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Nanoparticles and medical imaging

Chrystelle Neaime, Maria Amela-Cortes, Fabien Grasset, Yann Molard, Stéphane Cordier, Benjamin Dierre, Michel Mortier, Toshiaki Takei, Kohsei Takahashi, Hajime Haneda, Marc Verelst, Séverine Lechevallier
Bioimaging and cell labeling using red or near infrared phosphors emitting in the "therapeutic window" of biological tissues have recently become some of the most active research fields in modern medical diagnostics. However, because organic and inorganic autofluorophores are omnipresent in nature, very often the background signal from fluorochromes other than targeted probes has to be eliminated. This discrimination could be available using a time-gated luminescence microscopy (TGLM) technique associated with long lifetime phosphorescent nanocomposites...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
David A Winkler
Nanoparticles are finding many applications in medicine and other field like photonics. Magnetic nanoparticles have additional advantages in medicine over non-magnetic hard nanoparticles, as their magnetic properties make them ideal for hyperthermic applications in therapy and for sensitive diagnostic imaging applications. I review the literature on computational models of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles specifically. Such models have the potential to accelerate the design of magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications...
October 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Avnesh S Thakor, Jessie V Jokerst, Pejman Ghanouni, Jos Campbell, Erik Mittra, Sam S Gambhir
Nanoparticles (NPs) are new class of imaging agents that can be used for both anatomic and molecular imaging due to their small size and unique properties. Nanoparticle-based imaging exploits the signal intensity, stability, and biodistribution behavior of sub-micron diameter molecular imaging agents. This review focuses on nanoparticles used in human medical imaging with an emphasis on radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging. Newer nanoparticle platforms are also discussed in relation to theranostic and multimodal nanoparticles...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Emily J Guggenheim, Abdullah Khan, Jeremy Pike, Lynne Chang, Iseult Lynch, Joshua Z Rappoport
The potential for human exposure to manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years, in part through the incorporation of engineered particles into a wide range of commercial goods and medical applications. NP are ideal candidates for use as therapeutic and diagnostic tools within biomedicine, however concern exists regarding their efficacy and safety. Thus, developing techniques for the investigation of NP uptake into cells is critically important. Current intracellular NP investigations rely on the use of either Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which provides ultrahigh resolution, but involves cumbersome sample preparation rendering the technique incompatible with live cell imaging, or fluorescent labelling, which suffers from photobleaching, poor bioconjugation and, often, alteration of NP surface properties...
2016: PloS One
A C Sintov, C Velasco-Aguirre, E Gallardo-Toledo, E Araya, M J Kogan
Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as a carrier and a therapeutic agent in biomedical field because of their unique physiochemical properties. Due to these physicochemical properties, they can be used in different fields of biomedicine. In relation to this, plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for detection and photothermal destruction of tumor cells or toxic protein aggregates, and magnetic iron nanoparticles can be used for imaging and for hyperthermia of tumor cells. In addition, both therapy and imaging can be combined in one nanoparticle system, in a process called theranostics...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Junxin Wang, Fang Chen, Santiago J Arconada-Alvarez, James Hartanto, Li-Peng Yap, Ryan Park, Fang Wang, Ivetta Vorobyova, Grant Dagliyan, Peter S Conti, Jesse V Jokerst
Heparin anticoagulation therapy is an indispensable feature of clinical care yet has a narrow therapeutic window and is the second most common intensive care unit (ICU) medication error. The active partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) monitors heparin but suffers from long turnaround times, a variable reference range, limited utility with low molecular weight heparin, and poor correlation to dose. Here, we describe a photoacoustic imaging technique to monitor heparin concentration using methylene blue as a simple and Federal Drug Administration-approved contrast agent...
September 28, 2016: Nano Letters
Muhammad Saleem Khan, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Saleem Asghar, Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam
The physicochemical and biological properties of metals change as the particles are reduced to nanoscale. This ability increases the application of nanoparticles in commercial and medical industry. Keeping in view this importance, Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by reduction methods using formaldehyde as reducing agent in the chemical route and lemon extracts in the biological route. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of nanoparticles suggested that the particles were either agglomerated or spherical in shape with mean diameter of 16...
