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Toxic exposure

Rada M Savic, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Nan Zhang, Moses Were, Abel Kakuru, Mary K Muhindo, Norah Mwebaza, Erika Wallender, Tamara D Clark, Bishop Opira, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Francesca T Aweeka
Background: Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. Methods: HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Nick Zwart, Shan Li Nio, Corine J Houtman, Jacob De Boer, Jeroen Kool, Timo Hamers, Marja H Lamoree
Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) is a commonly used approach for effect-based identification of endocrine disruptive chemicals in complex (environmental) mixtures. For routine toxicity assessment of e.g. water samples however, current EDA approaches are considered time consuming and laborious. We achieved faster EDA and identification, by downscaling of sensitive cell-based hormone reporter gene assays and increasing fractionation resolution to allow testing of smaller fractions with reduced complexity. The high-resolution EDA approach is demonstrated by analysis of four environmental passive sampler extracts...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
B Velmurugan, P Senthilkumaar, S Karthikeyan
The use of pesticides in agriculture can make their way into the earth and wash into the amphibian system causing ecological stress. This study aims to understand the changes occurring in gill tissues as a result of fenvalerate exposure using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of the selected bands I1545 /I1657, I2924 /I2853 , and I1045 /I1545 measures changes in proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Curve-fitting analysis was performed in the selected band region to analyze the quantitative changes of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
Thomas Tängdén, Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Jason A Roberts, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir is used as oral prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant recipients. However, limited pharmacokinetic data exist to guide dosing in this patient group. This study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients and predict optimal dosing based on Monte Carlo simulations. METHODS: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data from adult kidney transplant recipients who received valganciclovir prophylaxis during a 10-year study period were collected retrospectively...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Beatriz V R Pereira, Gregorio Nolazco Matus, Monica Jones Costa, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Janaina Braga do Carmo, Bruno Nunes
Over time, many pollutants of anthropogenic origin have caused the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Among several characteristics, these compounds can reach the trophic chain, causing deleterious interactions with the biota. Pharmaceutical substances can be included in this scenario as emerging contaminants that reach the aquatic environment because of direct human and veterinary usage, and release by industrial effluents, as well as through domestic dumping of surplus drugs. The effects of these compounds on exposed organisms have been studied since the 1990s, but ecotoxicological data for such chemicals are still scarce especially concerning aquatic organisms from tropical regions...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Seoh Wei Teh, Ranjith Kumar Rajendran, Narayanan Kannan, Chu-Ching Lin, Rozaini Abdullah, Suresh Kumar
Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Katarzyna Morawska, Françoise Goirand, Laurine Marceau, Madeline Devaux, Adèle Cueff, Aurélie Bertaut, Julie Vincent, Leila Bengrine-Lefevre, François Ghiringhelli, Antonin Schmitt
Aims: 5-FU is used as the main backbone of chemotherapy regimens for patients with colorectal and other gastrointestinal cancers. Despite development of new strategies that allowed enhancing clinical effectiveness and tolerability of 5-FU, 10-30% of patients treated with 5-FU-based regimens experience severe treatment-related toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the 5-FU exposure-toxicity relationship and investigated the efficacy of PK-guided dosing in increasing tolerability of 5-FU-based chemotherapy...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Todd A Miano, Ebbing Lautenbach, F Perry Wilson, Wensheng Guo, Yuliya Borovskiy, Sean Hennessy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite colistin's longstanding reported association with nephrotoxicity, the attributable risk and timing of toxicity onset are still unknown. Whether substantial toxicity occurs during the initial 72 hours of exposure has important implications for early treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to compare colistin-exposed patients with a matched control group given other broad spectrum antibiotics. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in patients treated for multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas , Klebsiella , or Acinetobacter spp...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Marguerite M Nyhan, Brent A Coull, Annelise J Blomberg, Carol L Z Vieira, Eric Garshick, Abdulaziz Aba, Pantel Vokonas, Diane R Gold, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effects of low-level environmental radiation exposures are poorly understood. Although particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and elevated blood pressure (BP), the properties promoting its toxicity remain uncertain. Addressing a knowledge gap, we evaluated whether BP increased with higher exposures to radioactive components of ambient PM, herein referred to as particle radioactivity (PR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a repeated-measures analysis of 852 men to examine associations between PR exposure and BP using mixed-effects regression models...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lilian Cristina Pereira, Murilo Pazin, Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Airton da Cunha Martins, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Márcio Cesar Pereira, João Paulo Mesquita, Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues, Fernando Barbosa, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Aubrey L Galusha, Pamela C Kruger, Lyn J Howard, Patrick J Parsons
Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are exposed to potentially toxic elements, which may accumulate in bone. Bone samples collected from seven PN patients (average = 14 years) and eighteen hip/knee samples were analyzed for Al as part of a previous investigation. Yttrium was serendipitously detected in the PN bone samples, leading to the present investigation of rare earth elements (REEs). A method for quantitating fifteen REEs in digested bone was developed based on tandem ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) to resolve spectral interferences...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Shazia Imran, Maryam Shan, Shazia Muazam
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Shisha smoke on submucosal glands of trachea of mice; and compare it with tracheal glands of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Anatomy, Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad from October 2013 till April 2014. METHODOLOGY: Sample comprised of 40 adult male mice of strain BALB/c...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Anikó Maráz, Adrienn Cserháti, Gabriella Uhercsák, Éva Szilágyi, Zoltán Varga, János Révész, Renáta Kószó, Linda Varga, Zsuzsanna Kahán
BACKGROUND: In patients with metastatic renal cell cancer, based on limited evidence, increased sunitinib exposure is associated with better outcome. The survival and toxicity data of patients receiving individualized dose escalated sunitinib therapy as compared to standard management were analyzed in this study. METHODS: From July 2013, the data of metastatic renal cell cancer patients with slight progression but still a stable disease according to RECIST 1.1 criteria treated with an escalated dose of sunitinib (first level: 62...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Donna L Seger, Justin K Loden
CONTEXT: Following clonidine ingestion, naloxone is seldom administered as it is considered ineffective in reversing somnolence, bradycardia, or hypotension. However, this conclusion has been based on administration of small doses (2 mg or less) of naloxone. The somnolence is frequently treated with endotracheal intubation (ETI), a procedure with significant morbidity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine if naloxone administration reversed the effects of clonidine or caused any adverse effects...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Adrienne J Bartlett, Amanda M Hedges, Kyna D Intini, Lisa R Brown, France J Maisonneuve, Stacey A Robinson, Patricia L Gillis, Shane R de Solla
Neonicotinoid insecticides are environmentally persistent and highly water-soluble, and thus are prone to leaching into surface waters where they may negatively affect non-target aquatic insects. Most of the research to date has focused on imidacloprid, and few data are available regarding the effects of other neonicotinoids or their proposed replacements (butenolide insecticides). The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of six neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran) and one butenolide (flupyradifurone) to Hexagenia spp...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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