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Nutrition assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914144/outdoor-air-pollution-and-pterygium-in-korea
#1
Ki Woong Lee, Yoon Hyeong Choi, Sung Ha Hwang, Hae Jung Paik, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee, Dong Hyun Kim
We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913915/age-related-differences-in-clinical-characteristics-and-esophageal-motility-in-patients-with-dysphagia
#2
Rui Nakato, Noriaki Manabe, Tomoari Kamada, Hideo Matsumoto, Akiko Shiotani, Jiro Hata, Ken Haruma
Dysphagia in elderly patients has a major effect on nutrition and quality of life (QOL). Although several studies have shown that aging itself is associated with changes in esophageal motility, the impact of these changes on dysphagia symptoms and QOL is unknown. This study assessed the manometric diagnoses of elderly patients with dysphagia compared with diagnoses in younger counterparts. Participants included 116 consecutive patients examined for dysphagia from 2007 to 2014. We divided patients into three groups by age: Group A, 66 years and older (24 men, 23 women); Group B, 45-65 years (18 men, 24 women); and Group C, 44 years and younger (15 men, 12 women)...
December 2, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913911/assessing-the-food-safety-attitudes-and-awareness-of-managers-of-school-feeding-programmes-in-mpumalanga-south-africa
#3
J J Sibanyoni, F T Tabit
The managers of school feeding programmes are responsible for ensuring the safety of the food which is provided to schoolchildren, but very few studies have been conducted on the food safety knowledge and awareness of these managers. The objective of this study is to evaluate the food safety attitudes and awareness of managers of the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in schools in Mpumalanga, a province of South Africa. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in which questionnaires were used to collect data from 300 NSNP food service managers...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913774/gravity-flow-in-proposed-enteral-tube-small-bore-connectors
#4
Ryan T Hurt, Lisa M Epp, Adele K Pattinson, Wanda M Duellman, Stephen M Corner, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) misconnections have been identified as a serious and potential deadly problem. An international effort led by EN industry leaders has developed a small-bore enteral connector (ENFit) that in theory will reduce the frequency of misconnections. Despite the potential benefit of preventing misconnections, the full impact of adoption of the ENFit connector is unknown. To assess the impact of transitioning to ENFit on our home EN (HEN) patients, the current study evaluated gravity feeding comparing 2 proposed small-bore connectors to the legacy (current connector) using various commercial formulas...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913773/pediatric-nutrition-assessment-anthropometrics-to-zinc
#5
Kelly Green Corkins, Erin E Teague
Pediatric patients with chronic illnesses or diseases or who require long-term nutrition support are most vulnerable to nutrition-related issues. Malnutrition in a pediatric patient may negatively affect long-term growth and development. Children also become malnourished much more quickly than adults. A comprehensive nutrition assessment that includes food and nutrition-related history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, medical tests and procedures, nutrition-focused physical findings, and patient history should be completed on these patients as no one parameter is a comprehensive indicator of nutrition status...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913762/aspen-felanpe-clinical-guidelines-nutrition-support-of-adult-patients-with-enterocutaneous-fistula
#6
Vanessa J Kumpf, Jose Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Ignacio Diaz-Pizarro Graf, Amber M Hall, Liam McKeever, Ezra Steiger, Marion F Winkler, Charlene W Compher
BACKGROUND: The management of patients with enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires an interdisciplinary approach and poses a significant challenge to physicians, wound/stoma care specialists, dietitians, pharmacists, and other nutrition clinicians. Guidelines for optimizing nutrition status in these patients are often vague, based on limited and dated clinical studies, and typically rely on individual institutional or clinician experience. Specific nutrient requirements, appropriate route of feeding, role of immune-enhancing formulas, and use of somatostatin analogues in the management of patients with ECF are not well defined...
December 2, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913468/biologic-vs-physiologic-age-in-the-transplant-candidate
#7
Andrew S Artz
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains a cornerstone of treatment of many hematologic malignancies but transplant-associated morbidity and mortality limit application to older patients. Biologic or chronologic age barriers to HCT have fallen, because patients in their 8th decade of life comprise the group with the greatest rise in transplant use over the past decade. Evaluating physiologic age or general health in older transplant candidates requires a systematic approach inclusive of functional and comorbidity assessment, which typically is accomplished through geriatric assessment (GA)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913122/-postnatal-growth-at-hospital-discharge-in-extremely-premature-newborns-in-spain
#8
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Josep Figueras Aloy, Pedro Saavedra Santana, Alfredo García-Alix
INTRODUCTION: Postnatal growth restriction is considered a universal problem in extremely premature infants (EPI), and causes great concern due to the possible relationship between nutrition, sub-optimal postnatal growth, and neurodevelopment delay. OBJECTIVES: To describe the weight gain in EPI and to determine the changes in the length and head circumference (HC) at hospital discharge in survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 4,520 Caucasian EPI from single pregnancies and without severe malformations, born in the centres participating in the Spanish SEN1500 network (2002-2011)...
