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Adult malnutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636832/nutrient-deficiencies-are-common-prior-to-bariatric-surgery
#1
Leigh A Frame-Peterson, Robin D Megill, Suzanne Carobrese, Michael Schweitzer
Obesity, defined as a body mass index >30 kg/m(2), is a growing worldwide epidemic currently effecting 1 in 10 adults, with rates as high as 40% in the United States. The only proven long-term treatment of severe obesity on a population level is surgical modification of the gastrointestinal anatomy to induce weight loss, termed bariatric surgery. With adequate physician guidance and appropriate candidate criteria, bariatric surgery is an option for effective long-term treatment of obesity and its related comorbidities...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625392/a-novel-risk-score-to-predict-the-need-for-nutrition-support-after-cardiac-surgery
#2
Rika E Ohkuma, Todd C Crawford, Patricia M Brown, Joshua C Grimm, J Trent Magruder, Arman Kilic, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Sukyee Snyder, Justin D Wood, Eric Schneider, Marc S Sussman, Glenn J R Whitman
BACKGROUND: In specific patients, early postoperative nutrition mitigates malnutrition-related morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a prediction score designed to stratify patients immediately after cardiac surgery according to risk for nutrition support (NS). METHODS: We identified adult cardiac surgery patients at our institution in 2012 requiring postoperative NS, enteral or parenteral. Using multivariable logistic regression modeling, we developed a Johns Hopkins Hospital Nutrition Support (JHH NS) score from relative odds ratios generated by variables that independently predicted the need for NS...
May 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610758/the-everyday-food-practices-of-community-dwelling-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-lgbt-older-adults
#3
Nevin Cohen, Kristen Cribbs
Malnutrition during old age is a significant public health issue. Prevailing behavioral and structural senior malnutrition interventions have had marginal success, largely failing to reflect the realities of people's daily lives. This novel study employed Social Practice Theory (SPT) to explore the food practices of an under-researched, yet highly vulnerable, segment of the older adult population-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) seniors. Four focus groups were conducted with 31 older adult clients and volunteers at a national LGBT social service and advocacy organization...
April 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606696/targeted-gene-knockdown-validates-the-essential-role-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-in-cryptosporidium-parvum
#4
William H Witola, Xuejin Zhang, Chi Yong Kim
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan that can cause a life-threatening gastrointestinal syndrome in children and in immunocompromised adults. Currently, the only approved drug for treatment of Cryptosporidium infections in humans is nitazoxanide, but it is not effective in immunocompromised individuals or in children with malnutrition. This is compounded by the lack of genetic methods for studying and validating potential drug targets in the parasite. Therefore, in this study, we endeavoured to adapt the use of a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (morpholino) antisense approach to develop a targeted gene knockdown assay for use in C...
June 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602463/air-displacement-plethysmography-versus-bioelectrical-impedance-to-determine-body-composition-in-pediatric-hemodialysis-patients
#5
Molly Wong Vega, Poyyapakkam R Srivaths
OBJECTIVE: Protein energy wasting is difficult to assess in pediatric hemodialysis (HD) populations because of fluid shifts. Body composition (BC) analysis aids in monitoring nutrition therapy's effects on fat and lean mass. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) is a "practical" gold standard for fat mass (FM) measurements. We aim to compare BC measures in a pediatric HD population via anthropometry, ADP, and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). DESIGN: The study was prospective cohort study and the setting was 1 pediatric HD unit in Houston, Texas...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600220/the-belgian-national-registry-on-chronic-pancreatitis-a-prospective-multi-centre-study-covering-more-than-800-patients-in-one-year
#6
M Fernandez, M Arvanitakis, C Musala, J Devière, W Van Steenbergen, V Putzeys, F Ausloos, B Bastens, P Gast, G Roeyen, F Berrevoet, I Scheers, M Delhaye, P H Deprez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology, natural history, complications, and therapeutic management of chronic pancreatitis (CP) are not well described at the national level. This multi-centre prospective observational study involving eight Belgian hospitals aimed to improve the understanding of these aspects of CP in Belgium. METHODS: All patients with a diagnosis of CP based on imaging were eligible for this study. Data were gathered regarding epidemiology, etiology, CP complications, and treatment modalities...
