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Gastrointestinal hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228504/the-dynamics-of-gastric-emptying-and-self-reported-feelings-of-satiation-are-better-predictors-than-gastrointestinal-hormones-of-the-effects-of-lipid-emulsion-structure-on-fat-digestion-in-healthy-adults-a-bayesian-inference-approach
#1
Andreas Steingoetter, Simon Buetikofer, Jelena Curcic, Dieter Menne, Jens F Rehfeld, Michael Fried, Werner Schwizer, Tim J Wooster
Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225445/adjuvant-radiotherapy-versus-wait-and-see-strategy-for-pathologic-t3-or-margin-positive-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#2
M Parvez Shaikh, Fiori Alite, Meng-Jia Wu, Abhishek A Solanki, Matthew M Harkenrider
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) to wait-and-see (WS) strategy in pathologic T3 or margin-positive prostate cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive EMBASE, MEDLINE, http://www.clinicaltrails.gov, and Cochrane Library search for RCTs of ART versus WS was done. Results were synthesized for metastasis-free, biochemical progression-free, clinical progression-free, hormone-free, and overall survival as well as gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219601/syndrome-of-inappropriate-anti-diuretic-hormone-secretion-secondary-to-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-in-an-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
M Khushman, M I Morris, L Diaz, M Goodman, D Pereira, K Fuller, M Garcia-Buitrago, B Moshiree, S Zelaya, A Nayer, C L Benjamin, K V Komanduri
Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) has been reported to be associated with systemic Strongyloides stercoralis. Here, we report a case of a stem cell transplant (SCT) recipient who developed severe SIADH secondary to systemic S Stercoralis. The SIADH resolved quickly after treating the systemic S Stercoralis with ivermectin. A systematic review of the literature was performed by PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane database search. Only eight cases of S Stercoralis in allogeneic SCT recipients have been previously reported...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214543/theoretical-structural-characterization-of-lymphoguanylin-a-potential-candidate-for-the-development-of-drugs-to-treat-gastrointestinal-disorders
#4
Állan S Pires, William F Porto, Pryscilla O Castro, Octavio L Franco, Sérgio A Alencar
Guanylin peptides (GPs) are small cysteine-rich peptide hormones involved in salt absorption, regulation of fluids and electrolyte homeostasis. This family presents four members: guanylin (GN), uroguanylin (UGN), lymphoguanylin (LGN) and renoguanylin (RGN). GPs have been used as templates for the development of drugs for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Currently, LGN is the only GP with only one disulfide bridge, making it a remarkable member of this family and a potential drug template; however, there is no structural information about this peptide...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213045/identification-of-the-causes-for-chronic-hypokalemia-importance-of-urinary-sodium-and-chloride-excretion
#5
Kun-Lin Wu, Chih-Jen Cheng, Chih-Chen Sung, Ming-Hua Tseng, Yu-Juei Hsu, Sung-Sen Yang, Tom Chau, Shih-Hua Lin
BACKGROUND: Uncovering the correct diagnosis of chronic hypokalemia with potassium (K(+)) wasting from the kidneys or gut can be fraught with challenges. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters helpful for differentiating the causes of chronic hypokalemia. METHODS: Normotensive patients referred to our tertiary academic medical center for the evaluation of chronic hypokalemia were prospectively enrolled over five years. Clinical features, laboratory examinations-including blood and spot urine electrolytes, acid-base status, biochemistries and hormones-as well as genetic analysis were determined...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209316/intestinal-adaptations-after-bariatric-surgery-consequences-on-glucose-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Cavin, André Bado, Maude Le Gall
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can play a direct role in glucose homeostasis by modulating the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and by producing the incretin hormones. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation following bariatric surgeries. Changes in the number of incretin (glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) producing cells have been reported, which could result in the modified hormonal response seen after surgery. In addition, the rate of absorption and the intestinal regions exposed to sugars may affect the time course of appearance of glucose in the blood...
February 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193513/the-importance-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-controlling-food-intake-and-regulating-energy-balance
#7
M P Monteiro, R L Batterham
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural and nutrient signals emanating from the GI tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacological and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing bodyweight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190638/long-term-toxicity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-after-single-fraction-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-boost-and-hypofractionated-external-beam-radiotherapy-for-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#8
N Shahid, A Loblaw, H T Chung, P Cheung, E Szumacher, C Danjoux, R Sankreacha, L Zhang, A Deabreu, A Mamedov, G Morton
AIMS: To report health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with single-fraction high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were accrued to a phase II clinical trial of 15 Gy HDR boost and EBRT to a dose of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions. HRQOL (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite [EPIC]), urinary symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]), erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]) and toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE], version 3...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190525/central-action-of-xenin-affects-the-expression-of-lipid-metabolism-related-genes-and-proteins-in-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Sharma Bhavya, Pei San Lew, Tooru M Mizuno
Xenin is a gastrointestinal hormone that reduces food intake when administered centrally and it has been hypothesized that central action of xenin participates in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. The present study was performed to address this hypothesis by investigating the central effect of xenin on the expression of genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male obese ob/ob mice received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of xenin (5μg) twice 12h apart...
