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Gastrointestinal hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650388/everolimus-effect-on-gastrin-and-glucagon-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#1
Marianne E Pavel, David Chen, Wei He, Stephanie Cushman, Maurizio Voi, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Eric Baudin, James C Yao
OBJECTIVES: The pharmacodynamic effects of everolimus on gastrointestinal hormone levels have not been described in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). We report the effects of everolimus on gastrin and glucagon levels in patients with progressive pNET in RADIANT-1 (a single-arm phase II trial) and RADIANT-3 (a placebo-controlled, randomized, phase III trial). METHODS: Serum gastrin and glucagon levels were determined by immunoassay at baseline and at predose in subsequent treatment cycles in patients with elevated baseline hormone levels...
June 22, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649482/the-impact-of-tobacco-use-on-outcomes-and-toxicity-in-a-predominantly-minority-population-of-males-with-prostate-cancer-receiving-external-beam-radiation
#2
Anna Lee, Meng S Shao, David Schwartz, Joseph Safdieh, Virginia W Osborn, David Schreiber
INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether current or prior smoking history had any impact on prostate cancer outcomes and toxicity in our predominantly minority population of males receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). METHODS: Of the 500 patients treated with EBRT between 2003-2011, 444 had smoking histories recorded. Patients were classified as current smoker, former smoker, or never smoker. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and distant metastatic-free survival (DMFS) endpoints were analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647296/multiple-stressors-including-contaminant-exposure-and-parasite-infection-predict-spleen-mass-and-energy-expenditure-in-breeding-ring-billed-gulls
#3
Sarah C Marteinson, David J Marcogliese, Jonathan Verreault
Daily energy expenditure (DEE) in animals is influenced by many factors although the impact of stressors remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how multiple physiological stressors (parasite infection and contaminant exposure) and natural challenges (energy-demanding activities and weather conditions) may affect DEE in nesting ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) exposed to high concentrations of persistent organic contaminants (POPs). Physical activity, temperature, gastrointestinal parasitic worm abundance, relative spleen mass, plasma thyroid hormone levels and liver concentrations of POPs were determined; field metabolic rate (FMR) was used as a measure of DEE...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#4
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645541/comparison-of-the-effect-by-which-gastric-plication-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-procedures-alter-metabolic-and-physical-parameters-in-an-obese-type-2-diabetes-rodent-model
#5
Min Ye, Renhong Huang, Zhijun Min, Peng Zhang, Tingfeng Wang, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication (GP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are 2 restrictive bariatric surgeries that are associated with weight loss and health improvement in patients with obesity. However, differences in how these procedures exert their effects have not been systematically evaluated and compared between techniques. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of GP and SG surgeries for obese patients with type 2 diabetes based on evaluation of energy metabolism, hormone metabolism, and gastrointestinal dynamics...
May 11, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641304/hyperemesis-gravidarum-a-review-of-recent-literature
#6
Viktoriya London, Stephanie Grube, David M Sherer, Ovadia Abulafia
BACKGROUND: In the United States, hyperemesis gravidarum is the most common cause of hospitalization during the first half of pregnancy and is second only to preterm labor for hospitalizations in pregnancy overall. In approximately 0.3-3% of pregnancies, hyperemesis gravidarum is prevalent and this percentage varies on account of different diagnostic criteria and ethnic variation in study populations. Despite extensive research in this field, the mechanism of the disease is largely unknown...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640442/endocrine-function-after-bariatric-surgery
#7
Ki-Suk Kim, Darleen A Sandoval
Obesity increases the risks of metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is the most successful therapeutic option that causes sustained weight loss and improvements in obesity comorbidities. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are two of the most frequently performed bariatric surgeries. Despite their different anatomical rearrangement, they have remarkably similar success in both weight loss and T2DM remission. Interestingly, they also both cause a wide range of endocrine changes...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639602/study-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-patients-with-diabetes-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-new-delhi-india
#8
Abhishank Singh, Shridhar Dwivedi
The present prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India from May 2014 to June 2015 to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using antidiabetic drugs. A total of 220 patients (121 males, 99 females) were enrolled. ADRs were recorded on the prescribed form. Causality and severity assessment was done using Naranjo's probability scale and modified Hartwig and Siegel's severity scale, respectively. Commonly prescribed drugs were biguanides, peptide hormone and sulphonylurea...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638366/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-role-in-the-enteric-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Bodil Ohlsson
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone orchestrate the reproduction cycle and regulate the sex steroid secretion from the gonads. In mammals, GnRH1 is secreted as a hormone from the hypothalamus, whereas both GnRH1 and GnRH2 are present as neurotransmitters/peptides in various tissues, where the peptides exert many different effects. mRNA coding for GnRH1 and GnRH2 have been described in the human gastrointestinal tract, and GnRH has been found in both submucosal and myenteric neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625138/membrane-bound-atp-dependent-energy-systems-as-extra-and-intracellular-key-signals-for-gastrointestinal-functions-and-their-regulations-in-the-gastrointestinal-mucosa
#10
Gyula Mózsik, Imre László Szabó, József Czimmer
AIMS: Our research group has carried out various biochemical examinations in rat gastric ulcer models and in human gastrointestinal resecates obtained from patient who underwent gastric intervention due to peptic ulcer disease. Biochemical methods gave excellent possibility to approach the biochemical events taking place in tissues, cellular and subcellular regulatory levels during of ulcer development and of its prevetions. This paper gives a briefsummary of these biochemical examinations conducted during this study period started from the 1960's up till now...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624531/the-short-to-mid-term-symptom-prevalence-of-dumping-syndrome-after-primary-gastric-bypass-surgery-and-its-impact-on-health-related-quality-of-life
#11
Marloes Emous, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Eric Totté, André P van Beek
BACKGROUND: Early and late dumping are complications of gastric bypass surgery. Early dumping occurs within an hour after eating, when the emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and the release of gastrointestinal hormones, resulting in gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping occurs between 1 and 3 hours after carbohydrate ingestion and is caused by an exaggerated insulin release, resulting in hypoglycemia. Almost no data are currently available on the prevalence of early and late dumping or their impact on health-related quality of life (QoL)...
