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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#1
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643800/striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-varies-across-smoking-status
#2
Corinde E Wiers, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Şükrü B Demiral, Sung Won Kim, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
To assess how tobacco smoking status affects baseline dopamine D2/D3 (D2R) receptor availability and methylphenidate-induced dopamine (DA) release, we retrospectively analyzed D2R availability measures of 8 current smokers, 10 ex-smokers, and 18 nonsmokers who were scanned with positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride, after administration of an injection of placebo or 0.5 mg/kg i.v. methylphenidate. There was a significant effect of smoking status on baseline striatal D2R availability; with current smokers showing lower striatal D2R availability compared with nonsmokers (caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum) and with ex-smokers (caudate and putamen)...
November 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580946/dopamine-d2-receptor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-comprises-a-metabolic-cognitive-brain-interface-regulating-metabolic-components-of-glucose-reinforcement
#3
Michael Michaelides, Michael L Miller, Jennifer A DiNieri, Juan L Gomez, Elizabeth Schwartz, Gabor Egervari, Gene Jack Wang, Charles V Mobbs, Nora D Volkow, Yasmin L Hurd
Appetitive drive is influenced by coordinated interactions between brain circuits that regulate reinforcement and homeostatic signals that control metabolism. Glucose modulates striatal dopamine (DA) and regulates appetitive drive and reinforcement learning. Striatal DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) also regulate reinforcement learning and are implicated in glucose-related metabolic disorders. Nevertheless, interactions between striatal D2R and peripheral glucose have not been previously described. Here we show that manipulations involving striatal D2R signaling coincide with perseverative and impulsive-like responding for sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of fructose and glucose...
November 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564549/the-role-of-science-in-addressing-the-opioid-crisis
#4
Nora D Volkow, Francis S Collins
Opioid misuse and addiction is an ongoing and rapidly evolving public health crisis, requiring innovative scientific solutions. In response, and because no existing medication is ideal for every patient, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is joining with private partners to launch an..
July 27, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534658/dynamic-brain-glucose-metabolism-identifies-anti-correlated-cortical-cerebellar-networks-at-rest
#5
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Corinde E Wiers, Sunny W Kim, Şukru B Demiral, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531257/lack-of-evidence-for-benefit-from-long-term-use-of-opioid-analgesics-for-patients-with-neuropathy
#6
Nora D Volkow, Walter Koroshetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466758/the-glymphatic-pathway
#7
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Nora D Volkow
The overall premise of this review is that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported within a dedicated peri-vascular network facilitating metabolic waste clearance from the central nervous system while we sleep. The anatomical profile of the network is complex and has been defined as a peri-arterial CSF influx pathway and peri-venous clearance routes, which are functionally coupled by interstitial bulk flow supported by astrocytic aquaporin 4 water channels. The role of the newly discovered system in the brain is equivalent to the lymphatic system present in other body organs and has been termed the "glymphatic pathway" or "(g)lymphatics" because of its dependence on glial cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448515/chronic-cocaine-induces-hif-vegf-pathway-activation-along-with-angiogenesis-in-the-brain
#8
Wei Yin, Kevin Clare, Qiujia Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Congwu Du
Cocaine induces vasoconstriction in cerebral vessels, which with repeated use can result in transient ischemic attacks and cerebral strokes. However, the neuroadaptations that follow cocaine's vasoconstricting effects are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic cocaine exposure (2 and 4 weeks) on markers of vascular function and morphology in the rat brain. For this purpose we measured nitric oxide (NO) concentration in plasma, brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1), HIF-1α, and VEGF expression in different brain regions, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445570/medical-marijuana-laws-and-cannabis-use-intersections-of-health-and-policy
#9
Wilson M Compton, Nora D Volkow, Marsha F Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418460/marijuana-use-during-stages-of-pregnancy-in-the-united-states
#10
Nora D Volkow, Beth Han, Wilson M Compton, Carlos Blanco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#11
