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Gastrointestinal hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545056/effect-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-on-the-link-between-glp-1-expression-and-motility-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
Hirotsugu Eda, Hirokazu Fukui, Ryosuke Uchiyama, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mo Yang, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroko Tsutsui, Hiroto Miwa
BACKGROUND: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is closely associated with the development of peptic ulcer, its involvement in pathophysiology in the lower intestinal tract and gastrointestinal (GI) motility remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone produced in the lower intestinal tract and involved in GI motility. Here, we investigated the effect of H. pylori infection on the link between GLP-1 expression and motility of the GI tract. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with a H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529751/comparison-of-lifestyle-hormonal-and-medical-factors-in-women-with-sporadic-and-lynch-syndrome-associated-endometrial-cancer-a-retrospective-case-case-study
#2
Mari H Aaltonen, Synnöve Staff, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Kirsi Pylvänäinen, Johanna U Mäenpää
Data available on lifestyle-associated hormonal and medical factors among endometrial cancer (EC)-affected women who carry the Lynch Syndrome (LS) mutation is limited. The aim of the present retrospective case study was to compare the reproductive and medical history, as well as lifestyle-associated factors, among patients with LS and sporadic EC. The study population consisted of 50 verified germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation carriers diagnosed with EC, and 110 sporadic EC patients. Data were collected using postal questionnaires...
May 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#3
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523577/ffa3-activation-stimulates-duodenal-bicarbonate-secretion-and-prevents-nsaid-induced-enteropathy-via-the-glp-2-pathway-in-rats
#4
Hyder Said, Yasutada Akiba, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Koji Maruta, Ayaka Kuri, Ken-Ichi Iwamoto, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz
BACKGROUND: Therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with enteropathy in humans and experimental animals, a cause of considerable morbidity. Unlike foregut NSAID-associated mucosal lesions, most treatments for this condition are of little efficacy. We propose that the endogenously released intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) prevents the development of NSAID-induced enteropathy. Since the short-chain fatty acid receptor FFA3 is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells and on enteric nerves in the gastrointestinal tract, we further hypothesized that activation of FFA3 on L cells protects the mucosa from injury via GLP-2 release with enhanced duodenal HCO3(-) secretion...
May 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521244/cholecystokinin-protects-mouse-liver-against-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#5
Ying Zhang, Jiali Zhu, Long Guo, Yun Zou, Fang Wang, Han Shao, Jinbao Li, Xiaoming Deng
BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin (CCK), as a gastrointestinal hormone, has an important protective role against sepsis or LPS-induced endotoxic shock. We aim to address the role of CCK in hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A murine model of 60min partial hepatic ischemia followed by 6h of reperfusion was used in this study. CCK and CCKAR Levels in blood and liver were detected at 3h, 6h, 12h and 24h after reperfusion. Then the mice were treated with CCK or proglumide, a nonspecific CCK-receptor (CCK-R) antagonist...
May 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514644/the-importance-of-hormonal-circadian-rhythms-in-daily-feeding-patterns-an-illustration-with-simulated-pigs
#6
Iris J M M Boumans, Imke J M de Boer, Gert Jan Hofstede, Susanne E la Fleur, Eddie A M Bokkers
The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day. We simulated the feeding behaviour of pigs over a 24h period. The simulation model contained mechanisms that regulate feeding behaviour of animals, including: processing of feed in the gastrointestinal tract, fluctuation in energy balance, circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol and motivational decision-making...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512417/a-case-of-paraneoplastic-cushing-syndrome-presenting-as-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-nonketotic-syndrome
#7
Christina E Brzezniak, Nicole Vietor, Patricia E Hogan, Bryan Oronsky, Bennett Thilagar, Carolyn M Ray, Scott Caroen, Michelle Lybeck, Neil Oronsky, Corey A Carter
Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that mainly arise in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bronchi. Bronchopulmonary carcinoids have been associated with Cushing syndrome, which results from ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion. We report the case of a 65-year-old man, a colonel in the US Air Force, with metastatic bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors treated on a clinical trial who was hospitalized for complaints of increasing thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weakness, and visual changes...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511917/evidence-of-the-role-of-the-vagal-nerves-as-a-monitor-in-the-gastrointestinal-renal-axis-of-natriuresis-in-human-effects-of-vagotomy
#8
Constantinos E Alifieris, Dimitrios T Trafalis, Aris D Efstratopoulos, Emmanuel K Alifieris
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of gastrointestinal regulation of natriuresis. Sixteen subjects without (group I) and sixteen subjects with a truncal vagotomy (group II), were given a daily diet of 18mmol of sodium for 5days (D1-D5). The sodium deficit for this period was calculated for each subject and on the morning of day-6 (D6), their cumulative deficit (E) was given as 3% NaCl. In both groups the subjects were divided to receive the hypertonic saline either orally (Ior, IIor) or intravenously (Iiv, IIiv)...
