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Gastrointestinal hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151078/therapeutic-effect-of-exogenous-ghrelin-in-the-healing-of-gingival-ulcers-is-mediated-by-the-release-of-endogenous-growth-hormone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#1
J Cieszkowski, Z Warzecha, P Ceranowicz, D Ceranowicz, B Kusnierz-Cabala, M Pedziwiatr, M Dembinski, T Ambrozy, T Kaczmarzyk, M Pihut, M Wieckiewicz, R Olszanecki, A Dembinski
Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid polypeptide, was primary isolated from the stomach, and the stomach is a main source of circulating ghrelin. Ghrelin strongly and dose-dependently stimulates release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, as well as increases food intake and fat deposition. Previous studies showed that ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effect in different parts of the gastrointestinal system, including the oral cavity. The aim of present study was to examine the role of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the healing of gingival ulcers...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151067/the-x-a-like-cell-revisited-spotlight-on-the-peripheral-effects-of-nucb2-nesfatin-1-and-ghrelin
#2
E Weibert, A Stengel
The gastric X/A-like cell was long thought to be restricted to the production of acyl ghrelin. However, the subsequent years witnessed the discovery of other peptide products derived from this cell, namely desacyl ghrelin, obestatin and nesfatin-1. While the role of obestatin remains highly questionable and is very critically discussed in the literature, besides acyl ghrelin also desacyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 have been implicated in the regulation of food intake. As observed for several other peptide hormones before, ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are not restricted to one function but rather exert pleiotropic actions including effects on gastrointestinal motility, thermogenesis, lipid and glucose homeostasis, stress mediation, cardiovascular as well as reproductive functions...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#3
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149074/central-cns-and-peripheral-gastric-tissue-selective-monitoring-of-somatostatin-srif-with-micro-sensor-and-voltammetry-in-rats-influence-of-growth-factors-gh-egf
#4
Francesco Crespi
Somatostatin (SRIF) is widely distributed throughout the body, and regulates the endocrine system via interactions with various hormones, including the pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid stimulating hormone and the majority of the hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. SRIF is present in the central nervous system (CNS), where it affects rates of neurotransmission, and is also reported to be active in the intestinal tract, with evidence that stressed rats present a significant decrease in antral somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI)...
November 17, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#5
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#6
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134690/faecal-calcium-excretion-does-not-decrease-during-long-term-feeding-of-a-low-calcium-diet-in-adult-dogs
#7
S Schmitt, J Mack, E Kienzle, L G Alexander, P J Morris, A Colyer, B Dobenecker
According to a previous meta-analysis, adult dogs do not notably increase calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract when calcium intake is decreased. This results in a negative calcium balance even with a moderate calcium reduction. In this study we wanted to verify (i) whether a negative calcium balance occurs at a calcium intake equivalent to NRC (2006) (Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats, 2006, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) minimal requirements, and if so (ii) whether the negative calcium balance will persist for up to 6 months on a low-calcium diet...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#8
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132721/endocrine-pathology-past-present-and-future
#9
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete
Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127753/-intestinal-adaptation-following-gut-resection
#10
Jarmila Křížová, Pavel Trachta, Eva Kotrlíková
Gut resection is followed by wide changes in the gastrointestinal tract. The goal is to increase nutrient, water and mineral absorption in the remnant intestine. These changes are going on for several months. They affect gut mucosa structure, intestine peristaltic activity and enterocytes function. The crucial role is ileum preserving. Ileum has higher adaptation ability comparing to jejunum and inhibits peristaltic function of proximal parts of GIT. A lot of factors involved in intestinal adaptation were identified, hormones, growth factors, regulating peptides, intracellular signalizing cascades, cytokines and tissue factors...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115211/measurement-of-gastrointestinal-hormones
#11
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
Towards the end of the 20th century, the number of subjects with diabetes and obesity rose exponentially. The discoveries of insulin- and appetite-modulating chemical signals, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from the gastrointestinal system, led to development of a new group of drugs which now are being used for glucose-lowering therapy and weight loss. Understanding of the physiology of gut derived signals and their pathophysiologi-cal importance requires accurate measurements of their circulat-ing levels...
November 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113140/zno-interactions-with-biomatrices-effect-of-particle-size-on-zno-protein-corona
#12
Jin Yu, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Mi-Ran Go, Song-Hwa Bae, Soo-Jin Choi
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used for food fortification, because zinc is essential for many enzyme and hormone activities and cellular functions, but public concern about their potential toxicity is increasing. Interactions between ZnO and biomatrices might affect the oral absorption, distribution, and toxicity of ZnO, which may be influenced by particle size. In this study, ZnO interactions with biomatrices were investigated by examining the physicochemical properties, solubility, protein fluorescence quenching, particle-protein corona, and intestinal transport with respect to the particle size (bulk vs...
