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Gastrointestinal hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943914/metastatic-gastric-cancer-from-breast-carcinoma-a-report-of-78-cases
#1
Liang Xu, Shujing Liang, Ningning Yan, Le Zhang, Hailiang Gu, Xiaochun Fei, Yingchun Xu, Fengchun Zhang
The metastatic spread of breast carcinoma to the stomach is rare. There are a small number of previous studies that report metastases from the breast to the stomach and these provide limited information regarding this infrequent event. Consequently, the clinicopathological features, clinical outcomes and the optimal treatment for these patients remain to be elucidated. In the present study, 78 cases of gastric metastases from breast cancer, including the current case, were identified from previous studies between 1960 and 2015...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943074/local-protocol-variations-for-image-guided-radiation-therapy-in-the-multicenter-dutch-hypofractionation-hypro-trial-impact-of-rectal-balloon-and-mri-delineation-on-anorectal-dose-and-gastrointestinal-toxicity-levels
#2
R C Wortel, W D Heemsbergen, R J Smeenk, M G Witte, A D Krol, F J Pos, L Incrocci
PURPOSE: The phase 3 HYpofractionated irradiation for PROstate cancer (HYPRO) trial randomized patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer to conventionally fractionated (78 Gy in 39 fractions) or hypofractionated (64.6 Gy in 19 fractions) radiation therapy. Differences in techniques and treatment protocols were present between participating centers. This study aimed to compare dose parameters and patient-reported gastrointestinal symptoms between these centers...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939430/do-non-nutritive-sweeteners-influence-acute-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Robin M Tucker, Sze-Yen Tan
The human body associates sensory cues with metabolic consequences. Exposure to sweet-tasting sugars - even in the absence of ingestion - triggers physiological responses that are associated with carbohydrate digestion, absorption and metabolism. These responses include the release of insulin and incretin hormones, which work to reduce blood glucose. For this reason, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) have been posited to trigger similar physiological responses and reduce postprandial blood glucose concentrations...
September 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936425/gut-dysbiosis-in-animals-due-to-environmental-chemical-exposures
#4
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934992/breast-cancer-metastases-to-the-thyroid-gland-an-uncommon-sentinel-for-diffuse-metastatic-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Agata M Plonczak, Aimee N DiMarco, Roberto Dina, Dorothy J Gujral, Fausto F Palazzo
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the thyroid are rare. The most common primary cancer to metastasize to the thyroid is renal cell carcinoma, followed by malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin, with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid being rare. Overall, the outcomes in malignancies that have metastasized to the thyroid are poor. There are no prospective studies addressing the role of surgery in metastatic disease of the thyroid. Isolated thyroidectomy has been proposed as a local disease control option to palliate and prevent the potential morbidity of tumor extension related to the airway...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933067/central-modulation-of-energy-homeostasis-and-cognitive-performance-after-bariatric-surgery
#6
Hans Eickhoff
In moderately or morbidly obese patients, bariatric surgery has been proven to be an effective therapeutic approach to control body weight and comorbidities. Surgery-mediated modulation of brain function via modified postoperative secretion of gut peptides and vagal nerve stimulation was identified as an underlying mechanism in weight loss and improvement of weight-related diseases. Increased basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones like glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY that act on specific areas of the hypothalamus to reduce food intake, either directly or mediated by the vagus nerve, are observed after surgery while suppression of meal-induced ghrelin release is increased...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933061/neuroendocrinology-of-adipose-tissue-and-gut-brain-axis
#7
Paulo Matafome, Hans Eickhoff, Liliana Letra, Raquel Seiça
Food intake and energy expenditure are closely regulated by several mechanisms which involve peripheral organs and nervous system, in order to maintain energy homeostasis.Short-term and long-term signals express the size and composition of ingested nutrients and the amount of body fat, respectively. Ingested nutrients trigger mechanical forces and gastrointestinal peptide secretion which provide signals to the brain through neuronal and endocrine pathways. Pancreatic hormones also play a role in energy balance exerting a short-acting control regulating the start, end, and composition of a meal...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931076/ghrelin-mediated-inhibition-of-the-tsh-stimulated-function-of-differentiated-human-thyrocytes-ex-vivo
#8
Maria Barington, Marianne Møller Brorson, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Birgitte Holst, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced mainly in the gastrointestinal tract known to regulate several physiological functions including gut motility, adipose tissue accumulation and hunger sensation leading to increased bodyweight. Studies have found a correlation between the plasma levels of thyroid hormones and ghrelin, but an effect of ghrelin on the human thyroid has never been investigated even though ghrelin receptors are present in the thyroid. The present study shows a ghrelin-induced decrease in the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced production of thyroglobulin and mRNA expression of thyroperoxidase in a primary culture of human thyroid cells obtained from paranodular tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930817/cronkhite-canada-syndrome-associated-with-colon-cancer-metastatic-to-liver-a-case-report
#9
Jing Wang, Lei Zhao, Nina Ma, Juanjuan Che, Huihui Li, Bangwei Cao
RATIONALE: Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome (CCS) is an idiopathic, nonhereditary syndrome haracterized by gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis and ectodermal changes including alopecia, onychatrophia, and pigmentation. CCS colon polyps were previously considered to be benign neoplasms. However, serrated adenoma was reported to be associated with malignant neoplasms in some cases of gastric and colorectal carcinomas, and esophageal cancers. Although malignant colon and gastric cancer have been reported in CCS, reports of distant metastasis have been rare in CCS...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930587/prenylcysteine-oxidase-1-a-pro-oxidant-enzyme-of-low-density-lipoproteins
#10
Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Jose M Lou-Bonafonte, Maria V Martinez-Gracia, Carmen Arnal, María A Navarro, Jesus Osada
Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic disease, and proteomic analyses have found that these lipoproteins are endowed with prenylcysteine lyase. This systematic review summarizes current understanding of this enzyme, now known as prenylcysteine oxidase 1 (PCYOX1), which hydrolyzes the thioether bond of prenylcysteines in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins, releasing hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and the isoprenoid aldehyde. Despite the high variability of the PCYOX1 gene, no polymorphism has yet been associated with any disease...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923213/long-acting-somatostatin-analogues-in-the-treatment-of-unresectable-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Enzler, Tito Fojo
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms with an annual incidence of ~35 cases per 100,000 people in the United States. The updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification system of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs categorizes these tumors according to site of origin, clinical syndrome, and degree of differentiation. Well-differentiated NETs arising from the gastrointestinal tract or lungs (formerly known as carcinoid tumors) are often indolent and slow-growing...
