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Gastrointestinal hormone

Amy R Mackos, Ross Maltz, Michael T Bailey
Over the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that there are extensive bidirectional interactions between the body and its microbiota. These interactions are evident during stressful periods, where it is recognized that commensal microbiota community structure is significantly changed. Many different stressors, ranging from early life stressors to stressors administered during adulthood, lead to significant, community-wide differences in the microbiota. The mechanisms through which this occurs are not yet known, but it is known that commensal microbes can recognize, and respond to, mammalian hormones and neurotransmitters, including those that are involved with the physiological response to stressful stimuli...
October 16, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
G S M Paula, L L Souza, N O S Bressane, R Maravalhas, M Wilieman, T Bento-Bernardes, K R Silva, L S Mendonca, K J Oliveira, C C Pazos-Moura
Neuromedin B (NB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are bombesin-like peptides, found in the gastrointestinal tube and pancreas, among other tissues. Consistent data proposed that GRP stimulates insulin secretion, acting directly in pancreatic cells or in the release of gastrointestinal hormones that are incretins. However, the role of NB remains unclear. We examined the glucose homeostasis in mice with deletion of NB receptor (NBR-KO). Female NBR-KO exhibited similar fasting basal glucose with lower insulinemia (48...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
A P van Beek, M Emous, M Laville, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and release of gastrointestinal hormones, resulting in gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping occurs 1-3 h after carbohydrate ingestion, caused by an incretin-driven hyperinsulinemic response resulting in hypoglycemia...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Gustavo Dos Santos Fernandes, Luiza D Batista Bugiato Faria, Isadora de Assis Pereira, Natália C Moreira Neves, Yasmine Oliveira Vieira, Alessandro I Cavalcanti Leal
Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Graham J Dockray, Andrea Varro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Annalisa Allegorico
The role of vitamin D in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is well known; however, in addition to traditional functions, vitamin D modulates a variety of processes, and evidence shows that it has an important role in different allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Vitamin D acts by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which is present in a variety of tissues; for this reason it is considered a hormone. One of the most important functions is to modulate the immune system response, both innate and adaptive, by suppressing Th2-type response and increasing natural killer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Ivan Šterzl, Karolína Absolonová, Petr Matucha
Historically endocrinologists and psychiatrists are aware that disturbances in thyroid disease in beginning or even in clinically intensified states of thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism exhibit pathological mental manifestations, masking or potentiating the underlying disease. Immune system disorders cause thyroid organ-specific autoimmune process. This autoimmune thyroid disease binds with a number of disorders in both endocrine or non-endocrine organs. This appears in vascular, neurological, skin, connective tissue, gastrointestinal tract and mental pathology...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Magdalena Lang, Roi Treister, Anne Louise Oaklander
Small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN) causes non-specific symptoms including chronic pain, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and sweating complaints. Diagnosis is made from history and exam in patients with known risk factors such as diabetes, but objective test confirmation is recommended for patients without known risks. If tests confirm SFPN, and it is "initially idiopathic" (iiSFPN), screening for occult causes is indicated. This study's aim was to evaluate the 21 widely available, recommended blood tests to identify the most cost-effective ones and to learn about occult causes of iiSFPN...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Joshua J Todd, Emeir M McSorley, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Sharon M Madigan, Eamon Laird, Martin Healy, Pamela J Magee
Vitamin D is typically supplied in capsule form, both in trials and in clinical practice. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of vitamin D administered via oral sprays - a method that primarily bypasses the gastrointestinal absorption route. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of vitamin D3 liquid capsules and oral spray solution in increasing wintertime total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. In this randomised, open-label, cross-over trial, healthy adults (n 22) received 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 daily for 4 weeks in either capsule or oral spray form...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Chika Kasai, Kazushi Sugimoto, Isao Moritani, Junichiro Tanaka, Yumi Oya, Hidekazu Inoue, Masahiko Tameda, Katsuya Shiraki, Masaaki Ito, Yoshiyuki Takei, Kojiro Takase
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and eradication therapy have been known to influence gastric ghrelin and leptin secretion, which may lead to weight gain. However, the exact relationship between plasma ghrelin/leptin levels and H. pylori infection has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in H. pylori-positive and -negative patients, to compare the two levels of the hormones before and after H. pylori eradication, and to examine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and active ghrelin or leptin levels, as well as that between atrophic pattern and active ghrelin or leptin levels...
