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Nanoparticles and medical imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933183/an-update-on-nanoparticle-based-contrast-agents-in-medical-imaging
#1
Neda Naseri, Elham Ajorlou, Fatemeh Asghari, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi
Despite the great value of current exogenous contrast agents for providing main diagnostic information, they still have certain drawbacks such as short blood half life, nonspecific biodistribution, fast clearance, slight renal toxicity and poor contrast in fat patients. Nanoparticles (NPs) are used as novel contrast agents that represent a promising strategy for the non invasive diagnosis. As a platform, nanoparticulates are compatible for developing targeted contrast agents. Advances in nanotechnology will provide enhanced sensitivity and specificity for tumor imaging enabling earlier detection of metastases...
September 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921952/nano-air-seeds-trapped-in-mesoporous-janus-nanoparticles-facilitate-cavitation-and-enhance-ultrasound-imaging
#2
Konstantin Tamarov, Andrey Sviridov, Wujun Xu, Markus Malo, Valery Andreev, Victor Yu Timoshenko, Vesa-Pekka Lehto
The current contrast agents utilized in ultrasound (US) imaging are based on microbubbles which, however, suffer from a short lifetime in the systemic circulation. The present study introduces a new type of contrast agents for US imaging based on bioresorbable Janus nanoparticles (NPs) that are able to generate microbubbles in situ under US radiation for extended time. The Janus NPs were fabricated from porous silicon (PSi) that was modified via a nanostopper technique. The technique was exploited to prepare PSi NPs which had hydrophobic pore walls (inner face) while the external surfaces of the NPs (outer face) were hydrophilic...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916107/genetically-functionalized-ferritin-nanoparticles-with-a-high-affinity-protein-binder-for-immunoassay-and-imaging
#3
Jong-Won Kim, Woosung Heu, Sukyo Jeong, Hak-Sung Kim
Molecular detection of target molecules with high sensitivity and specificity is of great significance in bio and medical sciences. Here, we present genetically functionalized ferritin nanoparticles with a high-affinity protein binder, and their utility as a signal generator in a variety of immunoassays and imaging. As a high-affinity protein binder, human IgG-specific repebody, which is composed of LRR (Leucine-rich repeat) modules, was used. The repebody was genetically fused to the N-terminal heavy-chain ferritin, and the resulting subunits were self-assembled to the repebody-ferritin nanoparticles composed of 24 subunits...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905955/a-low-cost-large-field-of-view-scanning-ion-conductance-microscope-for-studying-nanoparticle-cell-membrane-interactions
#4
Astrid Gesper, Philipp Hagemann, Patrick Happel
Nanoparticles have the potential to become versatile tools in the medical and life sciences. One potential application is delivering drugs or other compounds to the cell cytoplasm, which requires the nanoparticles to bind to or cross the cell membrane. However, there are only a few tools available which allow studying the interaction of nanoparticles and the cell membrane of living cells in a physiological environment. Currently, the tool which least biases living cells is Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM)...
September 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900602/calcium-fluoride-based-multifunctional-nanoparticles-for-multimodal-imaging
#5
Marion Straßer, Joachim H X Schrauth, Sofia Dembski, Daniel Haddad, Bernd Ahrens, Stefan Schweizer, Bastian Christ, Alevtina Cubukova, Marco Metzger, Heike Walles, Peter M Jakob, Gerhard Sextl
New multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used as contrast agents (CA) in different imaging techniques, such as photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), open new possibilities for medical imaging, e.g., in the fields of diagnostics or tissue characterization in regenerative medicine. The focus of this study is on the synthesis and characterization of CaF2:(Tb(3+),Gd(3+)) NPs. Fabricated in a wet-chemical procedure, the spherical NPs with a diameter of 5-10 nm show a crystalline structure...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883396/in-vivo-quantitative-imaging-of-tumor-ph-by-nanosonophore-assisted-multispectral-photoacoustic-imaging
#6
Janggun Jo, Chang H Lee, Raoul Kopelman, Xueding Wang
Changes of physiological pH are correlated with several pathologies, therefore the development of more effective medical pH imaging methods is of paramount importance. Here, we report on an in vivo pH mapping nanotechnology. This subsurface chemical imaging is based on tumor-targeted, pH sensing nanoprobes and multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging (PAI). The nanotechnology consists of an optical pH indicator, SNARF-5F, 5-(and-6)-Carboxylic Acid, encapsulated into polyacrylamide nanoparticles with surface modification for tumor targeting...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883395/bio-degradable-highly-fluorescent-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-for-bio-medical-imaging-applications
#7
Tatjana Repenko, Anne Rix, Simon Ludwanowski, Dennis Go, Fabian Kiessling, Wiltrud Lederle, Alexander J C Kuehne
Conjugated polymer nanoparticles exhibit strong fluorescence and have been applied for biological fluorescence imaging in cell culture and in small animals. However, conjugated polymer particles are hydrophobic and often chemically inert materials with diameters ranging from below 50 nm to several microns. As such, conjugated polymer nanoparticles cannot be excreted through the renal system. This drawback has prevented their application for clinical bio-medical imaging. Here, we present fully conjugated polymer nanoparticles based on imidazole units...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876902/amino-acid-functionalised-inorganic-nanoparticles-as-cutting-edge-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-agents
#8
Amlan Chakraborty, Jennifer Carla Boer, Cordelia Selomulya, Magdalena Plebanski
The field of medical diagnostics and therapeutics is being revolutionized by nanotechnology, from targeted drug delivery to cancer immunotherapy. Inorganic nanoparticles are widely used, albeit problems with agglutination, cytotoxicity, free radical generation and instability in some biological environments, limits their utility. Conjugation of biomolecules such as peptides to the surface of nanoparticles can mitigate such problems, as well as confer specialized theranostic (therapeutic and/or diagnostic) properties, useful across biomedical applications such as vaccines, drug delivery and in vivo imaging...
