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Nanoparticles and medical imaging

Xi Hu, Fangyuan Li, Shuying Wang, Fan Xia, Daishun Ling
Nanoassembly technology has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted drug delivery and provides a basis for fabricating medical theranostic nanosystems. However, it is extremely difficult to concentrate nanoparticles at tumor sites, and the poor target-to-background ratio undoubtedly obstructs the accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of cancerous tissues. Importantly, the addition of biological stimulus-responsive groups to nanoassembly systems can enable a biological stimulus-driven assembly-disassembly mutual switch or structural composition/conformation change, thereby amplifying the imaging signal and/or enhancing the therapeutic effect...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hyeonglim Seo, Ikjang Choi, Nicholas Whiting, Jingzhe Hu, Quy Son Luu, Shivanand Pudakalakatti, Caitlin McCowan, Yaewon Kim, Niki Zacharias, Seunghyun Lee, Pratip Bhattacharya, Youngbok Lee
Porous silicon nanoparticles have recently garnered attention as potentially-promising biomedical platforms for drug delivery and medical diagnostics. Here, we demonstrate porous silicon nanoparticles as contrast agents for ²⁹Si magnetic resonance imaging. Size-controlled porous silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by magnesiothermic reduction of silica nanoparticles and were surface activated for further functionalization. Particles were hyperpolarized via dynamic nuclear polarization to enhance their ²⁹Si MR signals; the particles demonstrated long ²⁹Si spin-lattice relaxation (T₁) times (~ 25 mins), which suggests potential applicability for medical imaging...
May 20, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
M Laura Sorian, Alberto Rodríguez-Benot, Miguel Valcárcel
After contextualising the generic frameworks of nanotechnology and nanomedicine, the 2disciplines are discussed in the field of Nephrology. The potential downside to nanonephrology is the renal clearance of nanoparticles, the use of which is ever-increasing both for nanomedicinal purposes and in nanofoods. The positive impact of nanotechnology in Nephrology is centred on the development of renal nanodiagnostics for basic renal function studies, the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury, reliable and simple follow-up of chronic kidney disease and the improvement of magnetic resonance imaging...
May 16, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Kara Harmatys, Juan Chen, Danielle Charron, Christina MacLaughlin, Gang Zheng
Biomimetics are reconstructions of natural systems in engineered forms to exploit their structural or functional properties. Current biomimetics for medical applications use a single biomimetic approach to imitate natural structures, which can be insufficient for reconstructing structurally complex natural systems. Multi-pronged efforts may resolve these complexities. To achieve interesting nanostructure-driven optical properties, we engineered a dual-biomimetic system contained within a single nanoagent to recapitulate the efficient light-harvesting organelles, chlorosomes, which have unique dye assemblies and tunable photonic properties...
May 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yueli Chen, Jinquan Li, Zhongxue Yuan, Jianghua Feng, Zhong Chen
Core-shell structured Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -NH2 nanoparticles (Fe@Si-NPs) demonstrated outstanding potentials in drug targeting and delivery and medical imaging. However, they have limited clinical applications due to unknown chronic bio-effects and potential bio-related risks. In this study, the subchronic biological effects and metabolic fate of 20 nm Fe@Si-NPs in Sprague-Dawley rats in 12 weeks were investigated by the biochemical assay and NMR-based metabonomic analysis using an intravenous model. Biofluids (plasma and urine) analysis provided the transportation, absorption, and excretion information of Fe@Si-NPs...
May 10, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Weiqiao Qian, Qin Zhu, Bing Duan, Weijun Tang, Yuan Yuan, Aiguo Hu
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging techniques for clinical diagnosis. Contrast agents (CAs) are commonly necessarily used to enhance the imaging quality of MRI and differentiate diseased tissues from normal ones. Herein, we introduced a macromolecular carrier, spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs), which consists of a solid polystyrene (PS) core and polyacrylic acid (PAA) chains as a brush layer to host Gd(iii) complexes. The cationic Gd(iii) complex Gd-DTPA-NO-C4 was synthesized through a 6-step approach and then formed electrostatic self-assemblies with SPBs to afford magnetic assemblies...