November 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112082/a-pilot-study-measuring-the-novel-satiety-hormone-pro-uroguanylin-in-adolescents-with-and-without-obesity
#13
Matthew D Di Guglielmo, Dalal Tonb, Zhaoping He, Adebowale Adeyemi, Kenneth L van Golen
OBJECTIVE: Disruption of satiety signaling may lead to increased caloric intake and obesity. Uroguanylin, the intestinal hormone, travels as a precursor to the central nervous system where it activates guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) and stimulates pro-satiety neurons. Rodent studies have demonstrated that (1) GUCY2C-knockout mice over-eat and have increased weight gain vs. wild-type mice; and (2) hyper-caloric obesity diminishes uroguanylin expression. We measured circulating plasma pro-uroguanylin, along with other gastrointestinal peptides and inflammatory markers, in human adolescents with and without obesity, as a pilot study...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104610/functional-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-causing-cushing-s-syndrome-the-effect-of-chemotherapy-on-clinical-symptoms
#14
Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino, Katia Regina Marchetti, Madson Q Almeida, Rachel P Riechelmann
Background: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can originate from any part of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, thyroid and pancreas. These tumours may be functioning or not depending on their ability to produce active substances, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). ACTH-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are rare, with limited data about effective antitumor therapies. Case Report: A 58-year-old man with a history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ACTH ectopic production from a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the pancreas metastatic to the liver...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103072/upper-gastrointestinal-function-in-morbidly-obese-adolescents-before-and-6%C3%A2-months-after-gastric-banding
#15
M Singendonk, S Kritas, T Omari, C Feinle-Bisset, A J Page, C L Frisby, S J Kentish, L Ferris, L McCall, L Kow, J Chisholm, S Khurana
BACKGROUND: The effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement on upper gastrointestinal tract function in obese adolescents are unknown. Therefore, our aim was to determine the short-term effects of LAGB on esophageal motility, gastroesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, appetite-regulatory hormones, and perceptions of post-prandial hunger and fullness. METHODS: This study was part of a prospective cohort study (March 2009-December 2015) in one tertiary referral hospital...
November 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093615/less-common-etiologies-of-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#16
REVIEW
Vikesh K Singh, Mark E Haupt, David E Geller, Jerry A Hall, Pedro M Quintana Diez
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), an important cause of maldigestion and malabsorption, results from primary pancreatic diseases or secondarily impaired exocrine pancreatic function. Besides cystic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis, the most common etiologies of EPI, other causes of EPI include unresectable pancreatic cancer, metabolic diseases (diabetes); impaired hormonal stimulation of exocrine pancreatic secretion by cholecystokinin (CCK); celiac or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to loss of intestinal brush border proteins; and gastrointestinal surgery (asynchrony between motor and secretory functions, impaired enteropancreatic feedback, and inadequate mixing of pancreatic secretions with food)...
October 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093273/genetic-determinants-of-circulating-gip-and-glp-1-concentrations
#17
Peter Almgren, Andreas Lindqvist, Ulrika Krus, Liisa Hakaste, Emilia Ottosson-Laakso, Olof Asplund, Emily Sonestedt, Rashmi B Prasad, Esa Laurila, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jens Juul Holst, Peter M Nilsson, Nils Wierup, Leif Groop, Emma Ahlqvist
The secretion of insulin and glucagon from the pancreas and the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) from the gastrointestinal tract is essential for glucose homeostasis. Several novel treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes (T2D) mimic GLP-1 actions or inhibit incretin degradation (DPP4 inhibitors), but none is thus far aimed at increasing the secretion of endogenous incretins. In order to identify new potential therapeutic targets for treatment of T2D, we performed a meta-analysis of a GWAS and an exome-wide association study of circulating insulin, glucagon, GIP, and GLP-1 concentrations measured during an oral glucose tolerance test in up to 7,828 individuals...
November 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075333/the-impact-of-type-2-diabetes-on-bone-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Claudia Pinheiro Sanches, Andre Gustavo Daher Vianna, Fellype de Carvalho Barreto
Diabetes complications and osteoporotic fractures are two of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in older patients and share many features including genetic susceptibility, molecular mechanisms, and environmental factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compromises bone microarchitecture by inducing abnormal bone cell function and matrix structure, with increased osteoblast apoptosis, diminished osteoblast differentiation, and enhanced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The linkage between these two chronic diseases creates a possibility that certain antidiabetic therapies may affect bone quality...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073082/transcription-factor-isx-mediates-the-cross-talk-between-diet-and-immunity
#19
Made Airanthi K Widjaja-Adhi, Grzegorz Palczewski, Kali Dale, Elizabeth A Knauss, Mary E Kelly, Marcin Golczak, Alan D Levine, Johannes von Lintig
The intestinal epithelium is a major site for the conversion of dietary β-carotene to retinaldehyde by the enzyme BCO1. The majority of retinaldehyde is further metabolized to retinol (vitamin A), esterified and packaged into triacylglycerol-rich chylomicrons for bodily distribution. Some serve on-site for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone-like compound, which exerts pleiotropic and dominant effects on gastrointestinal immunity. We report here that the intestine-specific homeobox protein ISX is critical to control the metabolic flow of β-carotene through this important branching point of vitamin A metabolism...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072023/-prospects-and-progress-on-the-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-underlying-improvement-in-diabetic-gastroparesis
#20
Yan Gao, Gang Lu, Ya-Yuan Wang, Li Chen, Rui Chen, Feng-Xia Liang
Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is an important complication of diabetes, and seriously impacts the patient's quality of life. In the present paper, the authors summarize national and international research on the mechanism of acupuncture therapy in improving DGP and the pathogenesis of DGP over the past 10 years. The authors illustrate the mechanism of acupuncture underlying the improvement in DGP as follows:1) the effect on autonomic nerves and neurons of the central nervous system; 2) promoting restoration of the enteric nervous system; 3) the effect on Cajal interstitial cells; 4) improving gastrointestinal hormone disorder; 5) improving hyperglycemic state; 6) the effect on gastric smooth muscle...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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