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Nanoparticles and molecular imaging

Blanca Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, João Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted much attention because of their particular physico-chemical properties, including superparamagnetism. These features make them suitable for many purposes and several interesting biomedical applications, such as to increase contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as drug delivery systems and as hyperthermia agents. However, they have also shown to be easily accumulated in diverse tissues and induce toxicity at different levels. This chapter reviews the different cellular and molecular effects induced by ION reported from in vitro studies with human and non-human cell lines...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yubin Li, Dianwen Ju
In the past decades, nanoparticles have been widely used in industry and pharmaceutical fields for drug delivery, anti-pathogen, and diagnostic imaging purposes because of their unique physicochemical characteristics such as special ultrastructure, dispersity, and effective cellular uptake properties. But the nanotoxicity has been raised over the extensive applications of nanoparticles. Researchers have elucidated series of mechanisms in nanoparticles-induced toxicity, including apoptosis, necrosis, oxidative stress, and autophagy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Seung-Jun Lee, Hee-Jin Kim, Yong-Min Huh, Il Won Kim, Jae Hyun Jeong, Jin-Chul Kim, Jong-Duk Kim
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are actively used as highly sensitive imaging probes to provide contrast in MRI. In this study, we propose the use of SPIONs encapsulated with antibody-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as a potent theragnostic agent. The SPIONs were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method of ferric and ferrous ions, and subsequently encapsulated with PLGA by using an emulsification-diffusion method. Herceptin was chemically conjugated to the SPION-encapsulating PLGA nanoparticles to target the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/neu) overexpressing breast cancers...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yuling Tong, Xitong Huang, Mi Lu, Bo-Yang Yu, Jiangwei Tian
The development of well-designed nanoprobes for specific imaging of multiple biomarkers in renal cells will afford beneficial information related to the transmutation process of drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI). However, the most reported nanoprobes for DIKI detection were dependent on single-signal output and lack of kidney targeting. In this work, we reported a renal cell targeting and dual-signal nanoprobe by encapsulating Brite 670 and Dabcyl-KFFFDEVDK-FAM into low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticle...
February 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
M W Mabila, V S R Rajasekhar Pullabhotla
We report the synthesis of high quality tin sulphide nanoparticles from tetrathiourea tin(II) chloride complex as a single molecular precursor. Thiourea ligand was used in the preparation of the complex due to its low toxicity and thermal stability. The reaction conditions were changed (reaction time, reaction temperature and nature of surfactant) to obtain high quality SnS nanoparticles that varied in morphology and size. The metal to sulphur ratio (Sn:S::1:1) and purity were confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Tuğba Köker, Nathalie Tang, Chao Tian, Wei Zhang, Xueding Wang, Richard Martel, Fabien Pinaud
The in cellulo assembly of plasmonic nanomaterials into photo-responsive probes is of great interest for many bioimaging and nanophotonic applications but remains challenging with traditional nucleic acid scaffolds-based bottom-up methods. Here, we address this quandary using split-fluorescent protein (FP) fragments as molecular glue and switchable Raman reporters to assemble gold or silver plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) into photonic clusters directly in live cells. When targeted to diffusing surface biomarkers in cancer cells, the NPs self-assemble into surface-enhanced Raman-scattering (SERS) nanoclusters having hot spots homogenously seeded by the reconstruction of full-length FPs...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
LeiLei Zhu, HongYun Zhao, ZhiYi Zhou, YongHong Xia, Zhigang Wang, Haitao Ran, Pan Li, JianLi Ren
In this study, we successfully developed a novel tumor homing-penetrating peptide - functionalized drug-loaded phase-transformation nanoparticles (tLyP-1-10-HCPT-PFP NPs) combining LIFU for tumor ultrasound molecular imaging and precise therapy. With the nanoscale particle size, tLyP-1-10-HCPT-PFP NPs could pass through the tumor vascular endothelial cell gap. Induced by tLyP-1 peptide with targeting and penetrating efficiency, tLyP-1-10-HCPT-PFP NPs could increase tumor accumulation and penetrate deeply into the extravascular tumor tissue, which penetrating through extracellular matrix, cellular membrane to cytoplasm even into cell nucleus...
