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Nanoparticles and molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822291/highly-absorbing-multispectral-near-infrared-polymer-nanoparticles-from-one-conjugated-backbone-for-photoacoustic-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy
#1
Haobin Chen, Jian Zhang, Kaiwen Chang, Xiaoju Men, Xiaofeng Fang, Libo Zhou, Dongliang Li, Duyang Gao, Shengyan Yin, Xuanjun Zhang, Zhen Yuan, Changfeng Wu
Semiconducting polymers with specific absorption are useful in various applications, including organic optoelectronics, optical imaging, and nanomedicine. However, the optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer with a determined structure is hardly tunable when compared with that of inorganic semiconductors. In this work, we show that the optical absorption of polymer nanoparticles from one conjugated backbone can be effectively tuned through judicious design of the particle morphology and the persistence length of polymers...
August 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819800/nanotechnology-from-in-vivo-imaging-system-to-controlled-drug-delivery
#2
REVIEW
Maria Mir, Saba Ishtiaq, Samreen Rabia, Maryam Khatoon, Ahmad Zeb, Gul Majid Khan, Asim Ur Rehman, Fakhar Ud Din
Science and technology have always been the vitals of human's struggle, utilized exclusively for the development of novel tools and products, ranging from micro- to nanosize. Nanotechnology has gained significant attention due to its extensive applications in biomedicine, particularly related to bio imaging and drug delivery. Various nanodevices and nanomaterials have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment of different diseases. Herein, we have described two primary aspects of the nanomedicine, i.e...
August 17, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819456/therapeutic-effect-of-astroglia-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-glutamate-transporter-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#3
Amit Shwartz, Oshra Betzer, Noam Kronfeld, Gila Kazimirsky, Simona Cazacu, Susan Finniss, Hae Kyung Lee, Menachem Motiei, Shani Yael Dagan, Rachela Popovtzer, Chaya Brodie, Gal Yadid
Recent studies have proposed that abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and glial pathology play an important role in the etiology and manifestation of depression. It was postulated that restoration of normal glutamatergic transmission, by enhancing glutamate uptake, may have a beneficial effect on depression. We examined this hypothesis using unique human glial-like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which in addition to inherent properties of migration to regions of injury and secretion of neurotrophic factors, were differentiated to express high levels of functional glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters; EAAT)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817259/sub-20-nm-stable-micelles-based-on-a-mixture-of-coiled-coils-a-platform-for-controlled-ligand-presentation
#4
JooChuan Ang, Dan Ma, Benson Thomas Jung, Sinan Keten, Ting Xu
Ligand-functionalized, multivalent nanoparticles have been extensively studied for biomedical applications from imaging agents to drug delivery vehicles. However, the ligand cluster size is usually heterogeneous and the local valency is ill-defined. Here, we present a mixed micelle platform hierarchically self-assembled from a mixture of two amphiphilic 3-helix and 4-helix peptide-PEG-lipid hybrid conjugates. We demonstrate that the local multivalent ligand cluster size on the micelle surface can be controlled based on the coiled-coil oligomeric state...
August 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815766/preparation-of-robust-metal-free-magnetic-nanoemulsions-encapsulating-low-molecular-weight-nitroxide-radicals-and-hydrophobic-drugs-directed-toward-mri-visible-targeted-delivery
#5
Rui Tamura, Kota Nagura, Yusa Takemoto, Satori Moronaga, Yoshiaki Uchida, Satoshi Shimono, Akihiko Shiino, Kenji Tanigaki, Tsukuru Amano, Fumi Yoshino, Yohei Noda, Satoshi Koizumi, Naoki Komatsu, Tatsuhisa Kato, Jun Yamauchi
With a view to developing a theranostic nanomedicine for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-visible targeted drug delivery system, robust metal-free magnetic nanoemulsions (mean particle sizes of less than 20 nm) consisting of the biocompatible surfactant 1 and the incorporated hydrophobic low-molecular-weight 2,2,5-trimethyl-5-(4-alkoxy)phenylpyrrolidine-N-oxyl radicals [(±)-2] have been prepared in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline. The structure of the nanoemulsions has been characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering measurements...
