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Adult malnutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820648/natural-bioactive-food-components-for-improving-enteral-tube-feeding-tolerance-in-adult-patient-populations
#1
Adam J Kuchnia, Beth Conlon, Norman Greenberg
Tube feeding (TF) is the most common form of nutrition support. In recent years, TF administration has increased among patient populations within and outside hospital settings, in part due to greater insurance coverage, reduced use of parenteral nutrition, and improved formularies suitable for sole source nutrition. With increasing life expectancy and improved access to TFs, the number of adults dependent on enteral nutrition is expected to grow. However, enteral TF intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication of TFs, typically presenting with at least 1 adverse gastrointestinal event, including nausea, diarrhea, and constipation...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814218/diagnosis-and-management-of-pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency
#2
Mehrdad Nikfarjam, Jeremy S Wilson, Ross C Smith
In 2015, the Australasian Pancreatic Club (APC) published the Australasian guidelines for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (http://pancreas.org.au/2016/01/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-guidelines). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when normal digestion cannot be sustained due to insufficient pancreatic digestive enzyme activity. This may be related to a breakdown, at any point, in the pancreatic digestive chain: pancreatic stimulation; synthesis, release or transportation of pancreatic enzymes; or synchronisation of secretions to mix with ingested food...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804010/frailty-and-malnutrition-related-and-distinct-syndrome-prevalence-and-association-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-studies
#3
Kai Wei, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Qi Gao, Shiou Liang Wee, Tze-Pin Ng
OBJECTIVE: The association between frailty and malnutrition is widely noted, but the common and distinct aspects of this relationship are not well understood. We investigated the prevalence of prefrailty/frailty and malnutrition/nutritional risk; their overlapping prevalence; compared their sociodemographic, physical, and mental health risk factors; and assessed their association, independently of other risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of population-based cohort (Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study [SLAS]-1 [enrolled 2003-2005] and SLAS-2 [enrolled 2010-2013]) of community-dwelling older Singaporeans aged ≥55 (n = 6045)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804009/effects-of-timing-of-whey-protein-intake-on-appetite-and-energy-intake-in-healthy-older-men
#4
Caroline Giezenaar, Zoé Coudert, Abdul Baqeri, Caroline Jensen, Trygve Hausken, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
BACKGROUND: Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage malnutrition in older adults. We previously showed that 30 g whey protein ingestion, 3 hours before a buffet meal, suppressed energy intake in young, but not in older men. Information about the impact of the timing of ingestion of protein drinks on the suppression of energy intake in older adults is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the timing of whey protein ingestion on appetite and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy older men...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797597/environmental-enrichment-protects-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-neurons-from-the-long-lasting-effects-of-protein-malnutrition-early-in-life
#5
Roberto O Soares, Everton Horiquini-Barbosa, Sebastião S Almeida, João-José Lachat
As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795921/health-at-the-borders-bayesian-multilevel-analysis-of-women-s-malnutrition-determinants-in-ethiopia
#6
Tefera Darge Delbiso, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Chiara Altare, Bruno Masquelier, Debarati Guha-Sapir
Background Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. Objective To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates...
December 2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780627/primary-pediatric-hypertension-current-understanding-and-emerging-concepts
#7
REVIEW
Andrew C Tiu, Michael D Bishop, Laureano D Asico, Pedro A Jose, Van Anthony M Villar
The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779824/nutritional-problems-affecting-older-adults
#8
REVIEW
Neva L Crogan
Nutritional problems, such as malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance, are multifaceted and complex issues for older adults. This article describes these potential nutritional problems and then discusses evidence-based assessment strategies and treatment modalities that target these problems. Micronutrient deficiency is explored and evidence-based supplementation discussed. Many factors contribute to weight loss and malnutrition in older adults. These factors are classified as social, psychological, and/or biological...
September 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771192/evaluation-of-blood-biomarkers-associated-with-risk-of-malnutrition-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Zhiying Zhang, Suzette L Pereira, Menghua Luo, Eric M Matheson
Malnutrition is a common yet under-recognized problem in hospitalized patients. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and evaluate malnutrition biomarkers among order adults. Eligible studies were identified through Cochrane, PubMed and the ProQuest Dialog. A meta-regression was performed on concentrations of biomarkers according to malnutrition risks classified by validated nutrition assessment tools. A total of 111 studies were included, representing 52,911 participants (55% female, 72 ± 17 years old) from various clinical settings (hospital, community, care homes)...
August 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770443/how-to-proceed-with-examination-of-a-child
#10
REVIEW
Sonia Makhija, Poornima Tiwari
The assessment of a child is quite different from that of adults and requires knowledge of normal variations in anatomy and physiology with growth and development. An important part of initial assessment includes triage and recognizing children with emergency signs so that they can be managed at the earliest to prevent death and referred timely to the specialist. After ruling out emergency signs, the children with priority signs require prompt assessment, management and referral to the specialist. In addition to normal history as in adults, prenatal and birth history, developmental history, immunization history, feeding history and social history are important for complete assessment of the child...
