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Auditory cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932975/adaptations-of-prefrontal-brain-activity-executive-functions-and-gait-in-healthy-elderly-following-exergame-and-balance-training-a-randomized-controlled-study
#1
Alexandra Schättin, Rendel Arner, Federico Gennaro, Eling D de Bruin
During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP) of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF), and gait performance...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932074/distributed-neural-signatures-of-natural-audiovisual-speech-and-music-in-the-human-auditory-cortex
#2
Juha Salmi, Olli-Pekka Koistinen, Enrico Glerean, Pasi Jylänki, Aki Vehtari, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Sasu Mäkelä, Lauri Nummenmaa, Katarina Nummi-Kuisma, Ilari Nummi, Mikko Sams
During a conversation or when listening to music, auditory and visual information are combined automatically into audiovisual objects. However, it is still poorly understood how specific type of visual information shapes neural processing of sounds in lifelike stimulus environments. Here we applied multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigate how naturally matching visual input modulates supratemporal cortex activity during processing of naturalistic acoustic speech, singing and instrumental music. Bayesian logistic regression classifiers with sparsity-promoting priors were trained to predict whether the stimulus was audiovisual or auditory, and whether it contained piano playing, speech, or singing...
December 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930898/changed-crossmodal-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults-with-hearing-loss
#3
Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Previous work compellingly demonstrates a crossmodal plastic reorganization of auditory cortex in deaf individuals, leading to increased neural responses to non-auditory sensory input. Recent data indicate that crossmodal adaptive plasticity is not restricted to severe hearing impairments, but may also occur as a result of high-frequency hearing loss in older adults and affect audiovisual processing in these subjects. We here used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effect of hearing loss in older adults on auditory cortex response patterns as well as on functional connectivity between auditory and visual cortex during audiovisual processing...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927962/selective-neuronal-activation-by-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-primate
#4
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
: Despite the success of cochlear implants (CIs) in human populations, most users perform poorly in noisy environments and music and tonal language perception. How CI devices engage the brain at the single neuron level has remained largely unknown, in particular in the primate brain. By comparing neuronal responses with acoustic and CI stimulation in marmoset monkeys unilaterally implanted with a CI electrode array, we discovered that CI stimulation was surprisingly ineffective at activating many neurons in auditory cortex, particularly in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the CI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927954/predictive-ensemble-decoding-of-acoustical-features-explains-context-dependent-receptive-fields
#5
Izzet B Yildiz, Nima Mesgarani, Sophie Deneve
: A primary goal of auditory neuroscience is to identify the sound features extracted and represented by auditory neurons. Linear encoding models, which describe neural responses as a function of the stimulus, have been primarily used for this purpose. Here, we provide theoretical arguments and experimental evidence in support of an alternative approach, based on decoding the stimulus from the neural response. We used a Bayesian normative approach to predict the responses of neurons detecting relevant auditory features, despite ambiguities and noise...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927950/comodulation-enhances-signal-detection-via-priming-of-auditory-cortical-circuits
#6
Joseph Sollini, Paul Chadderton
: Acoustic environments are composed of complex overlapping sounds that the auditory system is required to segregate into discrete perceptual objects. The functions of distinct auditory processing stations in this challenging task are poorly understood. Here we show a direct role for mouse auditory cortex in detection and segregation of acoustic information. We measured the sensitivity of auditory cortical neurons to brief tones embedded in masking noise. By altering spectrotemporal characteristics of the masker, we reveal that sensitivity to pure tone stimuli is strongly enhanced in coherently modulated broadband noise, corresponding to the psychoacoustic phenomenon comodulation masking release...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927787/functional-characterization-and-spatial-clustering-of-visual-cortical-neurons-in-the-predatory-grasshopper-mouse-onychomys-arenicola
#7
Benjamin Scholl, Jagruti J Pattadkal, Ashley Rowe, Nicholas J Priebe
Mammalian neocortical circuits are functionally organized such that the selectivity of individual neurons systematically shifts across the cortical surface, forming a continuous map. Maps of the sensory space exist in cortex, such as retinotopic maps in the visual system or tonotopic maps in the auditory system, but other functional response properties may also be similarly organized. For example, many carnivores and primates possess a map for orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex (V1), whereas mice, rabbits, and the gray squirrel lack orientation maps...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927783/spectral-and-spatial-tuning-of-onset-and-offset-response-functions-in-auditory-cortical-fields-a1-and-cl-of-rhesus-macaques
#8
Deepa L Ramamurthy, Gregg H Recanzone
The mammalian auditory cortex is necessary for spectral and spatial processing of acoustic stimuli. Most physiological studies of single neurons in the auditory cortex have focused on the onset and sustained portions of evoked responses, but there have been far fewer studies on the relationship between onset and offset responses. In the current study, we compared spectral and spatial tuning of onset and offset responses of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) and the caudolateral (CL) belt area of awake macaque monkeys...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925611/differential-expression-of-bcl-2-in-the-cochlea-and-auditory-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#9
Qiuhong Huang, Hao Xiong, Haidi Yang, Yongkang Ou, Zhigang Zhang, Suijun Chen, Yongyi Ye, Yiqing Zheng
Bcl-2, the first gene shown to be involved in apoptosis, is a potent regulator of cell survival and known to have protective effects against a variety of age-related diseases. However, the possible relationship between hearing and Bcl-2 expression in the cochlea or auditory cortex of C57BL/6 mice, a mouse model of age-related hearing loss, is still unknown. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis, our results show that Bcl-2 is strongly expressed in the inner hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of young mice...
