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Taxus baccata

Christophe Walgraeve, Patrick De Wispelaere, Fé Van der Elst, Herman Van Langenhove
An analytical method was developed and optimized for the quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs in Taxus baccata leaves. Emphasis was given to the development of an in-cell cleanup step using pressurized solvent extraction, a cleanup step using solid-phase extraction, and the instrumental analysis by GC-HRMS. Different extraction temperatures (between 50 and 200 °C) and Florisil quantities were evaluated for the extraction process. Based on the evaluation of both recoveries and matrix effect factors, a temperature of 200 °C and 1 g Florisil was selected as the optimum...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Małgorzata Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Anna Marciniak, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Krzysztof Ściborski, Aneta Stachurska, Andrzej Mysiak, Adam Matkowski
BACKGROUND: Taxus (yew) is one of the most frequently reported plants causing potentially fatal outcome when taken incidentally or for suicidal reasons. A fast and reliable method of detection of poisonous compounds or their metabolites is critical in life-saving procedures in cases of yew ingestion. Previously, several chromatographic analytical procedures have been described usually taking longer than one hour of total analysis time. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report we describe a suicide case study and an ad hoc developed fast method of detection and quantitation of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol - the main taxane metabolite in the blood plasma from the patient as well as the determination of major taxine components in the plant material (Taxus baccata)...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
I J Chybicki, M Dering, G Iszkuło, K Meyza, J Suszka
In plants, the spatial genetic structure (SGS) is shaped mainly by gene dispersal and effective population density. Among additional factors, the mode of DNA inheritance and dioecy influence SGS. However, their joint impact on SGS remains unclear, especially in the case of paternally inherited DNA. Using theoretical approximations and computer simulations, here we showed that the relative intensity of SGS measured in paternally and biparentally inherited DNA in a dioecious plant population depends on both the proportion of males and the pollen-to-seed dispersal ratio...
August 31, 2016: Heredity
Ann M Arens, Tiffany C Anaebere, Howard Horng, Kent Olson
INTRODUCTION: Common yew (Taxus baccata) is a common decorative evergreen shrub with potentially fatal toxicity hallmarked by seizure, arrhythmia and cardiovascular collapse if ingested. Taxine B has been identified as one of the most cardiotoxic taxine alkaloids in Taxus spp, and another alkaloid, 3,5-dimethoxyphenol (3,5-DMP), is used as a marker of ingestion. We present a fatal case of ingestion of yew with perimortem serum and gastric taxine B, and 3,5-DMP concentrations. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department (ED) from a nearby botanical garden after she was found apneic and pulseless after a witnessed generalized tonic clonic seizure...
November 2016: Clinical Toxicology
P Ondrejíčková, M Šturdíková, A Hushegyi, E Švajdlenka, K Markošová, M Čertík
In this research, a microbial endophytic strain obtained from the rhizosphere of the conifer Taxus baccata and designated as Streptomyces sp. AC35 (FJ001754.1 Streptomyces, GenBank) was investigated. High 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity suggests that this strain is closely related to S. odorifer. The major fatty acid profile of intracellular lipids was also carried out to further identify this strain. Atomic force microscopy and scanning acoustic microscopy were used to image our strain. Its major excreted substances were extracted, evaluated for antimicrobial activity, purified, and identified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance as the bioactive isoflavone aglycones-daidzein, glycitein and genistein...
September 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Milena Stefanović, Mihailo Ristić, Zorica Popović, Rada Matić, Biljana Nikolić, Vera Vidaković, Dragica Obratov-Petković, Srdjan Bojović
The composition of the essential oil of the twigs and needles of Taxus baccata L. from three natural populations in Serbia has been determined by GC/MS analysis. Of the 91 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The most abundant compound classes were aliphatic alcohols, terpenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aliphatic aldehydes, which together comprised ca. 86.92% of the total oil composition. The dominant constituents were oct-1-en-3-ol (23.48%), (3Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (11.46%; aliphatic alcohols), and myrtenol (11...
July 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jessica E Lavabre, Luis J Gilarranz, Miguel A Fortuna, Jordi Bascompte
Genetic markers used in combination with network analysis can characterize the fine spatial pattern of seed dispersal and assess the differential contribution of dispersers. As a case study, we focus on the seed dispersal service provided by a small guild of frugivorous birds to the common yew, Taxus baccata L., in southern Spain. We build the spatial networks of seed dispersal events between trees and seed-plots within the studied population-local network-and the spatial network that includes all dispersal events-regional network...
May 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Troels Røn, Sankaranarayanan Rishikesan, Ioannis S Chronakis, Seunghwan Lee
Mucilage is hydrogel produced from succulent plants and microorganisms displaying unique adhesiveness and slipperiness simultaneously. The objective of this study is to establish an understanding on the lubricating mechanisms of the mucilage from Taxus baccata aril as thin, viscous lubricant films. Oscillation and flow rheological studies revealed that T. baccata mucilage is shear-thinning, thixotropic, and weak hydrogel that is highly stretchable under shear stress due to its high density physical crosslinking characteristics...
March 2016: Biointerphases
Jaber Nasiri, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Houshang Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza Fattahi Moghadam
Environmental cues have synergistic or antagonistic regulatory roles on transcription activity and taxanes accumulation in yew, though DBAT activity is less influenced, could be accordingly a rate-limiting enzyme. The current work was undertaken to elucidate the consequences of some environmental cues (i.e., day length, temperature, sunlight and relative humidity) on the expression patterns of TXS, DBAT, BAPT and DBTNBT genes contributed to the taxol biosynthetic pathway along with the accumulation of some taxanes in needles and stems of Taxus baccata over year 2013-2014...