September 2, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Yun-Wen Chen, Chiung-Wen Chang, Huey-Shan Hung, Mei-Lang Kung, Bi-Wen Yeh, Shuchen Hsieh
Accumulation of amyloid fibrils is one of the likely key factors leading to the development of Alzheimer's disease and other amyloidosis associated diseases. Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed as promising medical materials for many medical applications. In this study, we have explored the effects of Fe3O4 NPs on the fibrillogenesis process of insulin fibrils. When Fe3O4 NPs were co-incubated with insulin, Fe3O4 NPs had no effect on the structural transformation into amyloid-like fibrils but had higher affinity toward insulin fibrils...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
Isabelle Poirier, Lauriane Kuhn, Arnaud Demortière, Boris Mirvaux, Philippe Hammann, Johana Chicher, Christelle Caplat, Marie Pallud, Martine Bertrand
UNLABELLED: In the marine environment, bacteria from estuarine and coastal sediments are among the first targets of nanoparticle pollution; it is therefore relevant to improve the knowledge of interactions between bacteria and nanoparticles. In this work, the response of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BA3SM1 to CdSe nanocrystals (CdSe NPs) of 3nm (NP3) and 8nm (NP8) in diameter was evaluated through microscopic, physiological, biochemical and proteomic approaches. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that NP3 were able to penetrate the bacteria, while NP8 were highly concentrated around the cells, embedded in large exopolysaccharides...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Ming J Cheng, Rajiv Kumar, Srinivas Sridhar, Thomas J Webster, Eno E Ebong
Cardiovascular diseases are facilitated by endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and coincide with EC glycocalyx coat shedding. These diseases may be prevented by delivering medications to affected vascular regions using circulating nanoparticle (NP) drug carriers. The objective of the present study was to observe how the delivery of 10 nm polyethylene glycol-coated gold NPs (PEG-AuNP) to ECs is impacted by glycocalyx structure on the EC surface. Rat fat pad endothelial cells were chosen for their robust glycocalyx, verified by fluorescent immunolabeling of adsorbed albumin and integrated heparan sulfate (HS) chains...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Tian Xie, Ankit Vora, Patrick J Mulcahey, Sonia E Nanescu, Manpreet Singh, Daniel S Choi, Jeffrey K Huang, Chi-Chun Liu, Daniel P Sanders, Jong-In Hahm
The ability to control the specific adsorption and packing behaviors of biomedically important proteins by effectively guiding their preferred surface adsorption configuration and packing orientation on polymeric surfaces may have utility in many applications such as biomaterials, medical implants, and tissue engineering. Herein, we investigate the distinct adhesion configurations of fibrinogen (Fg) proteins and the different organization behaviors between single Fg molecules that are mediated by the changes in the periodicity and alignment of chemically alternating nanodomains in thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP)...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
Lingyun Zhao, Yajing Zheng, Hao Yan, WenSheng Xie, Xiaodan Sun, Ning Li, Jintian Tang
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with appropriate surface chemistry have attracted wild attention in medical and biological application because of their current and potential usefulness such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement, magnetic mediated hyperthermia (MMH), immunoassay, and in drug delivery, etc. In this study, we investigated the MRI contrast agents and MMH mediators properties of the novel 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) modified SPIONs. As a non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 2-DG can block glycolysis and inhibits protein glycosylation...
March 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Martin Storath, Christina Brandt, Martin Hofmann, Tobias Knopp, Johannes Salamon, Alexander Weber, Andreas Weinmann
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging medical imaging modality which is based on the non-linear response of magnetic nanoparticles to an applied magnetic field. It is an important feature of MPI that even fast dynamic processes can be captured for 3D volumes. The high temporal resolution in turn leads to large amounts of data which have to be handled eciently. But as the system matrix of MPI is non-sparse, the image reconstruction gets computationally demanding. Therefore, currently only basic image reconstruction methods such as Tikhonov regularization are used...
