cross-modal reorganization and has been shown in congenitally and profoundly deaf patients. However, much less is known about cross-modal cortical reorganization in persons with less severe cases of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), even though such cases are far more common. Thus, we investigated cross-modal reorganization between the auditory and somatosensory modalities in older adults with normal hearing (NH) and mild-moderate ARHL in response to vibrotactile stimulation using high density electroencephalography (EEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Hemanth Mohan, Yasir Gallero-Salas, Stefano Carta, João Sacramento, Balazs Laurenczy, Lazar T Sumanovski, Christiaan P J de Kock, Fritjof Helmchen, Shankar Sachidhanandam
Sensory association cortices receive diverse inputs with their role in representing and integrating multi-sensory content remaining unclear. Here we examined the neuronal correlates of an auditory-tactile stimulus sequence in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) using 2-photon calcium imaging in awake mice. We find that neuronal subpopulations in layer 2/3 of PPC reliably represent texture-touch events, in addition to auditory cues that presage the incoming tactile stimulus. Notably, altering the flow of sensory events through omission of the cued texture touch elicited large responses in a subset of neurons hardly responsive to or even inhibited by the tactile stimuli...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Begoña Díaz, Helen Blank, Katharina von Kriegstein
The cerebral cortex modulates early sensory processing via feed-back connections to sensory pathway nuclei. The functions of this top-down modulation for human behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that top-down modulation of the visual sensory thalamus (the lateral geniculate body, LGN) is involved in visual-speech recognition. In two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, LGN response increased when participants processed fast-varying features of articulatory movements required for visual-speech recognition, as compared to temporally more stable features required for face identification with the same stimulus material...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Claude Alain, Yasha Khatamian, Yu He, Yunjo Lee, Sylvain Moreno, Ada W S Leung, Ellen Bialystok
Musical training and bilingualism benefit executive functioning and working memory (WM)-however, the brain networks supporting this advantage are not well specified. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and the n-back task to assess WM for spatial (sound location) and nonspatial (sound category) auditory information in musician monolingual (musicians), nonmusician bilinguals (bilinguals), and nonmusician monolinguals (controls). Musicians outperformed bilinguals and controls on the nonspatial WM task...
May 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Manuel Teichert, Marcel Isstas, Yitong Zhang, Jürgen Bolz
The temporal closure of one eye in juvenile and young adult mice induces a shift of the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in the binocular visual cortex. However, OD-plasticity typically declines with age and is completely absent in matured mice beyond postnatal day (PD) 110. As it has been shown that the deprivation of one sensory input can induce neuronal alterations in non-deprived sensory cortices, we here investigated whether cross-modal interactions have the potential to reinstall OD-plasticity in matured mice...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Fei Gao, Liang Chen, Jiping Zhang
In natural conditions, human and animals need to extract target sound information from noisy acoustic environments for communication and survival. However, how the contextual environmental sounds impact the tuning of central auditory neurons to target sound source azimuth over a wide range of sound levels is not fully understood. Here we determined the azimuth-level response areas (ALRAs) of rat auditory cortex neurons by recording their responses to probe tones varying with levels and sound source azimuths under both quiet (probe alone) and forward masking conditions (preceding noise + probe)...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alina Baltus, Johannes Vosskuhl, Cindy Boetzel, Christoph Siegfried Herrmann
Recent research provides evidence for a functional role of brain oscillations for perception. For example, auditory temporal resolution seems to be linked to individual gamma frequency of auditory cortex. Individual gamma frequency not only correlates with performance in between-channel gap detection tasks but can be modulated via auditory transcranial alternating current stimulation. Modulation of individual gamma frequency is accompanied by an improvement in gap detection performance. Aging changes electrophysiological frequency components and sensory processing mechanisms...
May 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yange Wei, Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Qian Zhou, Zhiyang Yin, Shengnan Wei, Yifang Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Xudong Yao, Jia Duan, Ke Xu, Xi-Nian Zuo, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Local functional connectivity (FC) indicates local or short-distance functional interactions and may serve as a neuroimaging marker to investigate the human brain connectome. Local FC alterations suggest a disrupted balance in the local functionality of the whole brain network and are increasingly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We aim to examine the similarities and differences in the local FC across SZ, BD, and MDD...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Manuela Cerina, Venu Narayanan, Anna Delank, Patrick Meuth, Stephanie Graebenitz, Kerstin Göbel, Alexander M Herrmann, Stefanie Albrecht, Thiemo Daldrup, Thomas Seidenbecher, Ali Gorji, Tanja Kuhlmann, Heinz Wiendl, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Erwin J Speckmann, Hans-Christian Pape, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
Alterations in cortical cellular organization, network functionality, as well as cognitive and locomotor deficits were recently suggested to be pathological hallmarks in multiple sclerosis and corresponding animal models as they might occur following demyelination. To investigate functional changes following demyelination in a well-defined, topographically organized neuronal network, in vitro and in vivo, we focused on the primary auditory cortex (A1) of mice in the cuprizone model of general de- and remyelination...