April 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#12
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#13
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912908/gastrin-releasing-peptide-and-glucose-metabolism-following-pancreatitis
#14
Sayali A Pendharkar, Marie Drury, Monika Walia, Murray Korc, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910546/could-hop-derived-bitter-compounds-improve-glucose-homeostasis-by-stimulating-the-secretion-of-glp-1
#15
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Angela Arnone, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) is by far the greatest contributors to the bitter property of beer. Over the past years, a large body of evidence demonstrated the presence of taste receptors in different locations of the oral cavity. In addition to the taste buds of the tongue, cells expressing these receptors have been identified in olfactory bulbs, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. In the gut, the attention was mainly directed to sweet Taste Receptor (T1R) and bitter Taste Receptor (T2R) receptors. In particular, T2R has shown to modulate secretion of different gut hormones, mainly Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), which are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the control of gut motility, thereby increasing the sense of satiety...
September 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904566/is-vitamin-d-deficiency-implicated-in-autonomic-dysfunction
#16
REVIEW
Rozina Wadhwania
Dysautonomia, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, presents with heterogeneous clinical features from an imbalanced regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Low Vitamin D levels can explain the heterogeneous clinical features of migraine headaches, cardiac and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and oxidative stress evident in dysautonomia patients. The role of Vitamin D in modulating pain sensitivity has been recently established. However, there is a lack of research and understanding regarding the association between Vitamin D deficiency and autonomic dysfunction...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898875/enteroendocrine-cells-metabolic-relays-between-microbes-and-their-host
#17
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Gut bacteria exert a variety of metabolic functions unavailable to the host and are increasingly seen as a virtual organ located inside our gastrointestinal tract. Scattered in our intestinal epithelium, enteroendocrine cells (EECs) regulate several aspects of the host's physiology and translate signals coming from the gut microbiota through their hormonal secretions. In this chapter, we will assess the interplay between the gut microbiota and EEC and its consequences for the physiology of the host. We will first describe alterations of different populations of EEC in germ-free animals...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894436/serum-thyroid-hormone-antibodies-are-frequent-in-patients-with-polyglandular-autoimmune-syndrome-type-3-particularly-in-those-who-require-thyroxine-treatment
#18
Roberto Vita, Maria Giulia Santaguida, Camilla Virili, Maria Segni, Marina Galletti, Mattia Mandolfino, Flavia Di Bari, Marco Centanni, Salvatore Benvenga
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) type 3 consists of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) coexisting with ≥1 non-thyroidal autoimmune disease (NTAID) other than Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. We evaluated the prevalence and repertoire of thyroid hormones antibodies (THAb) in PAS-3 patients. Using a radioimmunoprecipation technique, we measured THAb (T3IgM, T3IgG, T4IgM, and T4IgG) in 107 PAS-3 patients and 88 controls (patients with AITD without any NTAID). Based on the selective coexistence of AITD with one NTAID (chronic autoimmune gastritis, non-segmental vitiligo or celiac disease), patients were divided into group 1 (chronic autoimmune gastritis positive, n = 64), group 2 (non-segmental vitiligo positive, n = 24), and group 3 (celiac disease positive, n = 15)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894209/the-role-of-the-secretin-secretin-receptor-axis-in-inflammatory-cholangiocyte-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles
#19
Keisaku Sato, Fanyin Meng, Julie Venter, Thao Giang, Shannon Glaser, Gianfranco Alpini
Small and large intrahepatic bile ducts consist of small and large cholangiocytes, respectively, and these cholangiocytes have different morphology and functions. The gastrointestinal peptide hormone, secretin (SCT) that binds to secretin receptor (SR), is a key mediator in cholangiocyte pathophysiology. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles and cell-cell EV communication is recognized as an important factor in liver pathology, although EV communication between cholangiocytes is not identified to date...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890700/dietary-capsaicin-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-alters-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-diabetic-ob-ob-mice
#20
Jun-Xian Song, Hui Ren, Yuan-Feng Gao, Chong-You Lee, Su-Fang Li, Feng Zhang, Long Li, Hong Chen
Background: The effects of capsaicin on obesity and glucose homeostasis are still controversial and the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between the regulation of obesity and glucose homeostasis by dietary capsaicin and the alterations of gut microbiota in obese diabetic ob/ob mice. Methods: The ob/ob mice were subjected to a normal, low-capsaicin (0.01%), or high-capsaicin (0.02%) diet for 6 weeks, respectively. Obesity phenotypes, glucose homeostasis, the gut microbiota structure and composition, short-chain fatty acids, gastrointestinal hormones, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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