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Nora volkow

Keren Bachi, Salvador Sierra, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Phil Skolnick, Nora D Volkow
Limited options for treating moderate-severe pain led to an overreliance on opioids and the current opioid epidemic. Addressing the factors contributing to a dearth of effective alternatives and re-energizing the development of pain therapeutics is necessary to quell this epidemic.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Nora D Volkow, Aidan J Hampson, Ruben Baler
Cannabis enables and enhances the subjective sense of well-being by stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a key role in modulating the response to stress, reward, and their interactions. However, over time, repeated activation of the ECS by cannabis can trigger neuroadaptations that may impair the sensitivity to stress and reward. This effect, in vulnerable individuals, can lead to addiction and other adverse consequences. The recent shift toward legalization of medical or recreational cannabis has renewed interest in investigating the physiological role of the ECS as well as the potential health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of cannabis...
September 2, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Wei Chen, Kicheon Park, Nora Volkow, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Simultaneous imaging of cerebral hemodynamic changes in response to functional activation during drug intoxication provides a valuable strategy to assess cocaine induced neurovascular dysfunction. However, this requires tools with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution and adequate signal to noise ratio (SNR). Though several technologies have been developed to address this demand during functional brain activation, their spatiotemporal resolution has been compromised to preserve SNR. In this study, we combine spatiotemporal-domain laser speckle contrast analysis and image correlation techniques to integrate multi-wavelength spectroimaging and laser speckle contrast imaging (MW-LSCI)...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Nora D Volkow
Unaccounted temporal dynamics of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics challenges their potential as biomarkers for clinical applications in neuroscience. Here we studied the scan time required to reach stable values for various FC metrics including seed-voxel correlations and spatial independent component analyses (sICA), and for the local functional connectivity density (lFCD), a graph theory metric. By increasing the number of time points included in the analysis, we assessed the effects of scan time on convergence of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and reliability of these FC metrics...
August 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
George F Koob, Nora D Volkow
Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Wilson M Compton, Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Eugenia M Socías, Nora Volkow, Evan Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2016: Addiction
Panayotis K Thanos, Ronald Kim, Foteini Delis, Mala Ananth, George Chachati, Mark J Rocco, Ihssan Masad, Jose A Muniz, Samuel C Grant, Mark S Gold, Jean Lud Cadet, Nora D Volkow
Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment...
2016: PloS One
Aurelie Roux, Shelley N Jackson, Ludovic Muller, Damon Barbacci, Joseph O'Rourke, Panayotis K Thanos, Nora D Volkow, Carey Balaban, J Albert Schultz, Amina S Woods
Alcohol abuse is a chronic disease characterized by the consumption of alcohol at a level that interferes with physical and mental health and causes serious and persistent changes in the brain. Lipid metabolism is of particular interest due to its high concentration in the brain. Lipids are the main component of cell membranes, are involved in cell signaling, signal transduction, and energy storage. In this study, we analyzed lipid composition of chronically ethanol exposed mouse brains. Juvenile (JUV) and adult (ADU) mice were placed on a daily limited-access ethanol intake model for 52 days...
August 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Elizabeth A Cabrera, Corinde E Wiers, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Christopher T Wong, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Şükrü B Demiral, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
The extent to which cannabis is deleterious to the human brain is not well understood. Here, we test whether cannabis abusers (CA) have impaired frontal function and reactivity to dopaminergic signaling, which are fundamental to relapse in addiction. We measured brain glucose metabolism using PET and [(18)F]FDG both at baseline (placebo) and after challenge with methylphenidate (MP), a dopamine-enhancing drug, in 24 active CA (50% female) and 24 controls (HC; 50% female). Results show that (i) CA had lower baseline glucose metabolism than HC in frontal cortex including anterior cingulate, which was associated with negative emotionality...
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nora D Volkow, A Thomas McLellan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Panayotis K Thanos, John Hamilton, Joseph R O'Rourke, Anthony Napoli, Marcelo Febo, Nora D Volkow, Kenneth Blum, Mark Gold
Aging produces cellular, molecular, and behavioral changes affecting many areas of the brain. The dopamine (DA) system is known to be vulnerable to the effects of aging, which regulate behavioral functions such as locomotor activity, body weight, and reward and cognition. In particular, age-related DA D2 receptor (D2R) changes have been of particular interest given its relationship with addiction and other rewarding behavioral properties. Male and female wild-type (Drd2 +/+), heterozygous (Drd2 +/-) and knockout (Drd2 -/-) mice were reared post-weaning in either an enriched environment (EE) or a deprived environment (DE)...
April 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Panayotis K Thanos, Lauren Malave, Foteini Delis, Paul Mangine, Katie Kane, Adam Grunseich, Melissa Vitale, Paul Greengard, Nora D Volkow
Cocaine's enhancement of dopamine signaling is crucial for its rewarding effects but its serotonergic effects are also relevant. Here we examined the role of the protein p11, which recruits serotonin 5HT1B and 5HT4 receptors to the cell surface, in cocaine reward. For this purpose we tested wild-type (WT) and p11 knockout (KO) male and female mice for cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) and its cocaine-induced reinstatement at different abstinence times, after 8 days of extinction and 28 days of being home-caged...
July 2016: Synapse
Annabelle M Belcher, Cecil Chern-Chyi Yen, Lucia Notardonato, Thomas J Ross, Nora D Volkow, Yihong Yang, Elliot A Stein, Afonso C Silva, Dardo Tomasi
In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or "hubs", and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD) mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here, we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains FC hubs...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Qiujia Zhang, Jiang You, Nora D Volkow, Jeonghun Choi, Wei Yin, Wei Wang, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Cocaine abuse can lead to cerebral strokes and hemorrhages secondary to cocaine's cerebrovascular effects, which are poorly understood. We assessed cocaine's effects on cerebrovascular anatomy and function in the somatosensory cortex of the rat's brain. Optical coherence tomography was used for in vivo imaging of three-dimensional cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks and to quantify CBF velocities (CBFv), and multiwavelength laser-speckle-imaging was used to simultaneously measure changes in CBFv, oxygenated (Δ[HbO2] ) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HbR] ) concentrations prior to and after an acute cocaine challenge in chronically cocaine exposed rats...
February 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Nora D Volkow, James M Swanson, A Eden Evins, Lynn E DeLisi, Madeline H Meier, Raul Gonzalez, Michael A P Bloomfield, H Valerie Curran, Ruben Baler
With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country...
March 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
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