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Auditory cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940055/cortical-and-thalamic-connectivity-to-the-second-auditory-cortex-of-the-cat-is-resilient-to-the-onset-of-deafness
#1
Blake E Butler, Alexandra de la Rua, Taylor Ward-Able, Stephen G Lomber
It has been well established that following sensory loss, cortical areas that would normally be involved in perceiving stimuli in the absent modality are recruited to subserve the remaining senses. Despite this compensatory functional reorganization, there is little evidence to date for any substantial change in the patterns of anatomical connectivity between sensory cortices. However, while many auditory areas are contracted in the deaf, the second auditory cortex (A2) of the cat undergoes a volumetric expansion following hearing loss, suggesting this cortical area may demonstrate a region-specific pattern of structural reorganization...
September 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#2
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932189/delayed-mismatch-field-latencies-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-abnormal-auditory-sensitivity-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#3
Junko Matsuzaki, Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Hisato Sugata, Ryuzo Hanaie, Fumiyo Nagatani, Tomoka Yamamoto, Masaya Tachibana, Koji Tominaga, Masayuki Hirata, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike
Although abnormal auditory sensitivity is the most common sensory impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. In previous studies, we reported that this abnormal sensitivity in patients with ASD is associated with delayed and prolonged responses in the auditory cortex. In the present study, we investigated alterations in residual M100 and MMFs in children with ASD who experience abnormal auditory sensitivity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure MMF elicited by an auditory oddball paradigm (standard tones: 300 Hz, deviant tones: 700 Hz) in 20 boys with ASD (11 with abnormal auditory sensitivity: mean age, 9...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931571/sublaminar-subdivision-of-mouse-auditory-cortex-layer-2-3-based-on-functional-translaminar-connections
#4
Xiangying Meng, Daniel E Winkowski, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick O Kanold
The cerebral cortex is subdivided into 6 layers based on morphological features. The supragranular layers 2/3 (L2/3) contain morphologically and genetically diverse populations of neurons, suggesting the existence of discrete classes of cells. In primates and carnivores L2/3 can be subdivided morphologically, but cytoarchitectonic divisions are less clear in rodents. Nevertheless, discrete classes of cells could exist based on their computational requirement, which might be linked to their associated functional microcircuits...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928676/effects-of-immune-activation-during-early-or-late-gestation-on-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-measures-in-adult-rat-offspring
#5
Tasnim Rahman, Katerina Zavitsanou, Tertia Purves-Tyson, Lauren R Harms, Crystal Meehan, Ulrich Schall, Juanita Todd, Deborah M Hodgson, Patricia T Michie, Cyndi Shannon Weickert
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic receptor [N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)] alterations within cortex, hippocampus, and striatum are linked to schizophrenia pathology. Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in offspring. In rodents, gestational timing of MIA may result in distinct behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how timing of MIA may impact the nature and extent of NMDAR-related changes in brain is not known. We hypothesize that NMDAR-related molecular changes in rat cortex, striatum, and hippocampus are induced by MIA and are dependent on the timing of gestational inflammation and sex of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927640/language-experience-dependent-advantage-in-pitch-representation-in-the-auditory-cortex-is-limited-to-favorable-signal-to-noise-ratios
#6
Chandan H Suresh, Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Jackson T Gandour
Long-term experience enhances neural representation of temporal attributes of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex in favorable listening conditions. Herein we examine whether cortical pitch mechanisms shaped by language experience are more resilient to degradation in background noise, and exhibit greater binaural release from masking (BRM). Cortical pitch responses (CPR) were recorded from Mandarin- and English-speaking natives using a Mandarin word exhibiting a high rising pitch (/yi(2)/). Stimuli were presented diotically in Quiet, and in noise at +5, and 0 dB SNR...
September 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925013/an-animal-model-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-treating-tinnitus-a-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Syed F Ahsan, Hao Luo, Jinsheng Zhang, Eric Kim, Yong Xu
OBJECTIVE: This proof-of-concept study aimed to demonstrate therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on noise-induced tinnitus. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: After Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval, nine adult rats were implanted in the caudate nucleus with custom-made electrode array. The rats were exposed to noise to induce tinnitus. Auditory brainstem response was performed to evaluate hearing threshold changes...
