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Gastrointestinal hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100612/sex-dependent-intestinal-replication-of-an-enteric-virus
#1
Christopher M Robinson, Yao Wang, Julie K Pfeiffer
: Coxsackievirus is an enteric virus that initiates infection in the gastrointestinal tract before disseminating to peripheral tissues to cause disease, but intestinal factors that influence viral replication are understudied. Furthermore, a sex bias for severe sequelae from coxsackievirus infections has been observed in humans. While mouse models mimicking human pathogenesis have been well characterized, many of these experiments use intraperitoneal injection of coxsackievirus to infect mice, bypassing the intestine...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097356/effect-of-etelcalcetide-vs-cinacalcet-on-serum-parathyroid-hormone-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Geoffrey A Block, David A Bushinsky, Sunfa Cheng, John Cunningham, Bastian Dehmel, Tilman B Drueke, Markus Ketteler, Reshma Kewalramani, Kevin J Martin, Sharon M Moe, Uptal D Patel, Justin Silver, Yan Sun, Hao Wang, Glenn M Chertow
Importance: Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to extraskeletal calcification and is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Control is suboptimal in the majority of patients receiving hemodialysis. An intravenously (IV) administered calcimimetic could improve adherence and reduce adverse gastrointestinal effects. Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of the IV calcimimetic etelcalcetide and the oral calcimimetic cinacalcet...
January 10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086825/toxicity-and-quality-of-life-report-of-a-phase-ii-study-of-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-sbrt-for-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#3
Matthew J Boyer, Michael A Papagikos, Rex Kiteley, Zeljko Vujaskovic, Jackie Wu, W Robert Lee
BACKGROUND: Clinical data indicates that delivery of larger daily doses of radiation may improve the therapeutic ratio for prostate cancer compared to conventional fractionation. A phase II study of stereotactic body radiotherapy with real-time motion management and daily plan re-optimization for low to intermediate risk prostate cancer was undertaken to evaluate this hypothesis. This report details the toxicity and quality of life following treatment. METHODS: From 2009 to 2013, 60 patients with T1-T2c prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 and PSA ≤ 15 or Gleason score of 7 and PSA ≤ 10 were enrolled...
January 13, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#4
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073356/gut-microbiota-disturbance-during-helminth-infection-can-it-affect-cognition-and-behaviour-of-children
#5
Vanina Guernier, Bradley Brennan, Laith Yakob, Gabriel Milinovich, Archie C A Clements, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#6
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039597/vinorelbine-induced-perforation-of-a-metastatic-gastric-lesion
#7
REVIEW
W J Mullally, C B O'Súilleabháin, C Brady, S O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is rare and more frequently associated with lobular than ductal carcinoma (Borst and Ingold, Surg 114(4):637-641 [1]). The purpose of this article is to present a case based review of a unique gastrointestinal metastasis and literature review. METHODS: A 46 year old lady with metastatic invasive ductal breast cancer was admitted to A&E with sudden onset of epigastric and left shoulder pain. She completed the first cycle of capecitabine/vinorelbine 1 week previously...
December 30, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029503/iron-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-anaemia-in-women
#8
REVIEW
Laura Percy, Diana Mansour, Ian Fraser
Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide with >20% of women experiencing it during their reproductive lives. Hepcidin, a peptide hormone mostly produced by the liver, controls the absorption and regulation of iron. Understanding iron metabolism is pivotal in the successful management of ID and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) using oral preparations, parenteral iron or blood transfusion. Oral preparations vary in their iron content and can result in gastrointestinal side effects...
October 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029134/activity-of-zearalenone-in-the-porcine-intestinal-tract
#9
REVIEW
Magdalena Gajęcka, Łukasz Zielonka, Maciej Gajęcki
This study demonstrates that low doses (somewhat above the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, NOAEL) of the mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites display multispecificity towards various biological targets in gilts. The observed responses in gilts were surprising. The presence of ZEN and zearalenols (ZELs) did not evoke a response in the porcine gastrointestinal tract, which was attributed to dietary tolerance. Lymphocyte proliferation was intensified in jejunal mesenteric lymph nodes, and lymphocyte counts increased in the jejunal epithelium with time of exposure...
December 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027898/lower-plasma-levels-of-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-gip-and-pancreatic-polypeptide-pp-in-patients-with-ductal-adenocarcinoma-of-the-pancreas-and-their-relation-to-the-presence-of-impaired-glucoregulation-and-weight-loss
#10
Jan Škrha, Petr Bušek, Jana Uhrová, Petr Hrabal, Klára Kmochová, Martin Laclav, Bohuš Bunganič, Přemysl Frič
BACKGROUND: The changes in gastrointestinal hormones associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in patients with impaired glucoregulation have yet to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of selected gastrointestinal hormones in PDAC patients with and without diabetes and to compare them with levels found in Type 2 diabetic patients without cancer. METHODS: In this study we examined plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cytokines leptin and adiponectin in 94 patients with histologically confirmed PDAC...
December 15, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012859/endogenous-opiates-and-behavior-2015
#11
REVIEW
Richard J Bodnar
This paper is the thirty-eighth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2015 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia, stress and social status, tolerance and dependence, learning and memory, eating and drinking, drug abuse and alcohol, sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology, mental illness and mood, seizures and neurologic disorders, electrical-related activity and neurophysiology, general activity and locomotion, gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions, cardiovascular responses, respiration and thermoregulation, and immunological responses...
