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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225975/correlation-between-traits-of-emotion-based-impulsivity-and-intrinsic-default-mode-network-activity
#1
Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Şükrü B Demiral, Yi Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Negative urgency (NU) and positive urgency (PU) are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160944/ketogenic-diet-suppresses-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-rats
#2
Ditte Dencker, Anna Molander, Morgane Thomsen, Chantal Schlumberger, Gitta Wortwein, Pia Weikop, Helene Benveniste, Nora D Volkow, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is under-diagnosed and under-treated, and up to 50% of alcohol abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate was recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls...
November 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150199/medications-for-opioid-use-disorder-bridging-the-gap-in-care
#3
Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142296/the-dopamine-motive-system-implications-for-drug-and-food-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Roy A Wise, Ruben Baler
Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081530/nora-volkow
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051027/the-conception-of-the-abcd-study-from-substance-use-to-a-broad-nih-collaboration
#6
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Robert T Croyle, Diana W Bianchi, Joshua A Gordon, Walter J Koroshetz, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, William T Riley, Michele H Bloch, Kevin Conway, Bethany G Deesds, Gayathri J Dowling, Steven Grant, Katia D Howlett, John A Matochik, Glen D Morgan, Margaret M Murray, Antonio Noronha, Catherine Y Spong, Eric M Wargo, Kenneth R Warren, Susan R B Weiss
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029586/use-and-misuse-of-opioids-in-chronic-pain
#7
Nora Volkow, Helene Benveniste, A Thomas McLellan
The prescribing of opioid analgesics for pain management-particularly for management of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP)-has increased more than fourfold in the United States since the mid-1990s. Yet there is mounting evidence that opioids have only limited effectiveness in the management of CNCP, and the increased availability of prescribed opioids has contributed to upsurges in opioid-related addiction cases and overdose deaths. These concerns have led to critical revisiting and modification of prior pain management practices (e...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#8
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643800/striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-varies-across-smoking-status
#9
Corinde E Wiers, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Şükrü B Demiral, Sung Won Kim, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
To assess how tobacco smoking status affects baseline dopamine D2/D3 (D2R) receptor availability and methylphenidate-induced dopamine (DA) release, we retrospectively analyzed D2R availability measures of 8 current smokers, 10 ex-smokers, and 18 nonsmokers who were scanned with positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride, after administration of an injection of placebo or 0.5 mg/kg i.v. methylphenidate. There was a significant effect of smoking status on baseline striatal D2R availability; with current smokers showing lower striatal D2R availability compared with nonsmokers (caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum) and with ex-smokers (caudate and putamen)...
November 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580946/dopamine-d2-receptor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-comprises-a-metabolic-cognitive-brain-interface-regulating-metabolic-components-of-glucose-reinforcement
#10
Michael Michaelides, Michael L Miller, Jennifer A DiNieri, Juan L Gomez, Elizabeth Schwartz, Gabor Egervari, Gene Jack Wang, Charles V Mobbs, Nora D Volkow, Yasmin L Hurd
Appetitive drive is influenced by coordinated interactions between brain circuits that regulate reinforcement and homeostatic signals that control metabolism. Glucose modulates striatal dopamine (DA) and regulates appetitive drive and reinforcement learning. Striatal DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) also regulate reinforcement learning and are implicated in glucose-related metabolic disorders. Nevertheless, interactions between striatal D2R and peripheral glucose have not been previously described. Here we show that manipulations involving striatal D2R signaling coincide with perseverative and impulsive-like responding for sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of fructose and glucose...
November 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564549/the-role-of-science-in-addressing-the-opioid-crisis
#11
Nora D Volkow, Francis S Collins
Opioid misuse and addiction is an ongoing and rapidly evolving public health crisis, requiring innovative scientific solutions. In response, and because no existing medication is ideal for every patient, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is joining with private partners to launch an..
July 27, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534658/dynamic-brain-glucose-metabolism-identifies-anti-correlated-cortical-cerebellar-networks-at-rest
#12
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Corinde E Wiers, Sunny W Kim, Şukru B Demiral, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531257/lack-of-evidence-for-benefit-from-long-term-use-of-opioid-analgesics-for-patients-with-neuropathy
#13
Nora D Volkow, Walter Koroshetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466758/the-glymphatic-pathway
#14
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Nora D Volkow
The overall premise of this review is that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported within a dedicated peri-vascular network facilitating metabolic waste clearance from the central nervous system while we sleep. The anatomical profile of the network is complex and has been defined as a peri-arterial CSF influx pathway and peri-venous clearance routes, which are functionally coupled by interstitial bulk flow supported by astrocytic aquaporin 4 water channels. The role of the newly discovered system in the brain is equivalent to the lymphatic system present in other body organs and has been termed the "glymphatic pathway" or "(g)lymphatics" because of its dependence on glial cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448515/chronic-cocaine-induces-hif-vegf-pathway-activation-along-with-angiogenesis-in-the-brain
#15
Wei Yin, Kevin Clare, Qiujia Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Congwu Du
Cocaine induces vasoconstriction in cerebral vessels, which with repeated use can result in transient ischemic attacks and cerebral strokes. However, the neuroadaptations that follow cocaine's vasoconstricting effects are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic cocaine exposure (2 and 4 weeks) on markers of vascular function and morphology in the rat brain. For this purpose we measured nitric oxide (NO) concentration in plasma, brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1), HIF-1α, and VEGF expression in different brain regions, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445570/medical-marijuana-laws-and-cannabis-use-intersections-of-health-and-policy
#16
Wilson M Compton, Nora D Volkow, Marsha F Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418460/marijuana-use-during-stages-of-pregnancy-in-the-united-states
#17
Nora D Volkow, Beth Han, Wilson M Compton, Carlos Blanco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#18
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 [major alleles: L- (eight repeats) and H- (nine repeats)] on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289715/cerebrovascular-adaptations-to-cocaine-induced-transient-ischemic-attacks-in-the-rodent-brain
#20
Jiang You, Nora D Volkow, Kicheon Park, Qiujia Zhang, Kevin Clare, Congwu Du, Yingtian Pan
Occurrence of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and cerebral strokes is a recognized risk associated with cocaine abuse. Here, we use a rodent model along with optical imaging to study cocaine-induced TIA and the associated dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and cerebrovasculature. We show that chronic cocaine exposure in mice resulted in marked cortical hypoperfusion, in significant arterial and venous vasoconstriction, and in a sensitized vascular response to an acute cocaine injection...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
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