May 8, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yongming Liu, Huan Yu, Xihui Zhang, Yong Wang, Zhentao Song, Jian Zhao, Haibin Shi, Ruibin Li, Yangyun Wang, Leshuai W Zhang
Bismuth is widely used in metallurgy, cosmetic industry, and medical diagnosis and recently, bismuth nanoparticles (NPs) (BiNP) have been made and proved to be excellent CT imaging agents. Previously, we have synthesized bovine serum albumin based BiNP for imaging purpose but we found a temporary kidney injury by BiNP. Due to the reported adverse events of bismuth on human health, we extended our studies on the mechanisms for BiNP induced nephrotoxicity. Blood biochemical analysis indicated the increase in creatinine (CREA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and intraluminal cast formation with cell apoptosis/necrosis was evident in proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs) of mice...
May 6, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Ming-Hsien Chan, Yu-Ting Pan, Yung-Chieh Chan, Michael Hsiao, Chung-Hsuan Chen, Lingdong Sun, Ru-Shi Liu
Contrast reagents for ultrasound imaging are widely used in clinical medical diagnosis because ultrasound resolution is limited. Contrast agents must be utilized to enhance the image resolution. At present, microbubbles (MBs) and nanobubbles (NBs) are the main contrast reagent candidates for improving the signal resolution. Fluorescence upconversion nanoparticles provide high sensitivity and also function as nanocarriers. This can label tumor cells in a specific organ under irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) light...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Alexander Belushkin, Filiz Yesilköy, Hatice Altug
Nanoplasmonic devices have become a paradigm for biomolecular detection enabled by enhanced light-matter interactions in the fields from biological and pharmaceutical research to medical diagnostics and global health. In this work, we present a bright-field imaging plasmonic biosensor that allows visualization of single sub-wavelength gold nanoparticles (NPs) on large-area gold nanohole arrays (Au-NHAs). The sensor generates image heatmaps that reveal the locations of single NPs as high-contrast spikes, enabling the detection of individual nanoparticle-labeled molecules...
May 1, 2018: ACS Nano
Menashe Haddad, Rachela Popovtzer, Inbar Yariv, Menachem Motiei, Dror Fixler
Nanomedicine is a rapidly evolving medical domain utilizing 1-100nm nanoscale particles to achieve medical goals in either one or more medical aspects - diagnosis, imaging and therapy. Nanomedicine employs a combination of methods stemming from life and exact sciences. This review deals briefly with the principles behind the scenes guiding the design, manufacture and employment of these nanoparticles. Some representative examples of the various applications are provided from the abundance of existing nanoparticles...
April 2018: Harefuah
Guang Yang, Yong Cao, Bin Yan, Qiang Lv, Jianbo Yu, Fusheng Zhao, Zhihong Chen, Heran Yang, Mengxi Chen, Zaishun Jin
Upconversion nanoparticles are a new type of fluorescent marker in biomedical imaging that can convert a longer wavelength (such as near-infrared fluorescence) into a shorter wavelength (such as visible light). Mantle cell lymphoma, which is derived from B-cell lymphoma, is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the immune phenotype is a mature B-cell phenotype (CD20+, CD5+). To develop the use of nanomaterials as specific markers for the medical imaging of mantle cell lymphoma, we modified the surface of UCNPs by oxidation so that the CD20 or CD5 antibody could covalently attach to the upconversion nanoparticles to form antibody-UCNP conjugates...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Juan Aparicio-Blanco, Ana-Isabel Torres-Suárez
Malignant brain tumors still represent an unmet medical need given their rapid progression and often fatal outcome within months of diagnosis. Given their extremely heterogeneous nature, the assumption that a single therapy could be beneficial for all patients is no longer plausible. Hence, early feedback on drug accumulation at the tumor site and on tumor response to treatment would help tailor therapies to each patient's individual needs for personalized medicine. In this context, at the intersection between imaging and therapy, theranostic nanomedicine is a promising new technique for individualized management of malignant brain tumors...
April 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Irene Villa, Chiara Villa, Angelo Monguzzi, Vladimir Babin, Elena Tervoort, Martin Nikl, Markus Niederberger, Yvan Torrente, Anna Vedda, Alessandro Lauria
Luminescent nanoparticles are researched for their potential impact in medical science, but no materials approved for parenteral use have been available so far. To overcome this issue, we demonstrate that Eu3+-doped hafnium dioxide nanocrystals can be used as non-toxic, highly stable probes for cellular optical imaging and as radiosensitive materials for clinical treatment. Furthermore, viability and biocompatibility tests on artificially stressed cell cultures reveal their ability to buffer reactive oxygen species, proposing an anti-cytotoxic feature interesting for biomedical applications...