September 6, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875102/uptake-and-intracellular-accumulation-of-diamond-nanoparticles-a-metabolic-and-cytotoxic-study
#9
Antonín Brož, Lucie Bačáková, Pavla Štenclová, Alexander Kromka, Štěpán Potocký
Diamond nanoparticles, known as nanodiamonds (NDs), possess several medically significant properties. Having a tailorable and easily accessible surface gives them great potential for use in sensing and imaging applications and as a component of cell growth scaffolds. In this work we investigate in vitro interactions of human osteoblast-like SAOS-2 cells with four different groups of NDs, namely high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) NDs (diameter 18-210 nm, oxygen-terminated), photoluminescent HPHT NDs (diameter 40 nm, oxygen-terminated), detonation NDs (diameter 5 nm, H-terminated), and the same detonation NDs further oxidized by annealing at 450 °C...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858253/unique-roles-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-drug-delivery-targeting-and-imaging-applications
#10
REVIEW
Fen-Ying Kong, Jin-Wei Zhang, Rong-Fang Li, Zhong-Xia Wang, Wen-Juan Wang, Wei Wang
Nanotechnology has become more and more potentially used in diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Advances in nanotechnology have led to new and improved nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Common nanomaterials applicable in biomedical applications include liposomes, polymeric micelles, graphene, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, ferroferric oxide nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and so on. Among them, Au NPs have been considered as the most interesting nanomaterial because of its unique optical, electronic, sensing and biochemical properties...
August 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855938/development-evaluation-and-optimization-of-superparamagnetite-nanoparticles-prepared-by-co-precipitation-method
#11
Hashem Montaseri, Shohreh Alipour, Molood Alsadat Vakilinezhad
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of high interest due to their application in medical fields, in particular for theranostics. Specific properties required for such particles include high magnetization, appropriate size and stability. Biocompatible magnetically soft magnetite particles (Fe3O4) have been investigated for biological purposes. The intrinsic instability of these nanoparticles and their susceptibility to the oxidization in air, are limitations for their applications. Various methods have been described for synthesis of these nanoparticles among which co-precipitation method is widely experimented...
August 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837060/synthesis-and-characterization-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-functionalized-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-targeted-fibrin-clot-dissolution
#12
Susanne Heid, Harald Unterweger, Rainer Tietze, Ralf P Friedrich, Bianca Weigel, Iwona Cicha, Dietmar Eberbeck, Aldo R Boccaccini, Christoph Alexiou, Stefan Lyer
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted great attention in many biomedical fields and are used in preclinical/experimental drug delivery, hyperthermia and medical imaging. In this study, biocompatible magnetite drug carriers, stabilized by a dextran shell, were developed to carry tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for targeted thrombolysis under an external magnetic field. Different concentrations of active tPA were immobilized on carboxylated nanoparticles through carbodiimide-mediated amide bond formation...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814860/quantum-dots-in-imaging-drug-delivery-and-sensor-applications
#13
REVIEW
Cristian T Matea, Teodora Mocan, Flaviu Tabaran, Teodora Pop, Ofelia Mosteanu, Cosmin Puia, Cornel Iancu, Lucian Mocan
Quantum dots (QDs), also known as nanoscale semiconductor crystals, are nanoparticles with unique optical and electronic properties such as bright and intensive fluorescence. Since most conventional organic label dyes do not offer the near-infrared (>650 nm) emission possibility, QDs, with their tunable optical properties, have gained a lot of interest. They possess characteristics such as good chemical and photo-stability, high quantum yield and size-tunable light emission. Different types of QDs can be excited with the same light wavelength, and their narrow emission bands can be detected simultaneously for multiple assays...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804244/development-of-new-contrast-agents-for-imaging-function-and-metabolism-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Alexandra Carvalho, M Clara Gonçalves, M Luísa Corvo, M Bárbara F Martins
Liposomes are interesting nanosystems with a wide range of medical application. One particular application is their ability to enhance contrast in magnetic resonance images; when properly loaded with magnetic/superparamagnetic nanoparticles, this means to act as contrast agents. The design of liposomes loaded with magnetic particles, magnetoliposomes, presents a large number of possibilities depending on the application from image function to metabolism. More interesting is its double function application as theranostics (diagnostics and therapy)...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783106/melanin-based-contrast-agents-for-biomedical-optoacoustic-imaging-and-theranostic-applications
#15
REVIEW
Dario Livio Longo, Rachele Stefania, Silvio Aime, Alexander Oraevsky
