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Auditory cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716965/neural-tuning-to-low-level-features-of-speech-throughout-the-perisylvian-cortex
#1
Julia Berezutskaya, Zachary V Freudenburg, Umut Güçlü, Marcel A J van Gerven, Nick F Ramsey
Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus towards anterior superior temporal gyrus in the human brain (Hullett et al., 2016). In this study we investigate what happens to these neural representations past the superior temporal gyrus, and how they engage higher-level language processing areas, such as inferior frontal gyrus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714390/cdk5-and-mapt-gene-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-brain-samples
#2
Josianne Thomazini Fukasawa, Roger Willian de Labio, Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen, Lucieni Conterno de Oliveira, Elizabeth Chen, João Villares, Gustavo Tureck, Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Studies have shown that neurons are able to re-enter the cell cycle, but not enough to enable full replication. This leads to cell death and consequent neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the expression of the MAPT gene and CDK5 (the gene involved in cell cycle regulation) in brain samples from patients with AD and controls...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713201/language-dependent-changes-in-pitch-relevant-neural-activity-in-the-auditory-cortex-reflect-differential-weighting-of-temporal-attributes-of-pitch-contours
#3
Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Jackson T Gandour, Yi Xu, Chandan H Suresh
There remains a gap in our knowledge base about neural representation of pitch attributes that occur between onset and offset of dynamic, curvilinear pitch contours. The aim is to evaluate how language experience shapes processing of pitch contours as reflected in the amplitude of cortical pitch-specific response components. Responses were elicited from three nonspeech, bidirectional (falling-rising) pitch contours representative of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in location of the turning point with fixed onset and offset...
February 2017: Journal of Neurolinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709915/sex-differences-in-somatic-and-sensory-motor-development-after-neonatal-anoxia-in-wistar-rats
#4
Amrita Jha Kumar, Silvia Honda Takada, Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Vitor Yonamine Lee, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Maria Inês Nogueira
Currently, one of the important causes of brain injury in new-borns is the neonatal anoxia which impacts the perinatology services worldwide. Animal models of anoxia have been used to assess its effects at cellular and behavioural levels in all ages, but few studies focus on sex differences. This study aimed to investigate some physical parameters of development, sensorimotor alterations, early neurological reflexes as well as the density of cells in motor and sensorimotor cerebral cortex of adolescent rats submitted to neonatal anoxia...
July 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709732/medial-geniculate-neurons-show-diverse-effects-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-prefrontal-cortex
#5
K M Barry, D Robertson, W H A M Mulders
Phantom perceptions have been proposed to arise due to dysfunctional sensory gating at the level of the thalamus. Recently, it has been suggested that tinnitus, a phantom perception of sound, may arise from altered cortico-limbic circuitry and its connection with the auditory thalamus, the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). Indeed, some elements of this cortico-limbic circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as elements of the auditory pathway, have been shown to be altered in humans with tinnitus...
July 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706081/brief-stimulus-exposure-fully-remediates-temporal-processing-deficits-induced-by-early-hearing-loss
#6
David B Green, Michelle M Mattingly, Yi Ye, Jennifer D Gay, Merri J Rosen
In childhood, partial hearing loss can produce prolonged deficits in speech perception and temporal processing. Early therapeutic interventions targeting temporal processing may improve later speech-related outcomes, however. Gap detection is a measure of auditory temporal resolution that relies on auditory cortex (ACx), and early auditory deprivation alters intrinsic and synaptic properties in ACx. Thus, early deprivation should induce deficits in gap detection, which should be reflected in ACx gap sensitivity...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705869/auditory-cortex-interneuron-development-requires-cadherins-operating-hair-cell-mechanoelectrical-transduction
#7
Baptiste Libé-Philippot, Vincent Michel, Jacques Boutet de Monvel, Sébastien Le Gal, Typhaine Dupont, Paul Avan, Christine Métin, Nicolas Michalski, Christine Petit
Many genetic forms of congenital deafness affect the sound reception antenna of cochlear sensory cells, the hair bundle. The resulting sensory deprivation jeopardizes auditory cortex (AC) maturation. Early prosthetic intervention should revive this process. Nevertheless, this view assumes that no intrinsic AC deficits coexist with the cochlear ones, a possibility as yet unexplored. We show here that many GABAergic interneurons, from their generation in the medial ganglionic eminence up to their settlement in the AC, express two cadherin-related (cdhr) proteins, cdhr23 and cdhr15, that form the hair bundle tip links gating the mechanoelectrical transduction channels...