May 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506519/sodium-glucose-co-transporters-and-their-inhibition-clinical-physiology
#9
REVIEW
Ele Ferrannini
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) is selectively expressed in the human kidney, where it executes reabsorption of filtered glucose with a high capacity; it may be overactive in patients with diabetes, especially in the early, hyperfiltering stage of the disease. As a therapeutic target, SGLT2 has been successfully engaged by orally active, selective agents. Initially developed as antihyperglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have deployed a range of in vivo actions. Consequences of their primary effect, i...
May 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503900/effects-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-development-of-digestive-organs-intestinal-function-and-post-hatch-performance-of-broiler-embryos-and-hatchlings
#10
T Gao, M M Zhao, Y J Li, L Zhang, J L Li, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
This study was to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) L-arginine (Arg) solution on the development of digestive organs, the duodenal mucosa of broiler embryos and hatchlings, and the growth performance of chicks during the first week post-hatch. A total of 720 fertilized eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to three groups, consisting of eight replicates of 30 eggs each. Three treatments were arranged as non-injected control, diluent-injected (0.75% NaCl solution) group and Arg solution-injected group containing 1% Arg, dissolved in diluent...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498440/gastrin-induces-multidrug-resistance-via-the-degradation-of-p27kip1-in-the-gastric-carcinoma-cell-line-sgc7901
#11
Kun Zhuang, Lingxia Zhang, Xin Zhang, Hailing Tang, Jun Zhang, Yuan Yan, Kun Han, Hanqing Guo
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major reasons for the failure of chemotherapy-based gastric carcinoma (GC) treatments, hence, biologically based therapies are urgently needed. Gastrin (GAS), a key gastrointestinal (GI) hormone, was found to be involved in tumor formation, progression, and metastasis. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed a high level of expression of GAS in drug-insensitive GC tissues (P<0.01) and similar results were revealed in GC cell lines SGC7901 and its multidrug-resistant variants SGC7901/VCR and SGC7901/ADR...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487631/activation-of-brain-somatostatin-signaling-suppresses-crf-receptor-mediated-stress-response
#12
REVIEW
Andreas Stengel, Yvette F Taché
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates-in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake) and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485065/heterogeneity-of-enterochromaffin-cells-within-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#13
REVIEW
S Diwakarla, L J Fothergill, J Fakhry, B Callaghan, J B Furness
Enterochromaffin cells were the first endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract to be chemically distinguished, almost 150 years ago. It is now known that the chromaffin reaction of these cells was due to their content of the reactive aromatic amine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, also known as serotonin). They have commonly been thought to be a special class of gut endocrine cells (enteroendocrine cells) that are distinct from the enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. The study by Martin et al...
June 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479753/the-effect-of-metformin-and-cinnamon-on-serum-anti-mullerian-hormone-in-women-having-pcos-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Budi Wiweko, Cynthia A Susanto
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known to be associated with insulin resistance and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), leading to the use of insulin-sensitizing agents (ISAs) to manage PCOS. Metformin is the most widely used ISA to treat irregular menstruation; however, the gastrointestinal side effects are quite debilitating. The development of herbal medicines such as bioactive fraction DLBS3233 offers a possibly effective treatment with minimal side effects. AIM: To determine the effect of metformin and DLBS3233 on serum AMH level...