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 [major alleles: L- (eight repeats) and H- (nine repeats)] on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289715/cerebrovascular-adaptations-to-cocaine-induced-transient-ischemic-attacks-in-the-rodent-brain
#13
Jiang You, Nora D Volkow, Kicheon Park, Qiujia Zhang, Kevin Clare, Congwu Du, Yingtian Pan
Occurrence of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and cerebral strokes is a recognized risk associated with cocaine abuse. Here, we use a rodent model along with optical imaging to study cocaine-induced TIA and the associated dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and cerebrovasculature. We show that chronic cocaine exposure in mice resulted in marked cortical hypoperfusion, in significant arterial and venous vasoconstriction, and in a sensitized vascular response to an acute cocaine injection...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261049/brain-network-dynamics-adhere-to-a-power-law
#14
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Nora D Volkow
The temporal dynamics of complex networks such as the Internet are characterized by a power scaling between the temporal mean and dispersion of signals at each network node. Here we tested the hypothesis that the temporal dynamics of the brain networks are characterized by a similar power law. This realization could be useful to assess the effects of randomness and external modulators on the brain network dynamics. Simulated data using a well-stablished random diffusion model allowed us to predict that the temporal dispersion of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and that of the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) scale with their temporal means...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178354/correction-chronic-methamphetamine-effects-on-brain-structure-and-function-in-rats
#15
Panayotis K Thanos, Ronald Kim, Foteini Delis, Mala Ananth, George Chachati, Mark J Rocco, Ihssan Masad, Jose A Muniz, Samuel C Grant, Mark S Gold, Jean Lud Cadet, Nora D Volkow
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155457.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112677/seeing-how-we-smell
#16
Helene Benveniste, Yuri Lazebnik, Nora D Volkow
PET allows noninvasive imaging of a variety of events in the body, including the activity of neuronal circuits in the brain that are involved in cognition and behaviors, by using radiotracers that detect relevant biological reactions. A major impediment to expanding PET applications to study the brain has been the lack of radiotracers that can identify and measure specific types of neurons or glial cells. In this issue of the JCI, Van de Bittner and colleagues describe a promising step toward solving this problem by identifying and describing a radiotracer, [11C]GV1-57, that appears to specifically label olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are essential for olfaction (Figure 1)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#17
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993694/effects-of-chronic-methamphetamine-on-psychomotor-and-cognitive-functions-and-dopamine-signaling-in-the-brain
#18
Panayotis K Thanos, Ronald Kim, Foteini Delis, Mark J Rocco, Jacob Cho, Nora D Volkow
Methamphetamine (MA) studies in animals usually involve acute, binge, or short-term exposure to the drug. However, addicts take substantial amounts of MA for extended periods of time. Here we wished to study the effects of MA exposure on brain and behavior, using an animal model analogous to this pattern of MA intake. MA doses, 4 and 8mg/kg/day, were based on previously reported average daily freely available MA self-administration levels. We examined the effects of 16 week MA treatment on psychomotor and cognitive function in the rat using open field and novel object recognition tests and we studied the adaptations of the dopaminergic system, using in vitro and in vivo receptor imaging...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992628/the-risks-of-marijuana-use-during-pregnancy
#19
Nora D Volkow, Wilson M Compton, Eric M Wargo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959513/expression-of-hdac2-but-not-hdac1-transcript-is-reduced-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Frederick A Schroeder, Tonya M Gilbert, Ningping Feng, Brendan D Taillon, Nora D Volkow, Robert B Innis, Jacob M Hooker, Barbara K Lipska
Postmortem brain studies support dysregulated expression of the histone deacetylase enzymes, HDAC1 and HDAC2, as a central feature in diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Our objective was to investigate HDAC expression in a large postmortem sample set representing healthy and disease brains. We used >700 well-characterized samples from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 175), major depressive disorder (n = 135), and bipolar disorder (n = 61) to measure HDAC1 and HDAC2 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and caudate compared to control samples...
March 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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