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Auditory cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155975/induced-cortical-responses-require-developmental-sensory-experience
#1
Prasandhya Astagiri Yusuf, Peter Hubka, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex integrate the sensory inputs with the ongoing activity. We studied how complete absence of auditory experience affects this process in a higher mammal model of complete sensory deprivation, the congenitally deaf cat. Cortical responses were elicited by intracochlear electric stimulation using cochlear implants in adult hearing controls and deaf cats. Additionally, in hearing controls, acoustic stimuli were used to assess the effect of stimulus mode (electric versus acoustic) on the cortical responses...
November 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150051/glutamate-is-down-regulated-and-tinnitus-loudness-levels-decreased-following-rtms-over-auditory-cortex-of-the-left-hemisphere-a-prospective-randomized-single-blinded-sham-controlled-cross-over-study
#2
Anthony T Cacace, Jiani Hu, Stephen Romero, Yang Xuan, Robert F Burkard, Richard S Tyler
Using a prospective randomized single-blinded sham-controlled cross-over design, we studied the efficacy of low frequency (1-Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over auditory cortex of the left temporal lobe as an experimental treatment modality for noise-induced tinnitus. Pre/post outcome measures for sham vs. active rTMS conditions included differential changes in tinnitus loudness, self-perceived changes in the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ), and neurochemical changes of brain metabolite concentrations using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) obtained from left and right auditory cortical areas...
November 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146377/cortical-processing-of-pitch-model-based-encoding-and-decoding-of-auditory-fmri-responses-to-real-life-sounds
#3
REVIEW
Vittoria De Angelis, Federico De Martino, Michelle Moerel, Roberta Santoro, Lars Hausfeld, Elia Formisano
Pitch is a perceptual attribute related to the fundamental frequency (or periodicity) of a sound. So far, the cortical processing of pitch has been investigated mostly using synthetic sounds. However, the complex harmonic structure of natural sounds may require different mechanisms for the extraction and analysis of pitch. This study investigated the neural representation of pitch in human auditory cortex using model-based encoding and decoding analyses of high field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected while participants listened to a wide range of real-life sounds...
November 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142056/familiarity-with-a-vocal-category-biases-the-compartmental-expression-of-arc-arg3-1-in-core-auditory-cortex
#4
Tamara N Ivanova, Christina Gross, Rudolph C Mappus, Yong Jun Kwon, Gary J Bassell, Robert C Liu
Learning to recognize a stimulus category requires experience with its many natural variations. However, the mechanisms that allow a category's sensorineural representation to be updated after experiencing new exemplars are not well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here we investigate how a natural vocal category induces expression in the auditory system of a key synaptic plasticity effector immediate early gene, Arc/Arg3.1, which is required for memory consolidation. We use the ultrasonic communication system between mouse pups and adult females to study whether prior familiarity with pup vocalizations alters how Arc is engaged in the core auditory cortex after playback of novel exemplars from the pup vocal category...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138699/for-better-or-worse-the-effect-of-prismatic-adaptation-on-auditory-neglect
#5
Isabel Tissieres, Mona Elamly, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Patients with auditory neglect attend less to auditory stimuli on their left and/or make systematic directional errors when indicating sound positions. Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) was repeatedly shown to alleviate symptoms of visuospatial neglect and once to restore partially spatial bias in dichotic listening. It is currently unknown whether R-PA affects only this ear-related symptom or also other aspects of auditory neglect. We have investigated the effect of R-PA on left ear extinction in dichotic listening, space-related inattention assessed by diotic listening, and directional errors in auditory localization in patients with auditory neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136122/local-and-global-spatial-organization-of-interaural-level-difference-and-frequency-preferences-in-auditory-cortex
#6
Mariangela Panniello, Andrew J King, Johannes C Dahmen, Kerry M M Walker
Despite decades of microelectrode recordings, fundamental questions remain about how auditory cortex represents sound-source location. Here, we used in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging to measure the sensitivity of layer II/III neurons in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) to interaural level differences (ILDs), the principal spatial cue in this species. Although most ILD-sensitive neurons preferred ILDs favoring the contralateral ear, neurons with either midline or ipsilateral preferences were also present. An opponent-channel decoder accurately classified ILDs using the difference in responses between populations of neurons that preferred contralateral-ear-greater and ipsilateral-ear-greater stimuli...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136104/focal-suppression-of-distractor-sounds-by-selective-attention-in-auditory-cortex
#7