February 8, 2018: Nano Letters
Alyona Sukhanova, Svetlana Bozrova, Pavel Sokolov, Mikhail Berestovoy, Alexander Karaulov, Igor Nabiev
Studies on the methods of nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, analysis of their characteristics, and exploration of new fields of their applications are at the forefront of modern nanotechnology. The possibility of engineering water-soluble NPs has paved the way to their use in various basic and applied biomedical researches. At present, NPs are used in diagnosis for imaging of numerous molecular markers of genetic and autoimmune diseases, malignant tumors, and many other disorders. NPs are also used for targeted delivery of drugs to tissues and organs, with controllable parameters of drug release and accumulation...
February 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Tianyu Zheng, Yuen Yee Li Sip, Michael B Leong, Qun Huo
Ribostamycin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic with a molecular weight of 454.5 g/mol. Under neutral pH conditions, ribostamycin is highly positive charged because it carries multiple amino groups in its structure. Negatively charged citrate ligand capped-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been studied extensively for their interactions with a wide range of biomolecules including proteins, carbohydrates, and small drug compounds. These studies are aimed at developing new therapeutics and diagnostics by exploiting the unique properties of gold nanoparticles...
January 29, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Rongsheng Cai, Peter R Ellis, Jinlong Yin, Jian Liu, Christopher M Brown, Ross Griffin, Guojing Chang, Dongjiang Yang, Jun Ren, Kevin Cooke, Peter T Bishop, Wolfgang Theis, Richard E Palmer
The deposition of preformed nanocluster beams onto suitable supports represents a new paradigm for the precise preparation of heterogeneous catalysts. The performance of the new materials must be validated in model catalytic reactions. It is shown that gold/copper (Au/Cu) nanoalloy clusters (nanoparticles) of variable composition, created by sputtering and gas phase condensation before deposition onto magnesium oxide powders, are highly active for the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol in solution at room temperature...
February 7, 2018: Small
Jie Liu, Xiaolei Cai, Han-Chi Pan, Aishwarya Bandla, Chan Kim Chuan, Shaowei Wang, Nitish Thakor, Lun-De Liao, Bin Liu
As conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) have attracted growing interest as photoacoustic (PA) imaging contrast agents, revelation of the relationship between the molecular structure of conjugated polymers and PA property is highly in demand. Here, three donor-acceptor-structured conjugated polymer analogs are designed, where only a single heteroatom of acceptor units changes from oxygen to sulfur to selenium, allowing for systematic investigation of the molecular structure-PA property relationship. The absorption and PA spectra of these CPNs can be facilely tuned by changing the heteroatoms of the acceptor units...
February 7, 2018: Small
Monika Golda-Cepa, Paulina Chytrosz, Aleksandra Chorylek, Andrzej Kotarba
A facile one-step sonochemical method was employed for the first time for gentamicin nanoparticles (GNPs) fabrication and embedding into the surface of parylene C implant coating. The developed system was thoroughly characterized in terms of particle size (NTA, STEM/EDX), surface dispersion (IR-image) and drug release kinetics (UV-Vis). It was revealed that the optimization of the applied ultrasound conditions resulted in the formation of GNPs with an average size in the narrow range of 30-70 nm and their docking into the parylene C nanopores, while the molecular structure of the antibiotic was preserved as confirmed by the FTIR spectra...
January 30, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Chan Yang, Xia Yin, Shuang-Yan Huan, Lanlan Chen, Xiao-Xiao Hu, Mengyi Xiong, Kun Chen, Xiao-Bing Zhang
RNA-cleaving DNAzymes have been demonstrated as a promising platform for sensing metal ions. However, the poor biological imaging performance of RNA cleaving DNAzyme-based fluorescent probes has limited their intracellular applications. Compared with traditional one photon fluorescence imaging, two photon (TP) fluorescent probes have shown advantages such as increased penetration depth, lower tissue autofluorescence, and reduced photo damage. Herein, for the first time, we developed a RNA-cleaving DNAzyme-based TP imaging probe (TP-8-17ES-AuNP) for Zn2+ detection in living cells by modifying Zn2+-specific DNAzyme (8-17) with TP fluorophore (TP-8-17ES), and using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for intracellular delivery...