August 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770207/aberrant-cerebral-blood-flow-in-response-to-hunger-and-satiety-in-women-remitted-from-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Grace Rasmusson, Ursula F Bailer, Laura A Berner, Thomas T Liu, Walter H Kaye
The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN) have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We compared resting CBF measured with pulsed arterial spin labeling in 21 RAN and 16 healthy comparison women (CW) when hungry (after a 16-h fast) and after a meal...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768291/a-requiem-for-bmi-in-the-clinical-setting
#12
Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Steven B Heymsfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quetelet reported in the nineteenth century that body weight varies across adults with the square of height. Quetelet's index, now known as BMI, is accepted by most health organizations as a first-level measure of body fat and as a screening tool for diagnosing excess adiposity. Modern imaging methods now, however, indicate that BMI has limited predictive value for estimating body fat and lean mass at the individual level. The use of BMI as a measure of body composition in the clinical setting should therefore be challenged...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767774/factors-associated-with-malnutrition-in-adolescent-and-adult-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Gabriela Cristofoli Barni, Gabriele Carra Forte, Luis Felipe Forgiarini, Claudine Lacerda de Oliveira Abrahão, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
Objective: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition in patients attending an adult cystic fibrosis (CF) program and to investigate the associations of malnutrition with the clinical characteristics of those patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with clinically stable CF patients (16 years of age or older). The patients underwent clinical assessment, nutritional assessments, pulmonary function tests, and pancreatic function assessment...
July 31, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752139/association-between-serum-vitamin-b12-level-and-frailty-in-older-adults
#14
Ozge Dokuzlar, Pinar Soysal, Ahmet Turan Isik
OBJECTIVE: Frailty is associated with recurrent falls, fractures, limitation of daily living activities, cognitive impairment, increase in hospitalization, placement in nursing home, and mortality rate in older adults. Although malnutrition is one of the most important etiological factors, role of micronutrients is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate association between frailty and vitamin B12, which has been demonstrated to be related to numerous geriatric syndromes. METHODS: Total of 335 patients who presented at geriatric outpatient clinic and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment were included in this study...
2017: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750860/impaired-barrier-function-and-autoantibody-generation-in-malnutrition-enteropathy-in-zambia
#15
Beatrice Amadi, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Patrick Kaonga, John Louis-Auguste, Kanta Chandwe, Phillip I Tarr, Donna M Denno, James P Nataro, William Faubion, Anne Sailer, Sunil Yeruva, Tricia Brantner, Joseph Murray, Andrew J Prendergast, Jerrold R Turner, Paul Kelly
Intestinal damage in malnutrition constitutes a threat to the survival of many thousands of children globally. We studied children in Lusaka, Zambia, with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and persistent diarrhea using endoscopy, biopsy and analysis of markers and protective proteins in blood and intestinal secretions. We carried out parallel investigations in apparently healthy adults, and analyzed biomarkers only in apparently healthy children. Villus height and crypt depth did not differ in children with SAM and adult controls, but epithelial surface was reduced in children with SAM (median 445, interquartile range (IQR) 388, 562μm per 100μm muscularis mucosae) compared to adults (578, IQR 465,709; P=0...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748600/accuracy-and-confidence-of-allied-health-assistants-administering-the-subjective-global-assessment-on-inpatients-in-a-rural-setting-a-preliminary-feasibility-study
#16
Cristal S Newman, Petrea L Cornwell, Adrienne M Young, Elizabeth C Ward, Annmarie L Mcerlain
AIM: Malnutrition has a significant impact on patient outcomes and duration of inpatient stay. However, conducting timely nutrition assessments can be challenging for rural dietitians. A solution could be for allied health assistants (AHAs) to assist with these assessments. The present study aimed to assess the accuracy and confidence of AHAs trained to conduct the subjective global assessment (SGA) compared with dietitians. METHODS: A non-inferiority study design was adopted...
July 27, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738364/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#17
Jordi Almirall, Mateu Serra-Prat, Ignasi Bolíbar, Valentina Balasso
We performed a systematic review of the literature to establish conclusive evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies) the primary outcome of which was to assess risk factors for CAP in both hospitalized and ambulatory adult patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were selected. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale specific for cohort and case-control designs was used for quality assessment. Twenty-nine studies (20 case-control, 8 cohort, and 1 cross-sectional) were selected, with 44...
July 25, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736323/offspring-neuroimmune-consequences-of-maternal-malnutrition-potential-mechanism-for-behavioral-impairments-that-underlie-metabolic-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#18
REVIEW
B L Smith, T M Reyes
Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward...
July 20, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730459/fetal-programming-as-a-predictor-of-adult-health-or-disease-the-need-to-reevaluate-fetal-heart-function
#19
REVIEW
Joana O Miranda, Carla Ramalho, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Carlos Areias
Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that adverse stimuli during critical periods in utero permanently alters organ structure and function and may have persistent consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. Fetal hypoxia, maternal malnutrition, or ventricular overloading are among the major adverse conditions that can compromise cardiovascular development in early life. With the heart as a central organ in fetal adaptive mechanisms, a deeper understanding of the fetal cardiovascular physiology and of the echocardiographic tools to assess both normal and stressed pregnancies would give precious information on fetal well-being and hopefully may help in early identification of special risk groups for cardiovascular diseases later in life...
July 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727775/adolescent-health-in-rural-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-co-occurrence-of-infectious-diseases-malnutrition-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors
#20
Marie Alicke, Justice K Boakye-Appiah, Inusah Abdul-Jalil, Andrea Henze, Markus van der Giet, Matthias B Schulze, Florian J Schweigert, Frank P Mockenhaupt, George Bedu-Addo, Ina Danquah
In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed...
2017: PloS One
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