Zachary P Schwartz, Stephen V David
Auditory selective attention is required for parsing crowded acoustic environments, but cortical systems mediating the influence of behavioral state on auditory perception are not well characterized. Previous neurophysiological studies suggest that attention produces a general enhancement of neural responses to important target sounds versus irrelevant distractors. However, behavioral studies suggest that in the presence of masking noise, attention provides a focal suppression of distractors that compete with targets...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135872/the-role-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-in-the-context-of-cochlear-implant-provision
#8
Sebastian Hoth, Oliver Christian Dziemba
: Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are highly demanded during the whole process of equipping patients with cochlear implants (CI). They play an essential role in preoperative diagnostics, intraoperative testing, and postoperative monitoring of auditory performance and success. The versatility of AEP's is essentially enhanced by their property to be evokable by acoustic as well as electric stimuli. Thus, the electric responses of the auditory system following acoustic stimulation and recorded by the conventional surface technique as well as by transtympanic derivation from the promontory (Electrocochleography [ECochG]) are used for the quantitative determination of hearing loss and, additionally, electrically evoked compound actions potentials (ECAP) can be recorded with the intracochlear electrodes of the implant just adjacent to the stimulation electrode to check the functional integrity of the device and its coupling to the auditory system...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134751/cortical-hemispheric-asymmetries-are-present-at-young-ages-and-further-develop-into-adolescence
#9
Hiroshi Yamazaki, Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Melissa Jane Polonenko, Salima Jiwani, Daniel D E Wong, Blake Croll Papsin, Karen Ann Gordon
Specialization of the auditory cortices for pure tone listening may develop with age. In adults, the right hemisphere dominates when listening to pure tones and music; we thus hypothesized that (a) asymmetric function between auditory cortices increases with age and (b) this development is specific to tonal rather than broadband/non-tonal stimuli. Cortical responses to tone-bursts and broadband click-trains were recorded by multichannel electroencephalography in young children (5.1 ± 0.8 years old) and adolescents (15...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129793/the-interval-between-vns-tone-pairings-determines-the-extent-of-cortical-map-plasticity
#10
Michael S Borland, Crystal T Engineer, William A Vrana, Nicole A Moreno, Navzer D Engineer, Sven Vanneste, Pryanka Sharma, Meghan C Pantalia, Mark C Lane, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard
Repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a tone or movement drives highly-specific and long-lasting plasticity in auditory or motor cortex, respectively. Based on this robust enhancement of plasticity, VNS paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential therapy to improve recovery, even when delivered long after the neurological insult. Development of VNS delivery paradigms that reduce therapy duration and maximize efficacy would facilitate clinical translation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether primary auditory cortex (A1) plasticity can be generated more quickly by shortening the interval between VNS-tone pairing events or by delivering fewer VNS-tone pairing events...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127879/role-of-the-right-inferior-parietal-cortex-in-auditory-selective-attention-an-rtms-study
#11
Corinne A Bareham, Stanimira D Georgieva, Marc R Kamke, David Lloyd, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Jason B Mattingley
Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone...
October 16, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126650/plasticity-in-the-auditory-system
#12
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Over the last 30 years a wide range of manipulations of auditory input and experience have been shown to result in plasticity in auditory cortical and subcortical structures. The time course of plasticity ranges from very rapid stimulus-specific adaptation to longer-term changes associated with, for example, partial hearing loss or perceptual learning. Evidence for plasticity as a consequence of these and a range of other manipulations of auditory input and/or its significance is reviewed, with an emphasis on plasticity in adults and in the auditory cortex...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125987/contextual-modulation-of-sound-processing-in-the-auditory-cortex
#13
REVIEW
C Angeloni, M N Geffen
In everyday acoustic environments, we navigate through a maze of sounds that possess a complex spectrotemporal structure, spanning many frequencies and exhibiting temporal modulations that differ within frequency bands. Our auditory system needs to efficiently encode the same sounds in a variety of different contexts, while preserving the ability to separate complex sounds within an acoustic scene. Recent work in auditory neuroscience has made substantial progress in studying how sounds are represented in the auditory system under different contexts, demonstrating that auditory processing of seemingly simple acoustic features, such as frequency and time, is highly dependent on co-occurring acoustic and behavioral stimuli...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122722/stimulus-invariant-auditory-cortex-threat-encoding-during-fear-conditioning-with-simple-and-complex-sounds