April 28, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#12
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623177/delay-in-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-in-patients-without-gastrointestinal-complaints
#13
Marco A Paez, Anna Maria Gramelspacher, James Sinacore, Laura Winterfield, Mukund Venu
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study is to investigate the delay in diagnosis of patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease in those who present with gastrointestinal complaints vs non-gastrointestinal complaints at our tertiary care center. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Celiac disease can have variable clinical presentations characterized by either predominately gastrointestinal symptoms or may present without any gastrointestinal symptom...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622905/discovery-of-novel-somatostatin-receptor-subtype-5-sstr5-antagonists-pharmacological-studies-and-design-to-improve-pharmacokinetic-profiles-and-human-ether-a-go-go-related-gene-herg-inhibition
#14
Takeshi Yamasaki, Hideki Hirose, Tohru Yamashita, Nobuyuki Takakura, Sachie Morimoto, Takashi Nakahata, Asato Kina, Yoshihide Nakano, Yumiko Okano Tamura, Jun Sugama, Tomoyuki Odani, Yuji Shimizu, Shinji Iwasaki, Masanori Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Maekawa, Shizuo Kasai
Somatostatin (SST) is a peptide hormone comprising 14 or 28 amino acids that inhibits endocrine and exocrine secretion via five distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5). SSTR5 has an important role in inhibiting the secretion of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones (e.g., insulin, GLP-1, PYY) through the binding of SSTs; hence, SSTR5 antagonists are expected to be novel anti-diabetic drugs. In the course of our lead generation program of SSTR5 antagonists, we have discovered a novel spiroazetidine derivative 3a...
June 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#15
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615947/treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-the-clinical-utility-of-etelcalcetide
#16
REVIEW
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Ferruccio Conte, Michela Mangano, Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a very frequent, severe, and worsening complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and disturbances in mineral metabolism. Clinically, SHPT shows renal osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, cardiovascular damage, and fatal outcome. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main physiological regulator of PTH secretion; its activation by calcium rapidly inhibits PTH. Another important player in regulating mineral metabolism is vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is under the influence of vitamin D and influences the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, PTH gene expression, and bone calcium mobilization...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610434/isoflavones-and-gastrointestinal-infection-two-potential-triggers-for-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome
#17
Björn Machner, Tobias Boppel, Thomas Münte
Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an important differential diagnosis of singular or recurrent thunderclap headache. Prognosis is generally good, however complications of the transient segmental vasospasms of cerebral arteries such as stroke, subarachnoidal hemorrhage and brain edema may worsen the clinical outcome. Although the exact pathomechanism is still unclear, various vasoactive substances and conditions (e.g. post partum) have been identified as triggering RCVS. Cases We report on the clinical course and management of two cases of typical RCVS that were associated with two different precipitants previously not described: A gastrointestinal infection and isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609362/everolimus-effect-on-gastrin-and-glucagon-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#18
Marianne E Pavel, David Chen, Wei He, Stephanie Cushman, Maurizio Voi, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Eric Baudin, James C Yao
OBJECTIVES: The pharmacodynamic effects of everolimus on gastrointestinal hormone levels have not been described in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). We report the effects of everolimus on gastrin and glucagon levels in patients with progressive pNET in RADIANT-1 (a single-arm phase II trial) and RADIANT-3 (a placebo-controlled, randomized, phase III trial). METHODS: Serum gastrin and glucagon levels were determined by immunoassay at baseline and at predose in subsequent treatment cycles in patients with elevated baseline hormone levels...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606051/comparison-of-bone-mineral-density-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-and-x-linked-agammaglobulinaemia-patients
#19
Ali Mohebbi, Gholamreza Azizi, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Mehdi Karimipour, Fatemeh Kiaee, Reza Yazdani, Sareh Sadat Ebrahimi, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Vahid Ziaee, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Farzaneh Abbasi, Fatemeh Sayarifard, Mehran Ebrahimi, Javad Tafaroji
BACKGROUND: Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is the most common group of primary immunodeficiency disorders, resulting from different defects in development and function of B cell lineage. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are two of the major types of PADs. Optimal growth and subsequently bone health could potentially compromise due to the interference of several factors in PAD with childhood onset. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with CVID and XLA...
June 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606038/site-related-effects-of-relaxin-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-through-nitric-oxide-signaling-an-updated-report
#20
Rachele Garella, Roberta Squecco, Maria Caterina Baccari
The peptide hormone relaxin (RLX), in addition to its effects on reproduction, has been reported to influence gastrointestinal motility. Interestingly, the digestive tract has been shown to express RLX receptors and the hormone appears to exert site-specific effects acting at the neural or at the smooth muscle level, mainly by a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism. NO, released by the enteric nerves and/or smooth muscle cells, is one of the main mediators of gastrointestinal relaxation. In fact, in murine in vitro preparations, RLX depresses organ motility acting at the neural level in the stomach and at the muscular level in the small intestine; conversely, in the colon, this hormone paradoxically increases contractility operating at both neural and muscle levels...
June 12, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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