September 19, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924582/data-on-the-effect-of-conductive-hearing-loss-on-auditory-and-visual-cortex-activity-revealed-by-intrinsic-signal-imaging
#8
Manuel Teichert, Jürgen Bolz
This data article provides additional data related to the research article entitled "Simultaneous intrinsic signal imaging of auditory and visual cortex reveals profound effects of acute hearing loss on visual processing" (Teichert and Bolz, 2017) [1]. The primary auditory and visual cortex (A1 and V1) of adult male C57BL/6J mice (P120-P240) were mapped simultaneously using intrinsic signal imaging (Kalatsky and Stryker, 2003) [2]. A1 and V1 activity evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation were measured before and after conductive hearing loss (CHL) induced by bilateral malleus removal...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924008/primary-generators-of-visually-evoked-field-potentials-recorded-in-the-macaque-auditory-cortex
#9
Yoshinao Kajikawa, John F Smiley, Charles E Schroeder
Prior studies have reported "local" field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, while field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be "contaminated" by activity generated elsewhere in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923485/functional-data-analysis-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-recorded-in-the-awake-rat
#10
Ondrej Pokora, Jan Kolaicek, Tzai-Wen Chiu, Wei Qiu
Evoked potentials (EPs) reflect neural processing and are widely used to study sensory perception. However, methods of analyzing EP have been limited mostly to the conventional ensemble averaging of EP response trials to a repeated stimulus, and less so to single-trials analysis. Here we applied a new approach - functional data analysis (FDA) - to study auditory EP in the rat model of tinnitus, in which overdoses of salicylate (SS) are known to alter sound perception characteristically, as the same way as in humans...
September 15, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921742/processing-of-temporally-patterned-sounds-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-seba-s-short-tailed-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#11
Lisa M Martin, Francisco García-Rosales, M Jerome Beetz, Julio C Hechavarría
This article presents a characterization of cortical responses to artificial and natural temporally-patterned sounds in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that produces vocalizations at rates above 50 Hz. Multi-unit activity was recorded in three different experiments. In the first experiment, amplitude modulated (AM) pure tones were used as stimuli to drive auditory cortex (AC) units. AC units of both ketamine-anesthetized and awake bats could lock their spikes to every cycle of the stimulus modulation envelope, but only if the modulation frequency was below 22 Hz...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921634/the-role-of-whole-brain-diffusion-mri-as-a-tool-for-studying-human-in-vivo-cortical-segregation-based-on-a-measure-of-neurite-density
#12
Fernando Calamante, Ben Jeurissen, Robert E Smith, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Alan Connelly
PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion MRI can be used to study cortical segregation based on a contrast related to neurite density, thus providing a complementary tool to myelin-based MRI techniques used for myeloarchitecture. METHODS: Several myelin-sensitive MRI methods (e.g., based on T1 , T2 , and T2*) have been proposed to parcellate cortical areas based on their myeloarchitecture. Recent improvements in hardware, acquisition, and analysis methods have opened the possibility of achieving a more robust characterization of cortical microstructure using diffusion MRI...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919043/neocortical-dynamics-during-whisker-based-sensory-discrimination-in-head-restrained-mice
#13
Fritjof Helmchen, Ariel Gilad, Jerry L Chen
A fundamental task frequently encountered by brains is to rapidly and reliably discriminate between sensory stimuli of the same modality, be it distinct auditory sounds, odors, visual patterns, or tactile textures. A key mammalian brain structure involved in discrimination behavior is the neocortex. Sensory processing not only involves the respective primary sensory area, which is crucial for perceptual detection, but additionally relies on cortico-cortical communication among several regions including higher-order sensory areas as well as frontal cortical areas...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918463/apoptotic-mechanisms-after-repeated-noise-trauma-in-the-mouse-medial-geniculate-body-and-primary-auditory-cortex
#14
Felix Fröhlich, Arne Ernst, Ira Strübing, Dietmar Basta, Moritz Gröschel
A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss has previously been shown after a single noise exposure in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (AI). However, repeated noise exposure is the most common situation in humans and a major risk factor for the induction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The present investigation measured cell death pathways using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the dorsal, medial and ventral MGB (dMGB, mMGB and vMGB) and six layers of the AI (AI-1 to AI-6) in mice (NMRI strain) after a second noise exposure (double-exposure group)...