January 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478849/differences-in-symptom-clusters-identified-using-symptom-occurrence-rates-versus-severity-ratings-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy
#15
Carmen Ward Sullivan, Heather Leutwyler, Laura B Dunn, Bruce A Cooper, Steven M Paul, Yvette P Conley, Jon D Levine, Christine A Miaskowski
PURPOSE: One of the unanswered questions in symptom clusters research is whether the number and types of symptom clusters vary based on the dimension of the symptom experience used to create the clusters. Given that patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy (CTX), report between 10 and 32 concurrent symptoms and studies of symptom clusters in these patients are limited, the purpose of this study, in breast cancer patients undergoing CTX (n = 515), was to identify whether the number and types of symptom clusters differed based on whether symptom occurrence rates or symptom severity ratings were used to create the clusters...
June 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475119/oral-treatment-with-the-ghrelin-receptor-agonist-hm01-attenuates-cachexia-in-mice-bearing-colon-26-c26-tumors
#16
Fabienne O Villars, Claudio Pietra, Claudio Giuliano, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
The gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin reduces energy expenditure and stimulates food intake. Ghrelin analogs are a possible treatment against cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS). This study aimed to investigate whether oral treatment with the non-peptidergic ghrelin receptor agonist HM01 counteracts CACS in colon-26 (C26) tumor-bearing mice. The C26 tumor model is characterized by pronounced body weight (BW) loss and muscle wasting in the absence of severe anorexia. We analyzed the time course of BW loss, body composition, muscle mass, bone mineral density, and the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage-inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1)...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469491/synthetic-growth-hormone-releasing-peptides-ghrps-a-historical-appraisal-of-the-evidences-supporting-their-cytoprotective-effects
#17
REVIEW
Jorge Berlanga-Acosta, Angel Abreu-Cruz, Diana García-Del Barco Herrera, Yssel Mendoza-Marí, Arielis Rodríguez-Ulloa, Ariana García-Ojalvo, Viviana Falcón-Cama, Francisco Hernández-Bernal, Qu Beichen, Gerardo Guillén-Nieto
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462693/sarcopenia-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#18
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Antonio Gasbarrini
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, affecting up to 70% of patients with advanced liver disease. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by an altered glucose metabolism, lipid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein catabolism, leading to the loss of adipose and muscle tissue. The gastrointestinal dysfunction of cirrhotic patients results in inadequate nutrients intake and is responsible for muscle weakness thus limiting physical exercise and perpetuating the reduction of muscle mass. Recently, alterations of hormonal pathways involved in muscle growth, increased intestinal permeability and changes in the gut microbiota composition have been reported in cirrhotic patients...
April 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460928/simulated-gi-digestion-of-dietary-protein-release-of-new-bioactive-peptides-involved-in-gut-hormone-secretion
#19
Juliette Caron, Benoit Cudennec, Dorothée Domenger, Yanath Belguesmia, Christophe Flahaut, Mostafa Kouach, Jean Lesage, Jean-François Goossens, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec
Dietary proteins have been reported to induce a strong feeling of satiety that has been partially explained by gut hormone level increase. Up to date, various protein hydrolysates have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo their potential to stimulate gut hormone secretion related to food intake decrease and their mechanisms of action have just started to be resolved. In this context, this study aimed at identifying new peptide sequences involved in gut hormone secretion released by protein in vitro gastrointestinal digestion...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459508/effect-of-electric-acupoint-stimulation-on-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-motility-among-geriatric-postoperative-patients-with-gastrointestinal-tumors
#20
Lili Hou, Lei Xu, Yan Shi, Fen Gu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of electric acupoint stimulation on gastrointestinal hormones and motility among geriatric postoperative patients with gastrointestinal tumors, and to explore an efficient and noninvasive method for postoperative recovery of bowel functions. METHODS: Forty patients were randomly and evenly assigned into a regular nursing care group (RNC) and an acupoint electric stimulation group (AES). Patients in the RNC group received regular nursing care and patients in the AES group received regular nursing care plus electric stimulation of acupoints...
August 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
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