August 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809545/plasmonic-nanoprobe-of-gold-triangular-nanoprism-core-polyaniline-shell-for-real-time-three-dimensional-ph-imaging-of-anterior-chamber
#6
Peijun Tang, Xueqin Jiang, Yangyang Wang, Huanjun Chen, Yu Shrike Zhang, Panpan Gao, Hao Wang, Xuemeng Li, Jianhua Zhou
Three-dimensional (3D) molecular imaging enables the study of biological processes in both living and nonviable systems at the molecular level and has a high potential on early diagnosis. In conjunction with specific molecular probes, optical coherent tomography (OCT) is a promising imaging modality to provide 3D molecular features at the tissue level. In this study, we introduced (gold-triangular-nanoprism-core)/(polyaniline-shell nanoparticles) (GTNPs@PANI) as an OCT contrast agent and pH-responsive nanoprobe for 3D imaging of pH distribution...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799610/viral-nanoparticles-decorated-with-novel-egfl7-ligands-enable-intravital-imaging-of-tumor-neovasculature
#7
Choi-Fong Cho, Lihai Yu, Tienabe K Nsiama, Alisha N Kadam, Arun Raturi, Sourabh Shukla, Giulio A Amadei, Nicole F Steinmetz, Leonard G Luyt, John D Lewis
Angiogenesis is a dynamic process fundamental to the development of solid tumors. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) is a protein whose expression is restricted to endothelial cells undergoing active remodeling that has emerged as a key mediator of this process. EGFL7 expression is associated with poor outcome in several cancers, making it a promising target for imaging or therapeutic strategies. Here, EGFL7 is explored as a molecular target for active neovascularization. Using a combinatorial peptide screening approach, we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel high affinity EGFL7-binding peptide, E7p72, that specifically targets human endothelial cells...
August 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799330/imaging-dynamic-collision-and-oxidation-of-single-silver-nanoparticles-at-the-electrode-solution-interface
#8
Rui Hao, Yunshan Fan, Bo Zhang
The electrochemical interface is an ultrathin interfacial region between the electrode surface and the electrolyte solution and is often characterized by numerous dynamic processes, such as solvation and desolvation, heterogeneous electron transfer, molecular adsorption and desorption, diffusion, and surface rearrangement. Many of these processes are driven and modulated by the presence of a large interfacial potential gradient. The study and better understanding of the electrochemical interface is important for designing better electrochemical systems where their applications may include batteries, fuel cells, electrocatalytic water splitting, corrosion protection, and electroplating...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797972/recent-applications-of-plga-based-nanostructures-in-drug-delivery
#9
REVIEW
Maria Mir, Naveed Ahmed, Asim Ur Rehman
Over the years, issues associated with non-biodegradable polymers have paved the way for biodegradable polymers in the domain of pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is considered one of the most thrivingly synthesized biodegradable polymers. To formulate polymeric nanostructures, PLGA has attained noteworthy attention due to its controllable properties, complete biodegradability and biocompatibility, well defined formulation techniques and easy processing. This review focuses on fabrication techniques of PLGA based nanostructures and their advanced biomedical applications covering drug delivery and in-vivo imaging...