February 9, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178327/characterization-of-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-goat-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#10
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Miguel Gómez-Boronat, Ángel Luis Alonso-Gómez, Roman Yufa, Suraj Unniappan, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano
Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin's physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177382/effect-of-expeller-extracted-canola-meal-on-growth-performance-organ-weights-and-blood-parameters-of-growing-pigs
#11
D E Velayudhan, K Schuh, T A Woyengo, J S Sands, C M Nyachoti
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of increasing levels of expeller extracted canola meal (EECM) in diets for growing pigs on performance, gastrointestinal tract weight, thyroid gland weights, blood plasma concentration of triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content in blood, and hematocrit. Four diets were fed to 48 pigs (19.9 ± 1.60 kg initial BW) in 24 pens (6 pens per diet) for 4 wk in a completely randomized design. The diets were a control corn-soybean meal basal diet and 3 additional diets produced by replacing 33, 66, or 100% of soybean meal with EECM to achieve inclusion levels of 0, 10, 20, and 30%...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174748/requirement-of-g%C3%AE-q-g%C3%AE-11-signaling-in-the-preservation-of-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis
#12
Noboru Watanabe, Hirosato Mashima, Kouichi Miura, Takashi Goto, Makoto Yoshida, Akiteru Goto, Hirohide Ohnishi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the intestinal epithelium are tightly regulated by a number of molecular pathways. Coordinated action of intestine is achieved by gastrointestinal hormones, most of which exert these actions through G-protein-coupled receptors. We herein investigated the role of Gαq/11-mediated signaling in intestinal homeostasis. METHODS: Intestinal tissues from control (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), Int-Gq knock-out (KO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), G11 KO (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ), and Int-Gq/G11 double knock-out (DKO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ) mice were examined by microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164835/a-quick-reference-on-hyponatremia
#13
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
The article focuses on causes of hyponatremia, including hypovolemia, diabetes mellitus and others. Hypovolemia is a major cause of hyponatremia in veterinary medicine. Hypovolemia causes a decrease in effective circulating volume, triggering antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion and free water retention, and develops after gastrointestinal losses, renal losses, hemorrhagic shock, hypoadrenocorticism, and other causes of hypovolemia. The article reviews the clinical approach to diagnosing the cause of hyponatremia in critically ill patients, including recognition of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154011/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-glp-1-glp-1-receptor-expression-and-gastrointestinal-motility
#14
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Xin Xu, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Microbiota in the gut is known to play a pivotal role in host physiology by interacting with the immune and neuroendocrine systems in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone, is involved in metabolism as well as GI motility. We examined how gut microbiota affects the link between GLP-1/GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression and motility of the GI tract. Germ-free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, and then after fecal transplantation (FT) GI tissues were obtained from the GF mice at various time points...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153426/factors-affecting-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-levothyroxine-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Marko Skelin, Tomo Lucijanić, Daniela Amidžić Klarić, Arnes Rešić, Miro Bakula, Ana-Marija Liberati-Čizmek, Hossein Gharib, Dario Rahelić
PURPOSE: Levothyroxine (LT4) is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, applied in small amounts (micrograms), which makes interactions in the absorption phase clinically significant. The main aim of this article was to review and present the latest information on factors that affect the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. METHODS: Relevant data were collected by using the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the key words levothyroxine and absorption...
January 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144278/altered-sympathovagal-balance-and-pain-hypersensitivity-in-tnbs-induced-colitis
#16
Katarzyna Ciesielczyk, Agata Furgała, Łukasz Dobrek, Kajetan Juszczak, Piotr Thor
INTRODUCTION: Pain hypersensitivity, abnormal motility and autonomic dysfunction contribute to functional symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess: nociceptive thresholds for mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH), intestinal motility (distal colonic transit and emptying), and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (indices of heart rate variability - HRV) in male Wistar rats with experimental trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140328/impact-of-dietary-fibers-on-nutrient-management-and-detoxification-organs-gut-liver-and-kidneys
#17
REVIEW
Dorothy A Kieffer, Roy J Martin, Sean H Adams
Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiologic effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. DFs can greatly alter the gut milieu by affecting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine responses, and nitrogen cycling and microbial metabolism. These gut-associated changes can then alter the physiology and biochemistry of the body's other main nutrient management and detoxification organs, the liver and kidneys. The molecular mechanisms by which DF alters the physiology of the gut, liver, and kidneys is likely through gut-localized events (i...
November 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139270/an-unlikely-cause-of-hypokalemia
#18
Jason Hine, Ari Schwell, Norah Kairys
BACKGROUND: Hypokalemia is a common clinical disorder caused by a variety of different mechanisms. Although the most common causes are diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses, elevated cortisol levels can also cause hypokalemia through its effects on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Cushing's syndrome refers to this general state of hypercortisolemia, which often manifests with symptoms of generalized weakness, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, menstrual disorders, and psychiatric changes...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131127/the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-bone-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Naina Sinha Gregory
Most metabolic effects following bariatric surgery are favorable. One area in which the consequences seem to be detrimental is on skeletal health. Mechanisms that have been cited include malabsorption of calcium and vitamin D, decrease in mechanical loading, and changes in gastrointestinal and fat-derived hormone levels. It is important that the impact of these procedures on bone metabolism is closely examined. The significance of the bone loss that occurs, and its possible effect on future fracture risk, should also be evaluated...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127868/peptide-hormones-and-lipopeptides-from-self-assembly-to-therapeutic-applications
#20
J A Hutchinson, S Burholt, I W Hamley
This review describes the properties and activities of lipopeptides and peptide hormones and how the lipidation of peptide hormones could potentially produce therapeutic agents combating some of the most prevalent diseases and conditions. The self-assembly of these types of molecules is outlined, and how this can impact on bioactivity. Peptide hormones specific to the uptake of food and produced in the gastrointestinal tract are discussed in detail. The advantages of lipidated peptide hormones over natural peptide hormones are summarised, in terms of stability and renal clearance, with potential application as therapeutic agents...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
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