May 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Olli Löfberg, Petro Julkunen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ari Pääkkönen, Jari Karhu
Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity throughout the central nervous system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Dawei Shen, Dominique T Vuvan, Claude Alain
Attentional blink (AB) refers to the situation where correctly identifying a target impairs the processing of a subsequent probe in a sequence of stimuli. Although the AB often coincides with a modulation of scalp-recorded cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), the neural sources of this effect remain unclear. In two separate experiments, we used Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied (CLARA) to estimate the neural sources of ERPs elicited by an auditory probe when it immediately followed an auditory target (i...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sébastien Paquette, Sylvain Takerkart, Shinji Saget, Isabelle Peretz, Pascal Belin
Whether emotions carried by voice and music are processed by the brain using similar mechanisms has long been investigated. Yet neuroimaging studies do not provide a clear picture, mainly due to lack of control over stimuli. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using comparable stimulus material in the voice and music domains-the Montreal Affective Voices and the Musical Emotional Bursts-which include nonverbal short bursts of happiness, fear, sadness, and neutral expressions...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Muge Ozker, Daniel Yoshor, Michael S Beauchamp
Although humans can understand speech using the auditory modality alone, in noisy environments visual speech information from the talker's mouth can rescue otherwise unintelligible auditory speech. To investigate the neural substrates of multisensory speech perception, we compared neural activity from the human superior temporal gyrus (STG) in two datasets. One dataset consisted of direct neural recordings (electrocorticography, ECoG) from surface electrodes implanted in epilepsy patients (this dataset has been previously published)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ruijie Li, Meng Wang, Jiwei Yao, Shanshan Liang, Xiang Liao, Mengke Yang, Jianxiong Zhang, Junan Yan, Hongbo Jia, Xiaowei Chen, Xingyi Li
In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Alejandro Galvez-Pol, Bettina Forster, Beatriz Calvo-Merino
Recent studies suggest that brain regions engaged in perception are also recruited during the consolidation interval of the percept in working memory (WM). Evidence for this comes from studies showing that maintaining arbitrary visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in WM elicits recruitment of the corresponding sensory cortices. Here we investigate if encoding and WM maintenance of visually perceived body-related stimuli engage just visual regions, or additional sensorimotor regions that are classically associated with embodiment processes in studies of body and action perception...
May 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Toshiki Tani, Hiroshi Abe, Taku Hayami, Taku Banno, Naohisa Miyakawa, Naohito Kitamura, Hiromi Mashiko, Noritaka Ichinohe, Wataru Suzuki
Natural sound is composed of various frequencies. Although the core region of the primate auditory cortex has functionally defined sound frequency preference maps, how the map is organized in the auditory areas of the belt and parabelt regions is not well known. In this study, we investigated the functional organizations of the core, belt, and parabelt regions encompassed by the lateral sulcus and the superior temporal sulcus in the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ). Using optical intrinsic signal imaging, we obtained evoked responses to band-pass noise stimuli in a range of sound frequencies (0...
March 2018: ENeuro
Motomu Suga, Yuki Kawakubo, Yukika Nishimura, Kenji Hashimoto, Masato Yumoto, Kiyoto Kasai
OBJECTIVE: Uncovering molecular bases for auditory language processing in the human brain is a fundamental scientific challenge. The power and latency of the magnetic mismatch field (MMF) elicited by phoneme change, which are magnetoencephalographic indices of language function in its early stage of information processing, are theoretically thought to be modulated by N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) function, but no study has yet assessed this possibility. We have thus sought to demonstrate an association between phonetic MMF power/latency and levels of plasma d-serine, an intrinsic co-agonist of glycine binding sites on NMDAR, in adults...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Ting Li, Marilyn Horta, Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly Bijanki, Luc H Arnal, Melissa Adams, Ronald G Barr, James K Rilling
Crying is the principal means by which newborn infants shape parental behavior to meet their needs. While this mechanism can be highly effective, infant crying can also be an aversive stimulus that leads to parental frustration and even abuse. Fathers have recently become more involved in direct caregiving activities in modern, developed nations, and fathers are more likely than mothers to physically abuse infants. In this study, we attempt to explain variation in the neural response to infant crying among human fathers, with the hope of identifying factors that are associated with a more or less sensitive response...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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