December 8, 2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925501/a-case-of-musical-anhedonia-due-to-right-putaminal-hemorrhage-a-disconnection-syndrome-between-the-auditory-cortex-and-insula
#10
Masayuki Satoh, Natsuko Kato, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Makiko Abe, Risa Fujita, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Kiyohiko Kondo
A 63-year-old, right-handed professional chorus conductor developed right putaminal hemorrhage, and became unable to experience emotion while listening to music. Two years later, neurological examination revealed slight left hemiparesis. Neuromusicological assessments revealed impaired judgment of "musical sense," and the inability to discriminate the sound of chords in pure intervals from those in equal temperament. Brain MRI and tractography identified the old hemorrhagic lesion in the right putamen and impaired fiber connectivity between the right insula and superior temporal lobe...
December 7, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915027/tonotopic-representation-of-loudness-in-the-human-cortex
#11
Andrew Thwaites, Josef Schlittenlacher, Ian Nimmo-Smith, William D Marslen-Wilson, Brian C J Moore
A prominent feature of the auditory system is that neurons show tuning to audio frequency; each neuron has a characteristic frequency (CF) to which it is most sensitive. Furthermore, there is an orderly mapping of CF to position, which is called tonotopic organization and which is observed at many levels of the auditory system. In a previous study (Thwaites et al., 2016) we examined cortical entrainment to two auditory transforms predicted by a model of loudness, instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, using speech as the input signal...
November 30, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914952/independent-tonotopy-and-thalamocortical-projection-patterns-in-two-adjacent-parts-of-the-classical-primary-auditory-cortex-in-mice
#12
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
Amid recent amendment of delineation of a mouse auditory cortical map, a caudal auditory field, originally defined as the primary auditory cortex (AI), was divided into the AI and dorsomedial field (DM), based on distinct high frequency areas. A low frequency area was not previously established in the DM because responses to low frequency tones were weak in this area. This may lead to the misconception that the DM is an atypical region that lacks a low frequency band. In the current study, we confirmed that the DM has a low frequency area that is completely independent from the AI...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911020/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-musicians-with-embouchure-dystonia
#13
Bernhard Haslinger, Jonas Noé, Eckart Altenmüller, Valentin Riedl, Claus Zimmer, Tobias Mantel, Christian Dresel
OBJECTIVE: Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. METHODS: We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908787/fractionating-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-mvpa-reveals-differential-responses-to-input-and-conceptual-modality
#14
Charlotte Murphy, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, David Watson, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Words activate cortical regions in accordance with their modality of presentation (i.e., written vs. spoken), yet there is a long-standing debate about whether patterns of activity in any specific brain region capture modality-invariant conceptual information. Deficits in patients with semantic dementia highlight the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as an amodal store of semantic knowledge but these studies do not permit precise localisation of this function. The current investigation used multiple imaging methods in healthy participants to examine functional dissociations within ATL...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907050/when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#15
Michael A Persinger, Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J Murugan, Lucas W E Tessaro, Justin N Costa
The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905540/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-an-animal-model-of-tinnitus
#16
Wilhelmina H A M Mulders, Vanessa Vooys, Kalina Makowiecki, Alex D Tang, Jennifer Rodger
Tinnitus (phantom auditory perception associated with hearing loss) can seriously affect wellbeing. Its neural substrate is unknown however it has been linked with abnormal activity in auditory pathways. Though no cure currently exists, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to reduce tinnitus in some patients, possibly via induction of cortical plasticity involving brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We examined whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alleviates signs of tinnitus in a guinea pig model and whether this involves changes in BDNF expression and hyperactivity in inferior colliculus...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903720/oscillatory-dynamics-underlying-perceptual-narrowing-of-native-phoneme-mapping-from-6-to-12-months-of-age
#17
Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, April A Benasich
: During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#18
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897971/transformation-of-temporal-sequences-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-system
#19
Yoonseob Lim, Ryan Lagoy, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham, Timothy J Gardner
This study examines how temporally patterned stimuli are transformed as they propagate from primary to secondary zones in the thalamo-recipient auditory pallium in zebra finches. Using a new class of synthetic click stimuli, we find a robust mapping from temporal sequences in the primary zone to distinct population vectors in secondary auditory areas. We tested whether songbirds could discriminate synthetic click sequences in an operant setup and found that a robust behavioral discrimination is present for click sequences composed of intervals ranging from 11-40ms, but breaks down for stimuli composed of longer inter-click intervals...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#20
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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