#14
Matthias Staib, Dominik R Bach
Learning to predict threat depends on amygdala plasticity and does not require auditory cortex (ACX) when threat predictors (conditioned stimuli, CS) are simple sine tones. However, ACX is required in rodents to learn from some naturally occurring CS. Yet, the precise function of ACX, and whether it differs for different CS types, is unknown. Here, we address how ACX encodes threat predictions during human fear conditioning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with multivariate pattern analysis...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122721/a-common-periodic-representation-of-interaural-time-differences-in-mammalian-cortex
#15
Nelli H Salminen, Simon J Jones, Gestur B Christianson, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine
Binaural hearing, the ability to detect small differences in the timing and level of sounds at the two ears, underpins the ability to localize sound sources along the horizontal plane, and is important for decoding complex spatial listening environments into separate objects - a critical factor in 'cocktail-party listening'. For human listeners, the most important spatial cue is the interaural time difference (ITD). Despite many decades of neurophysiological investigations of ITD sensitivity in small mammals, and computational models aimed at accounting for human perception, a lack of concordance between these studies has hampered our understanding of how the human brain represents and processes ITDs...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121295/disruption-of-cortical-network-activity-by-the-general-anaesthetic-isoflurane
#16
H Hentschke, A Raz, B M Krause, C A Murphy, M I Banks
Background: Actions of general anaesthetics on activity in the cortico-thalamic network likely contribute to loss of consciousness and disconnection from the environment. Previously, we showed that the general anaesthetic isoflurane preferentially suppresses cortically evoked synaptic responses compared with thalamically evoked synaptic responses, but how this differential sensitivity translates into changes in network activity is unclear. Methods: We investigated isoflurane disruption of spontaneous and stimulus-induced cortical network activity using multichannel recordings in murine auditory thalamo-cortical brain slices...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121293/brain-functional-connectivity-differentiates-dexmedetomidine-from-propofol-and-natural-sleep
#17
P Guldenmund, A Vanhaudenhuyse, R D Sanders, J Sleigh, M A Bruno, A Demertzi, M A Bahri, O Jaquet, J Sanfilippo, K Baquero, M Boly, J F Brichant, S Laureys, V Bonhomme
Background: We used functional connectivity measures from brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify human neural correlates of sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol and their similarities with natural sleep. Methods: Connectivity within the resting state networks that are proposed to sustain consciousness generation was compared between deep non-rapid-eye-movement (N3) sleep, dexmedetomidine sedation, and propofol sedation in volunteers who became unresponsive to verbal command...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121216/fast-inhibitory-decay-facilitates-adult-like-temporal-processing-in-layer-5-of-developing-primary-auditory-cortex
#18
Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Dongqin Cai, Miaomiao Liu, Yin Yue, Yiwei Wang, Kexin Yuan
The protracted maturational process of temporal processing in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1) has been extensively studied. Accumulating evidences show that layer 5 (L5) receives direct thalamic inputs as well. How the temporal responses in L5 may developmentally emerge remains unclear. Using in vivo loose-patch recordings in rat A1, we found that putative pyramidal (Pyr) neurons in developing L5 exhibited adult-like stimulus-following ability but less bursting shortly after hearing onset. L5 Pyr neurons in adult A1 exhibited phase-locking similar to L4 neurons, while L5 fast-spiking (FS) neurons showed greater phase-locking at 7 and 12...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119311/cortical-processing-of-level-cues-for-spatial-hearing-is-impaired-in-children-with-prelingual-deafness-despite-early-bilateral-access-to-sound
#19
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Michael Deighton, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
Bilateral cochlear implantation aims to restore binaural hearing, important for spatial hearing, to children who are deaf. Improvements over unilateral implant use are attributed largely to the detection of interaural level differences (ILDs) but emerging evidence of impaired sound localization and binaural fusion suggest that these binaural cues are abnormally coded by the auditory system. We used multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical responses to ILDs in two groups: 13 children who received early bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously, known to protect the developing auditory cortices from unilaterally driven reorganization, and 15 age matched peers with normal hearing...
November 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114213/visually-evoked-visual-auditory-changes-associated-with-auditory-performance-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#20
Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Jiahao Liu, Yuebo Chen, Yuexin Cai, Xianjun Wang, Junbo Wang, Xueyuan Zhang, Suijun Chen, Xianghui Li, Ling Chen, Yiqing Zheng
Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI) patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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