April 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Halla Laufey Hauksdóttir, Thomas J Webster
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are already well-established in the medical field due to their ability to improve contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for their external magnetic control in the body. Moreover, selenium has been shown to kill numerous cancer cells at lower concentrations that IONP (e.g., 1 μg/ml). Selenium is a trace mineral of growing interest in cancer treatment since it is an essential nutrient in the human body and can interfere with thiolcontaining proteins necessary for cancer cells to function...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Tang, Shyh-Dar Li
A variety of nanoplatforms have been developed and applied for cancer therapy, imaging, or the combination thereof. These nanoplatforms, combined with therapeutic and imaging functionalities, display great potential to enhance medical care. In particular, lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) are among the most-studied platforms that have resulted in many encouraging advances in theranostics. LNPs are biodegradable and biocompatible, and their formulation can be tailored for various applications. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments of four representative LNP platforms for theranostics: stealth liposomes, triggered-release liposomes, porphysomes, and lipid-coated calcium phosphate NPs (LCPs)...
April 13, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Ziryan Othman, Berta Cillero Pastor, Sabine van Rijt, Pamela Habibovic
The role that biomaterials play in the clinical treatment of damaged organs and tissues is changing. While biomaterials used in permanent medical devices were required to passively take over the function of a damaged tissue in the long term, current biomaterials are expected to trigger and harness the self-regenerative potential of the body in situ and then to degrade, the foundation of regenerative medicine. To meet these different requirements, it is imperative to fully understand the interactions biomaterials have with biological systems, in space and in time...
March 12, 2018: Biomaterials
Koshonna Brown, Ted Thurn, Lun Xin, William Liu, Remon Bazak, Si Chen, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Chris Jacobsen, Tatjana Paunesku, Gayle E Woloschak
Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles are produced for many different purposes, including development of therapeutic and diagnostic nanoparticles for cancer detection and treatment, drug delivery, induction of DNA double-strand breaks, and imaging of specific cells and subcellular structures. Currently, the use of optical microscopy, an imaging technique most accessible to biology and medical pathology, to detect TiO2 nanoparticles in cells and tissues ex vivo is limited with low detection limits, while more sensitive imaging methods (transmission electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence microscopy, etc...
January 2018: Nano Research
F H Wang, K Bae, Z W Huang, J M Xue
For obtaining high-resolution macroscopical anatomical information and high sensitivity microscopical optical signals, it is highly desirable to develop dual-modality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescent probes in medical imaging simultaneously. In this study, Gd2 O3 nanoparticles were modified with two-photon graphene quantum dots (GQD), integrating a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with two-photon imaging functionality into one nanoprobe. A photoluminescence study indicated that the GQD modification process integrated MRI properties with both one-photon and two-photon imaging properties...
March 28, 2018: Nanoscale
Dalong Ni, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
As one of the most biocompatible and well-tolerated inorganic nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have received extensive attention over the last several decades. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of radiolabeled SiNPs has provided a highly sensitive, noninvasive, and quantitative readout of the organ/tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor targeting efficiency in vivo, which can greatly expedite the clinical translation of these promising NPs. Encouraged by the successful PET imaging of patients with metastatic melanoma using 124 I-labeled ultrasmall SiNPs (known as Cornell dots or C dots) and their approval as an Investigational New Drug (IND) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, different radioisotopes (64 Cu, 89 Zr, 18 F, 68 Ga, 124 I, etc...
March 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Rakesh Gupta, Beena Rai
Nanoparticles are used in the medical field for various applications like cell imaging, drug delivery, gene and si-RNA delivery, to name a few. Designing nanoparticles for a given application, purely based on the trial and error experimentation, requires a lot of time and effort. In this study we show that computer simulations could help in designing nanoparticles for drug delivery thus reducing the time and cost associated with their design, development and deployment. The permeation of nanoparticles, having various surface chemistries and patterns, through the skin lipid bilayer was studied using constrained and unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations...
March 8, 2018: Nanoscale
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