February 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lihong Qiao, Tingting Sun, Xiaohua Zheng, Min Zheng, Zhigang Xie
Targeting imaging to the desired site of action can increase the accuracy and effectiveness of diagnostic and treatment. In this work, a series of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were prepared by varying molar ratios of d-glucose (Glu) to l-aspartic acid (Asp). Their photophysical properties, morphologies and structures were investigated in detail. More important, the targeting ability was screened by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The results indicate that CDs prepared from the optimal molar ratio of Glu/Asp (7:3) exhibit the highest targeting ability on C6 glioma cells...
April 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ya-Xuan Zhu, Hao-Ran Jia, Guang-Yu Pan, Nathan W Ulrich, Zhan Chen, Fu-Gen Wu
Research on nanomedicines has rapidly progressed in the last few years. However, due to the limited size of nuclear pores (9-12 nm), the nuclear membrane remains a difficult barrier to many nucleus-targeting agents. Here, we report the development of a general platform to effectively deliver chemical compounds such as drug molecules or nanomaterials into cell nuclei. This platform consists of a polyamine unit polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain, and a photosensitizer rose bengal (RB), which can self-assemble into nanoparticles (denoted as PPR NPs)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gonca Bülbül, Akhtar Hayat, Fatima Mustafa, Silvana Andreescu
Functional nanomaterials with fluorescent or quenching abilities are important for the development of molecular probes for detection and studies of nucleic acids. Here, we describe a new class of molecular nanoprobes, the NanoCeracQ that uses nanoceria particles as a nanoquencher of fluorescent oligonucleotides for rapid and sensitive detection of DNA sequences and hybridization events. We show that nanoceria forms stable and reversible bionanoconjugates with oligonucleotides and can specifically recognize and detect DNA sequences in a single step...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashley E Augspurger, Xiaoxing Sun, Brian G Trewyn, Ning Fang, Anthony S Stender
To establish a new method for tracking the interaction of nanoparticles with chemical cleaving agents, we exploited the optical effects caused by attaching 5-10 nm gold nanoparticles with molecular linkers to large mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). At low levels of gold loading onto MSN, the optical spectra resemble colloidal suspensions of gold. As the gold is removed, by cleaving agents, the MSN revert to the optical spectra typical of bare silica. Time-lapse images of gold-capped MSN stationed in microchannels reveal that the rate of gold release is dependent on the concentration of the cleaving agent...
February 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Chang Soo Kim, Dominique Ingato, Petra Wilder-Smith, Zhongping Chen, Young Jik Kwon
A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance)...
2018: Nano Convergence
Meng Chen, Ling Zhang, Bo Yang, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang
Alkyne is unique, specific and biocompatible in the Raman-silent region of the cell, but there still remains a challenge to achieve ultrasensitive detection in living systems due to its weak Raman scattering. Herein, a terminal alkyne ((E)-2-[4-(ethynylbenzylidene)amino]ethane-1-thiol (EBAE)) with surface-enhanced Raman scattering is synthesized. The EBAE molecule possesses S- and C-termini, which can be directly bonded to gold nanoparticles and dopamine/silver by forming the Au-S chemical bond and the carbon-metal bond, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jitka Neburkova, Frantisek Sedlak, Jirina Zackova Suchanova, Libor Kostka, Pavel Sacha, Vladimír Šubr, Tomáš Etrych, Petr Simon, Jitka Barinkova, Robin Krystufek, Hana Spanielova, Jitka Forstova, Jan Konvalinka, Petr Cigler
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a membrane protease overexpressed by prostate cancer cells and detected in the neovasculature of most solid tumors. Targeting GCPII with inhibitor-bearing nanoparticles can enable recognition, imaging, and delivery of treatments to cancer cells. Compared to methods based on antibodies and other large biomolecules, inhibitor-mediated targeting benefits from the low molecular weight of the inhibitor molecules, which are typically stable, easy-to-handle, and able to bind the enzyme with very high affinity...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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