Optoacoustic imaging emerged in early 1990s as a new biomedical imaging technology that generates images by illuminating tissues with short laser pulses and detecting resulting ultrasound waves. This technique takes advantage of the spectroscopic approach to molecular imaging, and delivers high-resolution images in the depth of tissue. Resolution of the optoacoustic imaging is scalable, so that biomedical systems from cellular organelles to large organs can be visualized and, more importantly, characterized based on their optical absorption coefficient, which is proportional to the concentration of absorbing chromophores...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774792/macrophage-imaging-of-cerebral-aneurysms-with-ferumoxytol-an-exploratory-study-in-an-animal-model-and-in-patients
#16
Tomohiro Aoki, Makoto Saito, Hirokazu Koseki, Keiichi Tsuji, Atsushi Tsuji, Kiyoshi Murata, Hidetoshi Kasuya, Akio Morita, Shuh Narumiya, Kazuhiko Nozaki
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and feasibility of macrophage imaging using an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle, ferumoxytol, in the cerebral aneurysmal wall in an animal model and in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Engulfment of ferumoxytol by primary culture of macrophages and RAW264.7 cells was assessed. Uptake of ferumoxytol was evaluated histologically in a cerebral aneurysmal model in rats. In an exploratory clinical study of magnetic resonance macrophage imaging, 17 unruptured aneurysms in 17 patients were imaged using thin-slice gapless magnetic resonance images of 2D-gradient-recalled echo (2D-GRE) and 3D-T1-fast-spin echo sequences on day 0 and of the same sequences with infusion of ferumoxytol 24 hours after the first imaging...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761103/towards-picogram-detection-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-particles-using-a-gradiometric-receive-coil
#17
Matthias Graeser, Tobias Knopp, Patryk Szwargulski, Thomas Friedrich, Anselm von Gladiss, Michael Kaul, Kannan M Krishnan, Harald Ittrich, Gerhard Adam, Thorsten M Buzug
Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles can be used in medical applications like vascular or targeted imaging. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising tomographic imaging technique that allows visualizing the 3D nanoparticle distribution concentration in a non-invasive manner. The two main strengths of MPI are high temporal resolution and high sensitivity. While the first has been proven in the assessment of dynamic processes like cardiac imaging, it is unknown how far the detection limit of MPI can be lowered...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745288/production-stabilisation-and-characterisation-of-silver-nanoparticles-coated-with-bioactive-polymers-pluronic-f68-pvp-and-pva
#18
Carolina A Santos, Victor M Balcão, Marco V Chaud, Marcelo Martins Seckler, Mahendra Rai, Marta M D C Vila
The increasing and alarming panorama of bacterial infections and associated morbidities that occur during medical and hospital procedures makes the development of technologies that aid in controlling such bacterial infections of utmost importance. Recent studies have shown that formulations with metal nanoparticles exhibit good antibacterial properties against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Moreover, it was demonstrated that some biologically active polymeric materials, when applied in combination with chemical antimicrobial agents, enhance the therapeutic action of the latter...
August 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726968/evaluation-of-spectral-photon-counting-computed-tomography-k-edge-imaging-for-determination-of-gold-nanoparticle-biodistribution-in-vivo
#19
Salim Si-Mohamed, David P Cormode, Daniel Bar-Ness, Monica Sigovan, Pratap C Naha, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Lara Chalabreysse, Philippe Coulon, Ira Blevis, Ewald Roessl, Klaus Erhard, Loic Boussel, Philippe Douek
Spectral photon counting computed tomography (SPCCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology. SPCCT scanners record the energy of incident photons, which allows specific detection of contrast agents due to measurement of their characteristic X-ray attenuation profiles. This approach is known as K-edge imaging. Nanoparticles formed from elements such as gold, bismuth or ytterbium have been reported as potential contrast agents for SPCCT imaging. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles have many applications in medicine, such as adjuvants for radiotherapy and photothermal ablation...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726923/robust-manufacturing-of-lipid-polymer-nanoparticles-through-feedback-control-of-parallelized-swirling-microvortices
#20
Michael J Toth, Taeyoung Kim, YongTae Kim
A variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic nanoparticles (NPs), or nanomedicines, have been formulated for improved drug delivery and imaging applications. Microfluidic technology enables continuous and highly reproducible synthesis of NPs through controlled mixing processes at the micro- and nanoscale. Yet, the inherent low-throughput remains a critical roadblock, precluding the probable applications of new nanomedicines for clinical translation. Here we present robust manufacturing of lipid-polymer NPs (LPNPs) through feedback controlled operation of parallelized swirling microvortex reactors (SMRs)...
August 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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