October 4, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Shota Takemi, Ichiro Sakata, Auvijit Saha Apu, Shinji Tsukahara, Satowa Yahashi, Goro Katsuura, Fumihiro Iwashige, Atsushi Akune, Akio Inui, Takafumi Sakai
Ghrelin was first isolated from human and rat as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In the present study, we determined the ghrelin cDNA sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World monkey, and investigated the distribution of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and localization profiles with somatostatin-producing cells. The marmoset ghrelin cDNA coding region was 354 base pairs, and showed high homology to that in human, rhesus monkey, and mouse...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Emel Ulusoy, Nur Arslan, Tuncay Kume, Ayfer Ulgenalp, Ceren Cirah, Ozlem Bozkaya, Derya Ercal
BACKGROUND: Functional constipation is an important clinical problem among chidden all over the world. Its main cause is not completely understood. Motilin is a gastrointestinal hormone that increases intestinal motility. In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum motilin levels and its relationship with stool consistency and motilin gene polymorphisms in constipated children. METHODS: In this study we investigated 91 constipated patients (mean age 6.84 ± 3...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Zhi-Mei Tian, Xian-Yong Ma, Xue-Fen Yang, Qiu-Li Fan, Yun-Xia Xiong, Yue-Qin Qiu, Li Wang, Xiao-Lu Wen, Zong-Yong Jiang
To investigate dietary protein level effects on digestive mechanisms, weaned piglets were fed for 45 d with diets containing 20%, 17%, or 14% crude protein (CP) supplemented to meet requirements for essential amino acids. This article describes the influence of dietary protein on gastrointestinal hormones and expression of an array of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, except for maltase in the duodenum...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Ulrich Rohde, Cecilie A Federspiel, Peter Vilmann, Ebbe Langholz, Steffen U Friis, Martin Krakauer, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal test and a subsequent ad libitum meal test before implantation with DJBS and one (1w) and 26 weeks (26w) after implantation...
October 3, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
M J Callaghan, P McAuliffe, R J Rodgers, J Hernandez-Medrano, V E A Perry
Breeding bulls are commonly fed high-energy diets, which may induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this experiment, 8 Santa Gertrudis bulls (age 20 ± 6 mo) were used to evaluate the extent and duration of effects of SARA on semen quality and the associated changes in circulating hormones and metabolites. The bulls were relocated and fed in yards with unrestricted access to hay and daily individual concentrate feeding for 125 d before SARA challenge. Semen was collected and assessed at 14-d intervals before the challenge to ensure acclimatization and the attainment of a stable spermiogram...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Rim Hassouna, Alexandra Labarthe, Virginie Tolle
Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis, ghrelin plays a unique role as the first one identified to increases appetite and stimulate GH secretion. This review highlights the latest mechanism by which ghrelin modulates body growth, appetite and energy metabolism by exploring pharmacological actions of the hormone and consequences of genetic or pharmacological blockade of the ghrelin/GHS-R (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor) system on physiological responses in specific nutritional situations...
September 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
E Onjukka, J Uzan, C Baker, L Howard, A Nahum, I Syndikus
AIMS: For patients with high-risk, locally bulky prostate cancer, an intra-prostatic boost to tumour volumes (dose-painting) offers a risk-adapted dose escalation. We evaluated the feasibility of hypofractionated dose-painting radiotherapy and the associated toxicity. The possibility to streamline a radiobiologically optimised planning protocol was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were treated using a dose-painting approach; boost volumes were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Carlos R Cámara-Lemarroy, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Roberto Monreal-Robles, Alejandro Marfil-Rivera
Migraine is a recurrent and commonly disabling primary headache disorder that affects over 17% of women and 5%-8% of men. Migraine susceptibility is multifactorial with genetic, hormonal and environmental factors all playing an important role. The physiopathology of migraine is complex and still not fully understood. Many different neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and brain pathways have been implicated. In connection with the myriad mechanisms and pathways implicated in migraine, a variety of multisystemic comorbidities (e...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Mohamed Amiche
The search for new bioactive molecules that could be used in therapeutics is a major public health issue, particularly in the treatment of certain diseases such as cancer. In this context the exploration of the venom of animals (snakes, amphibians, cones, scorpions, insects...) that produce molecules of various structures and biological activities, is a very promising direction. Research in this area led to the discovery of neuropeptides, hormones, toxins, antimicrobial peptides and other extremely potent mediators...
2016: Biologie Aujourd'hui
Sara Baldassano, Antonella Amato, Flavia Mulè
Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone released from enteroendocrine L-type cells together with glucagon like peptide-1 in response to dietary nutrients. GLP-2 acts through a specific receptor, the GLP-2 receptor, mainly located in the gut and in the brain. Classically, GLP-2 is considered a trophic hormone involved in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial morphology and function. This role has been targeted for therapies promoting repair and adaptive growth of the intestinal mucosa...
September 21, 2016: Peptides
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