July 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701545/decoding-sound-level-in-the-marmoset-primary-auditory-cortex
#8
Wensheng Sun, Ellisha N Marongelli, Paul V Watkins, Dennis L Barbour
Neurons that respond favorably to a particular sound level have been observed throughout the central auditory system, becoming steadily more common at higher processing areas. One theory about the role of these level-tuned or nonmonotonic neurons is the level-invariant encoding of sounds. To investigate this theory, we simulated various subpopulations of neurons by drawing from real primary auditory cortex (A1) neuron responses and surveyed their performance in forming different sound level representations...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698606/reading-induced-shifts-of-perceptual-speech-representations-in-auditory-cortex
#9
Milene Bonte, Joao M Correia, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen, Elia Formisano
Learning to read requires the formation of efficient neural associations between written and spoken language. Whether these associations influence the auditory cortical representation of speech remains unknown. Here we address this question by combining multivariate functional MRI analysis and a newly-developed 'text-based recalibration' paradigm. In this paradigm, the pairing of visual text and ambiguous speech sounds shifts (i.e. recalibrates) the perceptual interpretation of the ambiguous sounds in subsequent auditory-only trials...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697947/synaptic-distribution-and-plasticity-in-primary-auditory-cortex-a1-exhibits-laminar-and-cell-specific-changes-in-the-deaf
#10
H Ruth Clemo, Stephen G Lomber, M Alex Meredith
The processing sequence through primary auditory cortex (A1) is impaired by deafness as evidenced by reduced neuronal activation in A1 of cochlear-implanted deaf cats. Such a loss of neuronal excitation should be manifest as changes in excitatory synaptic number and/or size, for which the post-synaptic correlate is the dendritic spine. Therefore, the present study sought evidence for this functional disruption using Golgi-Cox/light microscopic techniques that examined spine-bearing neurons and their dendritic spine features across all laminae in A1 of early-deaf (ototoxic lesion <1 month; raised into adulthood >16 months) and hearing cats...
July 1, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694336/magnified-neural-envelope-coding-predicts-deficits-in-speech-perception-in-noise
#11
Rebecca E Millman, Sven L Mattys, André D Gouws, Garreth Prendergast
Verbal communication in noisy backgrounds is challenging. Understanding speech in background noise that fluctuates in intensity over time is particularly difficult for hearing-impaired listeners with a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The reduction in fast-acting cochlear compression associated with SNHL exaggerates the perceived fluctuations in intensity in amplitude-modulated sounds. SNHL-induced changes in the coding of amplitude-modulated sounds may have a detrimental effect on the ability of SNHL listeners to understand speech in the presence of modulated background noise...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690501/cortical-activation-during-landmark-centered-vs-gaze-centered-memory-of-saccade-targets-in-the-human-an-fmri-study
#12
Ying Chen, J D Crawford
A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689982/network-level-control-of-frequency-tuning-in-auditory-cortex
#13
Hiroyuki K Kato, Samuel K Asinof, Jeffry S Isaacson
Lateral inhibition is a fundamental circuit operation that sharpens the tuning properties of cortical neurons. This operation is classically attributed to an increase in GABAergic synaptic input triggered by non-preferred stimuli. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recording and two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in awake mice to show that lateral inhibition shapes frequency tuning in primary auditory cortex via an unconventional mechanism: non-preferred tones suppress both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto layer 2/3 cells ("network suppression")...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689600/meditation-and-the-brain-neuronal-correlates-of-mindfulness-as-assessed-with-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#14
Friederike Gundel, Johanna von Spee, Sabrina Schneider, Florian B Haeussinger, Martin Hautzinger, Michael Erb, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Mindfulness meditation as a therapeutic intervention has been shown to have positive effects on psychological problems such as depression, pain or anxiety disorders. In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to detect differences in hemodynamic responses of meditation experts (14 participants) and a control group (16 participants) in a resting and a mindfulness condition. In both conditions, the sound of a meditation bowl was used to find group differences in the auditory system and adjacent cortical areas...