July 28, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790306/quantitative-diagnostic-imaging-of-cancer-tissues-by-using-phosphor-integrated-dots-with-ultra-high-brightness
#10
Kohsuke Gonda, Mika Watanabe, Hiroshi Tada, Minoru Miyashita, Yayoi Takahashi-Aoyama, Takashi Kamei, Takanori Ishida, Shin Usami, Hisashi Hirakawa, Yoichiro Kakugawa, Yohei Hamanaka, Ryuichi Yoshida, Akihiko Furuta, Hisatake Okada, Hideki Goda, Hiroshi Negishi, Kensaku Takanashi, Masaru Takahashi, Yuichi Ozaki, Yuka Yoshihara, Yasushi Nakano, Noriaki Ohuchi
The quantitative sensitivity and dynamic range of conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (IHC-DAB) used in pathological diagnosis in hospitals are poor, because enzyme activity can affect the IHC-DAB chromogenic reaction. Although fluorescent IHC can effectively increase the quantitative sensitivity of conventional IHC, tissue autofluorescence interferes with the sensitivity. Here, we created new fluorescent nanoparticles called phosphor-integrated dots (PIDs). PIDs have 100-fold greater brightness and a more than 300-fold greater dynamic range than those of commercially available fluorescent nanoparticles, quantum dots, whose fluorescence intensity is comparable to tissue autofluorescence...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783305/core-cross-linked-nanoparticles-reduce-neuroinflammation-and-improve-outcome-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Dasom Yoo, Alexander W Magsam, Abby M Kelly, Patrick S Stayton, Forrest M Kievit, Anthony J Convertine
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults, yet there are currently no treatments available that prevent the secondary spread of damage beyond the initial insult. The chronic progression of this secondary injury is in part caused by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into surrounding normal brain. Thus, treatments that can enter the brain and reduce the spread of ROS should improve outcome from TBI. Here a highly versatile, reproducible, and scalable method to synthesize core-cross-linked nanoparticles (NPs) from polysorbate 80 (PS80) using a combination of thiol-ene and thiol-Michael chemistry is described...
August 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783106/melanin-based-contrast-agents-for-biomedical-optoacoustic-imaging-and-theranostic-applications
#12
REVIEW
Dario Livio Longo, Rachele Stefania, Silvio Aime, Alexander Oraevsky
Optoacoustic imaging emerged in early 1990s as a new biomedical imaging technology that generates images by illuminating tissues with short laser pulses and detecting resulting ultrasound waves. This technique takes advantage of the spectroscopic approach to molecular imaging, and delivers high-resolution images in the depth of tissue. Resolution of the optoacoustic imaging is scalable, so that biomedical systems from cellular organelles to large organs can be visualized and, more importantly, characterized based on their optical absorption coefficient, which is proportional to the concentration of absorbing chromophores...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770914/nanoscale-steady-state-temperature-gradients-within-polymer-nanocomposites-undergoing-continuous-wave-photothermal-heating-from-gold-nanorods
#13
Somsubhra Maity, Wei-Chen Wu, Joseph B Tracy, Laura I Clarke, Jason R Bochinski
Anisotropically-shaped metal nanoparticles act as nanoscale heaters via excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance, utilizing a photothermal effect which converts the optical energy into local heat. Steady-state temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with gold nanorods undergoing photothermal heating using continuous-wave excitation are measured in the immediate spatial vicinity of the nanoparticle (referred to as the local temperature) from observing the rate of physical rotation of the asymmetric nanoparticles within the locally created polymer melt...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762730/dual-quantification-of-micrornas-and-telomerase-in-living-cells
#14
Wei Ma, Pan Fu, Maozhong Sun, Liguang Xu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
The development of a unique and universal strategy for the simultaneous quantification of different types of biomolecules (i.e., nucleic acids and proteins) in living cells is extremely challenging. Herein, a two-signal platform, based upon surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and upconversion (UC), for the ultrasensitive and quantitative in situ detection of microRNA (miR)-21 and telomerase in living cells is reported. In the presence of miR-21 and telomerase, the hybridization of miR-21 with a molecular beacon leads to the separation of 3...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761104/microfluidic-sorting-of-intrinsically-magnetic-cells-under-visual-control
#15
Ahne Myklatun, Michele Cappetta, Michael Winklhofer, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Gil G Westmeyer
Magnetic cell sorting provides a valuable complementary mechanism to fluorescent techniques, especially if its parameters can be fine-tuned. In addition, there has recently been growing interest in studying naturally occurring magnetic cells and genetic engineering of cells to render them magnetic in order to control molecular processes via magnetic fields. For such approaches, contamination-free magnetic separation is an essential capability. We here present a robust and tunable microfluidic sorting system in which magnetic gradients of up to 1700 T/m can be applied to cells flowing through a sorting channel by reversible magnetization of ferrofluids...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750536/magnetite-quantum-dot-immunoarray-for-plasmon-coupled-fluorescence-imaging-of-blood-insulin-and-glycated-hemoglobin
#16
Vini Singh, Rajasekhara Nerimetla, Ming Yang, Sadagopan Krishnan
New microarray chip strategies that are sensitive and selective and that can measure low levels of important biomarkers directly in a blood sample are significant for improving human health by allowing timely diagnosis of an abnormal condition. Herein, we designed an antibody-aptamer immunoarray chip to demonstrate simultaneous measurement of blood insulin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels relevant to diabetic and prediabetic disorders using a surface plasmon microarray with validation by fluorescence imaging...