December 22, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012561/peripheral-apelin-13-administration-inhibits-gastrointestinal-motor-functions-in-rats-the-role-of-cholecystokinin-through-cck1-receptor-mediated-pathway
#12
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, İlknur Birsen, V Nimet İzgüt-Uysal
Apelin is the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. The APJ receptor is widely expressed in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues including stomach and small intestine. Apelin administration was shown to induce the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) which is a well-known alimentary hormone with its inhibitory actions on GI motor functions through CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent fibers. We investigated whether; (i) peripherally injected apelin-13 alters GI motor functions, (ii) apelin-induced changes are mediated by APJ receptor or CCK1 receptor and (iii) vagal afferents are involved in inhibitory effects of apelin...
December 16, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009091/in-vitro-spontaneous-contractile-activity-of-colonic-smooth-muscle-in-naive-lewis-rats-acute-effect-of-gonadal-hormones
#13
Christine Baumgartner, Thomas Hubacher, Magali Krayer, Juergen Gschossmann
AIM: Functional gastrointestinal disorders affect females more often. Changes in colonic motility may be etiological co-factors for the clinical symptoms. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of gonadal hormones on colonic contractile activity. METHODS: In vitro measurements of colonic contractile activity in longitudinal smooth muscle strips of female and male Lewis rats were performed in an organ chamber experiment set-up. After administration of a gonadal hormone (estrogen (EST), progesterone (PROG) and testosterone (TEST)) or ethanol (ETH) solution as control, stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh) or inhibition with norepinephrine (NE) was performed...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008585/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogues-inhibit-proliferation-and-increase-apoptosis-of-human-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#14
X-N Li, H-M Bu, X-H Ma, Sh Lu, Sh Zhao, Y-L Cui, J Sun
Background: Research has shown that the incidence of prostate cancer is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gastrointestinal hormone that enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppresses glucagon release. Method: Here, we examined the effect of exenatide and liraglutide, 2 types of GLP-1 analogues, on prostate cancer cells growth by CCK-8 assay, Hoechst33258 staining assay, and western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2...
December 22, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004304/changes-in-fasting-and-prandial-gut-and-adiposity-hormones-following-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-or-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-an-18-month-prospective-study
#15
Naji Alamuddin, Marion L Vetter, Rexford S Ahima, Louise Hesson, Scott Ritter, Alyssa Minnick, Lucy F Faulconbridge, Kelly C Allison, David B Sarwer, Jesse Chittams, Noel N Williams, Matthew R Hayes, James W Loughead, Ruben Gur, Thomas A Wadden
BACKGROUND: Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) produce substantial weight loss, both primarily through gastric restriction but with potentially different hormonal signaling. This prospective, observational study compared changes in gut-derived hormones in VSG, RYGB, and weight-stable participants at 6 and 18 months post-surgery. METHODS: Sixty-four obese, non-diabetic women, including 18 VSG, 23 RYGB, and 23 weight-stable controls completed assessments at baseline and 6 months, before and after consuming a mixed-nutrient meal; blood sampling occurred for 180 min post-meal...
December 21, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003328/ghrelin-cck-glp-1-and-pyy-3-36-secretory-controls-and-physiological-roles-in-eating-and-glycemia-in-health-obesity-and-after-rygb
#16
REVIEW
Robert E Steinert, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Lori Asarian, Michael Horowitz, Christoph Beglinger, Nori Geary
The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991713/roles-of-the-gut-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
L Fändriks
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors (central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension), indicating an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The gastrointestinal tract is seldom discussed as an organ system of principal importance for metabolic diseases. The present overview connects various metabolic research lines into an integrative physiological context in which the gastrointestinal tract is included. Strong evidence for the involvement of the gut in the metabolic syndrome derives from the powerful effects of weight-reducing (bariatric) gastrointestinal surgery...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990787/metabolic-surgery-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-experience-from-asia
#18
REVIEW
Wei Jei Lee, Lwin Aung
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a current global health priority and Asia is the epicenter of this epidemic disease. Unlike in the west, where older population is most affected, the burden of diabetes in Asian countries is disproportionately high in young to middle-age adults. The incidence of diabetic nephropathy is alarmingly high in patients with early onset T2DM, especially in those with poor glycemic control. How to control this chronic and debilitating disease is currently a very important health issue in Asia...
December 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988050/a-quick-reference-on-phosphorus
#19
REVIEW
Ashley E Allen-Durrance
Phosphorus, or phosphate, is the body's major intracellular anion involved in numerous biological processes. Most phosphate is intracellular, with the remaining amount contained within soft tissues and the extracellular space. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, calcitonin, and phosphatonins regulate normal phosphate homeostasis by adjusting renal and/or gastrointestinal absorption and/or excretion. Hypophosphatemia occurs secondary to decreased gastrointestinal absorption, transcellular shifts, increased renal excretion, or some combination of these general mechanisms...
December 14, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982680/distinct-response-of-fat-and-gastrointestinal-tissue-to-glucose-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#20
D Vejrazkova, O Lischkova, M Vankova, S Stanicka, J Vrbikova, P Lukasova, J Vcelak, G Vacinova, B Bendlova
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are distinct pathologies with impaired insulin sensitivity as a common feature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of fat tissue adipokines and gastrointestinal incretins to glucose load in patients diagnosed with one of the two disorders and to compare it with healthy controls. Oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed in 77 lean young women: 22 had positive history of GDM, 19 were PCOS patients, and 36 were healthy controls...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
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