April 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688572/visual-cortex-activation-decrement-following-cochlear-implantation-in-prelingual-deafened-children
#15
Jiahao Liu, Maojin Liang, Yuebo Chen, Yajing Wang, Yuexin Cai, Suijun Chen, Ling Chen, Xianghui Li, Zeheng Qiu, Jiajia Jiang, Junbo Wang, Yiqing Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Visual take-over of the auditory cortex in prelingual deaf children has been widely reported. However, there have been few studies on visual cortex plasticity after cochlear implantation (CI). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that extrinsic auditory stimulation following CI in prelingual deafened children can induce visual cortex plasticity. METHOD: Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded in 37 CI children (4 groups with different use times) and 8 control subjects, in response to sound and nonsound stimuli...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687908/the-effect-of-bilateral-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-early-auditory-processing-in-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study
#16
Walter Dunn, Yuri Rassovsky, Jonathan Wynn, Allan D Wu, Marco Iacoboni, Gerhard Hellemann, Michael F Green
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied bilaterally over the auditory cortex in 12 schizophrenia patients to modulate early auditory processing. Performance on a tone discrimination task (tone-matching task-TMT) and auditory mismatch negativity were assessed after counterbalanced anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS. Cathodal stimulation improved TMT performance (p < 0.03) compared to sham condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a stimulation condition by negative symptom interaction in which greater negative symptoms were associated with a better TMT performance after anodal tDCS...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687422/resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-analysis-of-brain-functional-activity-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke-treated-by-electro-acupuncture
#17
Shengxiang Liang, Yunjiao Lin, Bingbing Lin, Jianhong Li, Weilin Liu, Lidian Chen, Shujun Zhao, Jing Tao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment at acupoints of Zusanli (ST 36) and Quchi (LI 11) could reduce motor impairments and enhance brain functional recovery in rats with ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established. EA at ST 36 and LI 11was started at 24 hours (MCAO + EA group) after ischemic stroke. The nontreatment (MCAO) and sham-operated control (SC) groups were included as controls...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687184/paraflocculus-plays-a-role-in-salicylate-induced-tinnitus
#18
Yali Du, Junxiu Liu, Qin Jiang, Qingchuan Duan, Lanqun Mao, Furong Ma
Tinnitus impairs quality of life of about 1-2% of the whole population. In most severe situation, tinnitus may cause social isolation, depression and suicide. Drug treatments for tinnitus are generally ineffective, and the mechanisms of tinnitus are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus is related to changes of widespread brain networks. Recent studies propose that paraflocculus (PFL), which is indirectly connected to various cortical regions, may be a gating zone of tinnitus. So we examined the electrophysiological changes and neurotransmitter alterations of the PFL in a rat model of sodium salicylate (SS)-induced tinnitus...
June 29, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685822/thalamic-connections-of-the-core-auditory-cortex-and-rostral-supratemporal-plane-in-the-macaque-monkey
#19
Brian H Scott, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, Yukiko Kikuchi, Makoto Fukushima, Mortimer Mishkin, Richard C Saunders
In the primate auditory cortex, information flows serially in the mediolateral dimension from core, to belt, to parabelt. In the caudorostral dimension, stepwise serial projections convey information through the primary, rostral, and rostrotemporal (AI, R, and RT) core areas on the supratemporal plane (STP), continuing to the rostrotemporal polar area (RTp) and adjacent auditory-related areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and temporal pole. In addition to this cascade of corticocortical connections, the auditory cortex receives parallel thalamocortical projections from the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681715/motor-cortex-trns-improves-pain-affective-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-preliminary-results-of-a-randomised-sham-controlled-trial
#20
Massimiliano Curatolo, Giuseppe La Bianca, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberta Baschi, Giuseppe Salemi, Rossella Talotta, Marcello Romano, Giovanni Triolo, Marina De Tommaso, Brigida Fierro, Filippo Brighina
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and sleep and mood disorders. The effectiveness of most pharmacological treatments is limited, and there is a need for new, effective and well-tolerated therapies. It has recently been shown that transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) of the motor cortex reduces pain, and that tDCS of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) improves anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment in FM patients...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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