July 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743635/molecular-imaging-in-drug-development-update-and-challenges-for-radiolabeled-antibodies-and-nanotechnology
#17
REVIEW
Ilaria Colombo, Marta Overchuk, Juan Chen, Raymond M Reilly, Gang Zheng, Stephanie Lheureux
Despite the significant advancement achieved in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for cancer transformation and aberrant proliferation, leading to novel targeted cancer therapies, significant effort is still needed to "personalize" cancer treatment. Molecular imaging is an emerging field that has shown the ability to characterize in vivo the molecular pathways present at the cancer cell level, enabling diagnosis and personalized treatment of malignancies. These technologies, particularly SPECT and PET also permit the development of novel radiotheranostic probes, which provide capabilities for diagnosis and treatment with the same agent...
July 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740274/direct-evidence-of-atomic-scale-structural-fluctuations-in-catalyst-nanoparticles
#18
Pin Ann Lin, Jose L Gomez-Ballesteros, Juan C Burgos, Perla B Balbuena, Bharath Natarajan, Renu Sharma
Rational catalyst design requires an atomic scale mechanistic understanding of the chemical pathways involved in the catalytic process. A heterogeneous catalyst typically works by adsorbing reactants onto its surface, where the energies for specific bonds to dissociate and/or combine with other species (to form desired intermediate or final products) are lower. Here, using the catalytic growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a prototype reaction, we show that the chemical pathway may in-fact involve the entire catalyst particle, and can proceed via the fluctuations in the formation and decomposition of metastable phases in the particle interior...
May 2017: Journal of Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738229/a-facile-one-step-method-for-cell-lysis-and-dna-extraction-of-waterborne-pathogens-using-a-microchip
#19
Vivek Kamat, Sulaxna Pandey, Kishore Paknikar, Dhananjay Bodas
Globally, waterborne organisms are the primary causative agents for the transmission of various forms of diarrheal diseases. For accurate diagnosis, molecular tools have gained considerable attention in the recent past. Molecular tools require DNA as the starting material for diagnosis, and hence, a prerequisite is the quality and integrity of DNA. To obtain high quality DNA rapidly, we have fabricated a microchip in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography process. The microchip facilitated in-flow coating of chitosan on the magnetic nanoparticles, which under external mechanical vibration caused cell lysis and released DNA in the supernatant...
July 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731107/a-fluorescent-turn-on-nanoprobe-for-simultaneous-visualization-of-dual-targets-involved-in-cell-apoptosis-and-drug-screening-in-living-cells
#20
Xiaolong Zhang, Naishun Liao, Geng Chen, Aixian Zheng, Yongyi Zeng, Xiaolong Liu, Jingfeng Liu
Herein, a novel dual-responsive two-color fluorescent nanoprobe has been designed for the fluorescence activation imaging of cell apoptosis in living cells. The nanoprobe consists of a gold nanoparticle core functionalized with a dense layer of DNA aptamers and peptides, which shows high affinity and specific response to cytochrome c (Cyt c) and caspase-3, respectively. The formation of the aptamer-Cyt c complex and the cleavage of the specific peptide by caspase-3 can liberate the dye labelled aptamers and peptides from the surface of gold nanoparticles, and then recover their fluorescence...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
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