November 29, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912954/effect-of-diet-based-on-the-principles-of-iranian-traditional-medicine-on-cirrhosis-a-clinical-trial
#9
Mohammad Javad Ehsani, Jamileh Mahdavi Jafari, Jale Aliasl, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Latif Gachkar, Rasool Choopani
OBJECTIVES: Cirrhosis is associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) focused on nutritional intervention in order to improve liver function. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a diet designed based on ITM and current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: This controlled trial study was performed on 57 subjects with cirrhosis in 5 tertiary hospitals in Teharn, Iran. SETTING: Subjects were included if they were diagnosed with class A or B cirrhosis between October 2013 and December 2014...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912939/dietary-supplementation-is-more-prevalent-among-adults-with-arthritis-in-the-united-states-population
#10
Patrick B Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Sparse data are available to describe the prevalence of dietary supplementation among individuals with arthritis. Using a nationally representative sample, this investigation assessed the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Americans self-reporting arthritis. SETTING AND DESIGN: Data from 4606 participants of the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed, including from 1170 participants self-reporting arthritis...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912766/non-random-distribution-of-child-undernutrition-in-ethiopia-spatial-analysis-from-the-2011-ethiopia-demographic-and-health-survey
#11
Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew, Belay Simanie Birhanu
BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition showed geographical inequalities due to variations in contextual determinants from area to area which indicates that location is an important factor in child undernutrition. However, there are limited studies on spatial epidemiology of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This study was aimed to identify the SaTScan spatial clusters of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. METHODS: Nutritional indices of children (0-59 months) with Global Positioning System (GPS) location data were accessed from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) after getting permission from the MEASURES Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) Program...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910792/optimization-of-liquid-fermentation-conditions-and-protein-nutrition-evaluation-of-mycelium-from-the-caterpillar-medicinal-mushroom-cordyceps-militaris-ascomycetes
#12
Jie Gang, Han Liu, Yanhong Liu
Cordyceps militaris is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom. In this study, the mycelium of C. militaris was cultured using liquid fermentation technology and the culture medium components were optimized by the orthogonal test method. Our results showed that the optimal medium combination for the mycelium growth is 3% glucose, 3% peptone, 0.1% MgSO4, and 0.2% KH2PO4 The international general nutritional assessment method was applied to the overall evaluation of the protein nutrition value of submerged cultivated mycelium and fruit body of C...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910283/feeding-behaviors-during-home-based-treatment-of-moderate-acute-malnutrition-using-corn-soy-blends-or-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#13
Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf, Albertine Ouedraogo, Christian Ritz, Tania Aase Draebel, Per Ashorn, Suzanne Filteau, Kim F Michaelsen
Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) based on best practice feeding behaviors. The study was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of new formulations of CSB and LNS and comprised 1,546 children from 6 to 23 months...
December 2, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910255/dysphagia-is-associated-with-functional-decline-during-acute-care-hospitalization-of-older-patients
#14
Haruyo Matsuo, Yoshihiro Yoshimura, Naoki Ishizaki, Tsuyoshi Ueno
AIM: Physical function is considered to be associated with dysphagia: however, there is little data regarding the association between dysphagia and functional decline during hospitalization among older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia, and the association between dysphagia and functional status during hospitalization in older acute-care patients. METHODS: A total of 103 older patients without present or prior history of diseases that could directly impair swallowing and cause dysphagia (45 men and 58 women; mean age 80...
December 1, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909260/prioritizing-and-funding-nepal-s-multisector-nutrition-plan
#15
Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Madhukar B Shrestha, Monica Biradavolu, Kusum Hachhethu, Robin Houston, Indu Sharma, Jolene Wun
BACKGROUND: Nepal has a long tradition of designing good multisectoral nutrition policy. However, success of policy implementation has varied. More evidence on how to successfully carry out multisector nutrition policy is needed. OBJECTIVE: We tracked the influence of Nepal's multisectoral nutrition plan (MSNP) on the process of priority setting and budgeting from 2014 to 2016. METHODS: This study used a mixed-method longitudinal design to track qualitative and budgetary changes related to MSNP processes nationally as well as in 3 districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909259/assessing-progress-in-implementing-uganda-s-nutrition-action-plan-district-level-insights
#16
Edgar Agaba, Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Shibani Ghosh, Jeffrey K Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The 2011 Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP) established 2016 maternal and child nutrition targets. However, there is a lack of routine district-level data collection to assess UNAP implementation. OBJECTIVE: To use Nutrition Innovation Lab (NIL) data to inform policy makers on the progress of UNAP-related indicators. METHODS: The NIL collected serial household-level survey data (n = 3600) in 6 districts, including 2 UNAP implementation districts, in 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909258/prioritizing-and-funding-the-uganda-nutrition-action-plan
#17
Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Alexis D'Agostino, Nancy Adero, Hannah Foehringer Merchant, Abel Muzoora, Ezekiel Mupere, Edgar Agaba, Lidan Du
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Uganda began developing its first multisectoral nutrition plan, the Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP), to reduce malnutrition. While the UNAP signals high-level commitment to addressing nutrition, knowledge gaps remain about how to successfully implement such a plan. OBJECTIVE: We tracked the UNAP's influence on the process of priority setting and funding for nutrition from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal mixed methods design to track qualitative and budgetary changes related to UNAP processes nationally as well as in 2 study districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#18
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#19
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908845/design-response-rates-and-population-characteristics-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-zanzibar-tanzania
#20
Maria Adam Nyangasa, Soerge Kelm, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, Antje Hebestreit
BACKGROUND: Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, "Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population," data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
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