September 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917446/amplitude-modulation-rate-dependent-topographic-organization-of-the-auditory-steady-state-response-in-human-auditory-cortex
#15
Nathan Weisz, Chrysoula Lithari
Periodic modulations of an acoustic feature, such as amplitude over a certain frequency range, leads to phase locking of neural responses to the envelope of the modulation. Using electrophysiological methods this neural activity pattern, also called the auditory steady-state response (aSSR), is visible following frequency transformation of the evoked response as a clear spectral peak at the modulation frequency. Despite several studies employing the aSSR that show, for example, strongest responses for ∼40 Hz and an overall right-hemispheric dominance, it has not been investigated so far to what extent within auditory cortex different modulation frequencies elicit aSSRs at a homogenous source or whether the localization of the aSSR is topographically organized in a systematic manner...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912157/approaching-the-ground-truth-revealing-the-functional-organization-of-human-multisensory-stc-using-ultra-high-field-fmri
#16
Francesco Gentile, Nienke van Atteveldt, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel
Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory and bimodal) of its neurons...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906245/potential-audiological-and-mri-markers-of-tinnitus
#17
Kamakshi V Gopal, Binu P Thomas, Rajesh Nandy, Deng Mao, Hanzhang Lu
BACKGROUND: Subjective tinnitus, or ringing sensation in the ear, is a common disorder with no accepted objective diagnostic markers. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify possible objective markers of tinnitus by combining audiological and imaging-based techniques. RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control studies. STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty adults drawn from our audiology clinic served as participants. The tinnitus group consisted of ten participants with chronic bilateral constant tinnitus, and the control group consisted of ten participants with no history of tinnitus...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894834/auditory-processing-in-the-human-cortex-an-intracranial-electrophysiology-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Kirill V Nourski
OBJECTIVE: Direct electrophysiological recordings in epilepsy patients offer an opportunity to study human auditory cortical processing with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This review highlights recent intracranial studies of human auditory cortex and focuses on its basic response properties as well as modulation of cortical activity during the performance of active behavioral tasks. Data Sources: Literature review. Review Methods: A review of the literature was conducted to summarize the functional organization of human auditory and auditory-related cortex as revealed using intracranial recordings...
August 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892503/structural-and-functional-correlates-for-language-efficiency-in-auditory-word-processing
#19
JeYoung Jung, Sunmi Kim, Hyesuk Cho, Kichun Nam
This study aims to provide convergent understanding of the neural basis of auditory word processing efficiency using a multimodal imaging. We investigated the structural and functional correlates of word processing efficiency in healthy individuals. We acquired two structural imaging (T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during auditory word processing (phonological and semantic tasks). Our results showed that better phonological performance was predicted by the greater thalamus activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891782/functional-preference-for-object-sounds-but-not-for-voices-in-the-occipitotemporal-cortex-of-early-blind-individuals
#20
Giulia Dormal, Maxime Pelland, Mohamed Rezk, Esther Yakobov, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Sounds activate occipital regions in early blind individuals. However, how different sound categories map onto specific regions of the occipital cortex remains a matter of debate. We used fMRI to characterize brain responses of early blind and sighted individuals to familiar object sounds, human voices, and their respective low-level control sounds. In addition, sighted participants were tested while viewing pictures of faces, objects, and phase-scrambled control pictures. In both early blind and sighted, a double dissociation was evidenced in bilateral auditory cortices between responses to voices and object sounds: Voices elicited categorical responses in bilateral superior temporal sulci, whereas object sounds elicited categorical responses along the lateral fissure bilaterally, including the primary auditory cortex and planum temporale...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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