May 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Supunnika Somjaipeng, Angel Medina, Hanna Kwaśna, Jose Ordaz Ortiz, Naresh Magan
Endophytic fungi were isolated/screened from temperate Taxus baccata (Yew) for production of the anti-cancer drug taxol. Of 242 endophytic fungi isolated from surface-sterilised Yew tree twig segments, only two produced taxol in a defined liquid medium; confirmed by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. They were identified by molecular means by sequencing of ITS1/ITS2 regions and shown to be Paraconiothyrium variabile and Epicoccum nigrum. They produced 1.75 and 1.32 μgL(-1) taxol respectively in a defined medium. Studies focussed on the P...
November 2015: Fungal Biology
Maria Mayol, Miquel Riba, Santiago C González-Martínez, Francesca Bagnoli, Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu, Elisa Berganzo, Concetta Burgarella, Marta Dubreuil, Diana Krajmerová, Ladislav Paule, Ivana Romšáková, Cristina Vettori, Lucie Vincenot, Giovanni G Vendramin
Despite the large body of research devoted to understanding the role of Quaternary glacial cycles in the genetic divergence of European trees, the differential contribution of geographic isolation and/or environmental adaptation in creating population genetic divergence remains unexplored. In this study, we used a long-lived tree (Taxus baccata) as a model species to investigate the impact of Quaternary climatic changes on genetic diversity via neutral (isolation-by-distance) and selective (isolation-by-adaptation) processes...
November 2015: New Phytologist
Gennadi Gudi, Andrea Krähmer, Iraj Koudous, Jochen Strube, Hartwig Schulz
Different yew species contain poisonous taxane alkaloids which serve as resources for semi-synthesis of anticancer drugs. The highly variable amounts of taxanes demand new methods for fast characterization of the raw plant material and the isolation of the target structures during phyto extraction. For that purpose, applicability of different vibrational spectroscopy methods in goods receipt of raw plant material and in process control was investigated and demonstrated in online tracking isolation and purification of the target taxane 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB) during solvent extraction...
October 1, 2015: Talanta
P K Rao, S S Hasan, B L Bhellum, R K Manhas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Natural products, especially those derived from plants, continue to provide new and important leads in the drug discovery process. The first step in drug discovery is to document material traditionally used to treat an ailment. Documentation of such knowledge will lead to its conservation and facilitate future research on medicinal plant safety and efficacy to validate traditional use. The present study was undertaken with an aim to document the ethnomedicinal plants of Kathua district...
August 2, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Andrea Zuccolo, Douglas G Scofield, Emanuele De Paoli, Michele Morgante
Long Terminal Repeat retroelements (LTR-RTs) are a major component of many plant genomes. Although well studied and described in angiosperms, their features and dynamics are poorly understood in gymnosperms. Representative complete copies of a Ty1-copia element isolate in Picea abies and named PARTC were identified in six other conifer species (Picea glauca, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus taeda, Abies sibirica, Taxus baccata and Juniperus communis) covering more than 200 million years of evolution. Here we characterized the structure of this element, assessed its abundance across conifers, studied the modes and timing of its amplification, and evaluated the degree of conservation of its extant copies at nucleotide level over distant species...
August 15, 2015: Gene
Fatma Sezer Senol, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Osman Ustun
OBJECTIVE: To explore cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effect of six coniferous trees (Abies bornmulleriana, Picea pungens, Juniperus communis, Cedrus libani, Taxus baccata, and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis). METHODS: Acetone (Ace), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and ethanol (EtOH) extracts prepared from the needles and shoots of the six coniferous trees were screened for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL...
April 2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Christina Baum, Sebastian Bohnen, Bjoern Sill, Sebastian Philipp, Hans Damerow, Stefan Kluge, Hermann Reichenspurner, Stefan Blankenberg, Gerold Söffker, Markus J Barten, Karsten Sydow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Radka Nováková, Jiří Neustupa
Excessive occurrence of microalgae on needles of gymnosperms was reported for the first time in the 1980s from the Scandinavian countries. Since then, it has been repeatedly encountered on needles from various European forest habitats. The abundance of these biofilms has been related to the climatic conditions, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as to the air pollution by nitrogen and sulfur oxides. Urban areas typically have relatively homogenous climates and profound variation in levels of air pollution...
March 1, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Aurélie Thooft, Ahmed Goubella, David Fagnoul, Fabio S Taccone, Serge Brimioulle, Jean-Louis Vincent, Daniel De Backer
A young woman presented with cardiac arrest following ingestion of yew tree leaves of the Taxus baccata species. The toxin in yew tree leaves has negative inotropic and dromotropic effects. The patient had a cardiac rhythm that alternated between pulseless electrical activity with a prolonged QRS interval and ventricular fibrillation. When standard resuscitation therapy including digoxin immune Fab was ineffective, a combination of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and hypothermia was initiated. The total duration of low flow/no flow was 82 minutes prior to the initiation of ECMO...
November 2014: CJEM
Ming-Zhu Ding, Hui-Fang Yan, Lin-Feng Li, Fang Zhai, Lu-Qing Shang, Zheng Yin, Ying-Jin Yuan
Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway catalyzing famesyl diphosphate (FPP) to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), were predicted using enzyme-substrate docking strategy...
2014: PloS One
Anoshirvan Alami, Alireza Eslami, Seyed A Hashemi
Taxus baccata is a native species to the Caspian forests and is considered as the identification of these forests by some resources. The aim of this study was to understand the ecological characteristics of T. baccata in order to find suitable areas for its plantation in the Pone Aram preserve of Golestan province. Therefore, Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used. In this process at first the needed and effective natural indexes were used as 10 parameters...
September 2014: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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