May 26, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596735/diet-composition-and-variability-of-wild-octopus-vulgaris-and-alloteuthis-media-cephalopoda-paralarvae-a-metagenomic-approach
#7
Lorena Olmos-Pérez, Álvaro Roura, Graham J Pierce, Stéphane Boyer, Ángel F González
The high mortality of cephalopod early stages is the main bottleneck to grow them from paralarvae to adults in culture conditions, probably because the inadequacy of the diet that results in malnutrition. Since visual analysis of digestive tract contents of paralarvae provides little evidence of diet composition, the use of molecular tools, particularly next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, offers an alternative to understand prey preferences and nutrient requirements of wild paralarvae. In this work, we aimed to determine the diet of paralarvae of the loliginid squid Alloteuthis media and to enhance the knowledge of the diet of recently hatched Octopus vulgaris paralarvae collected in different areas and seasons in an upwelling area (NW Spain)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592356/use-of-health-resources-and-healthcare-costs-associated-with-nutritional-risk-the-fradea-study
#8
Marta Martínez-Reig, Isaac Aranda-Reneo, Luz M Peña-Longobardo, Juan Oliva-Moreno, Núria Barcons-Vilardell, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Pedro Abizanda
BACKGROUND: In spite of its high prevalence and its clinical relevance, the economic impact of malnutrition has not been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVE: To study whether malnutrition predicts total hospital healthcare costs and costs related to specialist visits, emergency department visits and hospitalization in older adults. METHODS: Concurrent cohort study in Albacete City, Spain. The study sample included 827 subjects aged 70 and over from the FRADEA Study...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589415/noma-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-in-guinea-bissau-a-case-report
#9
Tina Madsen, Candida Medina, Sanne Jespersen, Christian Wejse, Bo Langhoff Hønge
BACKGROUND: Noma is a multifactorial and multibacterial opportunistic infection that initially causes necrotic gingivitis but rapidly spreads to the nearby orofacial tissue resulting in sloughing and severe deformation of the facial structures. The majority of cases are seen in young children under the age of 6 years. Noma is strongly associated with poverty, malnutrition and immunosuppression, and is often preceded by severe systemic infections such as measles and malaria. Only few cases of noma infection in adults have been described...
June 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587182/preoperative-nutritional-conditioning-of-crohn-s-patients-systematic-review-of-current-evidence-and-practice
#10
Fabian Grass, Basile Pache, David Martin, Dieter Hahnloser, Nicolas Demartines, Martin Hübner
Crohn's disease is an incurable and frequently progressive entity with major impact on affected patients. Up to half of patients require surgery in the first 10 years after diagnosis and over 75% of operated patients require at least one further surgery within lifetime. In order to minimize surgical risk, modifiable risk factors such as nutritional status need to be optimized. This systematic review on preoperative nutritional support in adult Crohn's patients between 1997 and 2017 aimed to provide an overview on target populations, screening modalities, routes of administration, and expected benefits...
June 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585266/an-evaluation-of-the-feasibility-and-validity-of-a-patient-administered-malnutrition-universal-screening-tool-must-compared-to-healthcare-professional-screening-in-an-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd-outpatient-clinic
#11
K Keetarut, S Zacharopoulou-Otapasidou, S Bloom, A Majumdar, P S Patel
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is associated with poor health outcomes. Despite this, screening for malnutrition in the outpatient-setting is not routine and research in the area is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate whether agreement between malnutrition screening completed by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) could be achieved by comparing patient self-administered 'MUST' ('MUST'-P) with HCP administered 'MUST' ('MUST'-HCP) in a single tertiary IBD outpatient clinic...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584426/use-of-nutrition-risk-in-critically-ill-nutric-score-to-assess-nutritional-risk-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
M S Kalaiselvan, M K Renuka, A S Arunkumar
CONTEXT: Nutritional risk assessment must be done on all critically ill patients. Malnutrition in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Traditional scoring systems cannot be used for screening in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients because these patients are unable to provide information on their history of food intake and weight loss. The Nutrition Risk in Critically ill (NUTRIC) score is the appropriate nutritional assessment tool in MV patients...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571478/nutriepigenomics-and-malnutrition
#13
Arnaud de Luca, Regis Hankard, Jean-Michel Borys, Daniel Sinnett, Valérie Marcil, Emile Levy
Epigenetics is defined as the modulation of gene expression without changes to the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic alterations, as a consequence of in utero malnutrition, may play a role in susceptibility to develop adulthood diseases and inheritance. However, the mechanistic link between epigenetic modifications and abnormalities in nutrition remains elusive. This review provides an update on the association of suboptimal nutritional environment and the high propensity to produce adult-onset chronic illnesses with a particular focus on modifications in genome functions that occur without alterations to the DNA sequence...