July 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Rachel Blau, Adva Krivitsky, Yana Epshtein, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro
The progress in medical research has led to the understanding that cancer is a large group of heterogeneous diseases, with high variability between and within individuals. This variability sprouted the ambitious goal to improve therapeutic outcomes, while minimizing drug adverse effects through stratification of patients by the differences in their disease markers, in a personalized manner, as opposed to the strategy of "one therapy fits all". Nanotheranostics, composed of nanoparticles (NPs) carrying therapeutic and/or diagnostics probes, have the potential to revolutionize personalized medicine...
July 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Y Gimenez, B Busser, F Trichard, A Kulesza, J M Laurent, V Zaun, F Lux, J M Benoit, G Panczer, P Dugourd, O Tillement, F Pelascini, L Sancey, V Motto-Ros
Nanomaterials represent a rapidly expanding area of research with huge potential for future medical applications. Nanotechnology indeed promises to revolutionize diagnostics, drug delivery, gene therapy, and many other areas of research. For any biological investigation involving nanomaterials, it is crucial to study the behavior of such nano-objects within tissues to evaluate both their efficacy and their toxicity. Here, we provide the first account of 3D label-free nanoparticle imaging at the entire-organ scale...
2016: Scientific Reports
Patrizia Di Pietro, Gaetano Strano, Lidia Zuccarello, Cristina Satriano
Noble metal nanomaterials, such as gold or silver nanoparticles, exhibit unique photonic, electronic, catalytic and therapeutic properties. The high versatility in their synthesis, especially size and shape features, as well as in the surface functionalization by, e.g., physisorption, direct chemisorption of thiol derivatives and covalent binding through bifunctional linkers or specific affinity interactions, prompted their widespread and rising use as multifunctional platforms for theranostic purposes. In this paper, the recent developments of gold and silver nanoparticles for application in biosensing, medical imaging, diagnosis and therapy is reviewed from the following five aspects: (1) the gold and silver nanomaterials intrinsic properties of biomedical interest; (2) the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticle by chemical, physical and biological/green processes; (3) the applications of gold and silver nanoparticles in imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic mode; (4) the surface functionalization processes for targeting, controlled drug loading and release, triggered pathways of cellular uptake and tissue distribution; and (5) nanotoxicity...
July 15, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
J A Hachtel, S Yu, A R Lupini, S T Pantelides, M Gich, A Laromaine, A Roig
The combination of iron oxide and gold in a single nanoparticle results in both magnetic and plasmonic properties that can stimulate novel applications in bio-sensing, medical imaging, or therapeutics. Microwave assisted heating allows the fabrication of multi-component, multi-functional nanostructures by promoting selective heating at desired sites. Recently, we reported a microwave-assisted polyol route yielding gold nanotriangles decorated with iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we present an in-depth microstructural and compositional characterization of the system using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS)...
July 15, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Wei He, Xujie Liu, Arne Kienzle, Werner E G Müller, Qingling Feng
During the last decade, the usage of silver nanoparticles in biomedical fields has increased rapidly, mainly due to their excellent antibacterial effects. They are used in many medical products such as wound dressings, catheters, bone cement and artificial cardiac valves. In tissue engineering, silver nanoparticles are often loaded as a filler for fabrication of nanocomposite scaffolds which subsequently are seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells. Thus, possible adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on human stem cells should be investigated carefully to ensure a safe usage...
January 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Marta S Laranjeira, Ana Moço, Jorge Ferreira, Susana Coimbra, Elísio Costa, Alice Santos-Silva, Paulo J Ferreira, Fernando J Monteiro
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) should be highly biocompatible, stable and safely eliminated from the body, and can therefore be successfully used in modern medicine. Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) has well established biocompatible and non-inflammatory properties, as well as a highly stable and flexible structure that allows for an easy incorporation of magnetic ions. This study characterized and compared the in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of hydroxyapatite MNPs doped with different ions (Gd(3+/)Fe(2+)/Fe(3+)/Co(2+))...
October 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M Wu
Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community...
June 2016: Materials
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