June 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560175/miliary-tuberculosis-with-cerebral-liver-prostate-and-retroesophageal-involvement
#14
Raquel Goncalves, Pedro Lopes, Patrícia Mendes, João Trêpa, João Rua, Rosa Sá, Isabel Ramos, J Saraiva da Cunha
Miliary tuberculosis results from the lymphohematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and it is a rare form of this disease. The most affected places are the lymph nodes, pleura, and osteoarticular system, but any organ can be involved. Currently the disease is still endemic in developing countries by its close association with poor living conditions and malnutrition. Other comorbidities, particularly infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism are of great importance in the epidemiology of this disease...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555706/can-we-predict-morbidity-and-mortality-of-patients-aged-75-years-and-older-undergoing-cystectomy
#15
F Atallah, P Letocart, B Malavaud, M Ahmad, M Mazerolles, V Minville
Radical cystectomy is associated with a high postoperative mortality and morbidity in older patients. We aimed to define the predictive value of comorbidity scores and determine the prognostic factors of postoperative complications. Preoperative associated morbidities were collected and graded according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score system, the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE) scale and the Charlson comorbidity index. Surgical complications were graded according to Clavien classification...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548972/assessment-of-adult-malnutrition-and-prognosis-with-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-phase-angle-and-impedance-ratio
#16
Henry C Lukaski, Ursula G Kyle, Jens Kondrup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition affects prognosis in many groups of patients. Although screening tools are available to identify adults at risk for poor nutritional status, a need exists to improve the assessment of malnutrition by identifying the loss of functional tissues that can lead to frailty, compromised physical function, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly among hospitalized and ill patients and older adults. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) offers a practical approach to identify malnutrition and prognosis by assessing whole-body cell membrane quality and depicting fluid distribution for an individual...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542302/influence-of-catch-up-growth-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#17
Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo, Cristina Carrasco Carrasco, Núria Villalmazo Francisco, Judit Cebrià Romero, Jose Ramon Fernández Lorenzo, J C Jiménez-Chillaron, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG) increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539379/the-effect-of-nutrition-training-for-health-care-staff-on-learner-and-patient-outcomes-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Owen Marples, Christine Baldwin, C Elizabeth Weekes
Background: Nutrition training for health care staff has been prioritized internationally as a key means of tackling malnutrition; however, there is a lack of clear evidence to support its implementation. Systematic reviews in other fields of training for health care staff indicate that training strategies may have a beneficial impact on learner and patient outcomes.Objectives: We assessed whether nutrition training for health care staff caring for nutritionally vulnerable adults resulted in improved learner and patient outcomes and evaluated the effectiveness of different training strategies...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538089/central-hematocrit-levels-in-fetal-malnourished-term-infants
#19
Kerem Ertaş, Özgül Salihoğlu, Emrah Can, Sami Hatipoğlu, Şahin Hamilçikan
BACKROUND: Fetal malnutrition is especially important for common chronic diseases in adult life. They could potentially be prevented by achieving optimal fetal nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate hematocrit levels of malnourished, term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 AGA neonates (between 10% and 90% percentiles interval according to birth week), born with spontaneous vaginal delivery between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation, detected by both last menstrual period and ultrasonography measurements, were included in the study...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536435/mid-arm-circumference-and-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality-among-obese-and-non-obese-us-adults-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-iii
#20
Li-Wei Wu, Yuan-Yung Lin, Tung-Wei Kao, Chien-Ming Lin, Chung-Ching Wang, Gia-Chi Wang, Tao-Chun Peng, Wei-Liang Chen
Epidemiological studies have shown that mid-arm circumference (MAC) can be used to predict death risk and malnutrition. We performed a retrospective observational study involving 11,958 US participants aged 20-90 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994, to determine the correlation between MAC and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risk in the obese and non-obese population. Death certificate data were obtained up to 2006. The participants were divided into three groups on the basis of body mass index: 19 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (normal weight group), 25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2) (overweight group) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (obesity group); each group was then divided into three subgroups depending on their MAC level...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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