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Nanoparticles and medical imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111687/time-gated-imaging-of-latent-fingerprints-and-specific-visualization-of-protein-secretions-via-molecular-recognition
#1
Jie Wang, Qinqin Ma, Haoyang Liu, Yingqian Wang, Haijing Shen, Xiaoxia Hu, Chao Ma, Quan Yuan, Weihong Tan
Persistent nanophosphors can remain luminescent after excitation ceases; thus, they offer a promising way to avoid background fluorescence interference in bioimaging. In this work, Zn2GeO4:Ga,Mn (ZGO:Ga,Mn) persistent luminescence nanoparticles were developed and they were employed for time-gated imaging of latent fingerprints (LFP). The nanoparticles were functionalized with a carboxyl group and utilized to label LFP through reacting with the amino group in the LFP. Results proved the potent ability of ZGO:Ga,Mn in eliminating background fluorescence to afford highly sensitive LFP imaging...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102240/emerging-biomedical-applications-of-enzyme-like-catalytic-nanomaterials
#2
REVIEW
David P Cormode, Lizeng Gao, Hyun Koo
Nanomaterials have been developed for many biomedical applications, including medical imaging, drug delivery, and antimicrobial coatings. Intriguingly, nanoparticles can display 'enzyme-like' activity and have been explored as alternatives to natural enzymes in several industrial and energy-related applications. Recently, these catalytic nanomaterials with enzyme-mimetic properties have found new biomedical applications, from biofilm disruption to protection against neurodegeneration and tumor prevention. In this review we focus on recent in vivo studies demonstrating potential therapeutic uses of catalytic nanomaterials...
October 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097909/molecular-imaging-of-cancer-with-nanoparticle-based-theranostic-probes
#3
REVIEW
Ying-Yu Ma, Ke-Tao Jin, Shi-Bing Wang, Hui-Ju Wang, Xiang-Min Tong, Dong-Sheng Huang, Xiao-Zhou Mou
Although advancements in medical technology supporting cancer diagnosis and treatment have improved survival, these technologies still have limitations. Recently, the application of noninvasive imaging for cancer diagnosis and therapy has become an indispensable component in clinical practice. However, current imaging contrasts and tracers, which are in widespread clinical use, have their intrinsic limitations and disadvantages. Nanotechnologies, which have improved in vivo detection and enhanced targeting efficiency for cancer, may overcome some of the limitations of cancer diagnosis and therapy...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067383/integrated-microhall-magnetometer-to-measure-the-magnetic-properties-of-nanoparticles
#4
Changwook Min, Jongmin Park, Jae Kyoung Mun, Yongjun Lim, Jouha Min, Jong-Won Lim, Dong-Min Kang, Ho-Kyun Ahn, Tae-Hyun Shin, Jinwoo Cheon, Hae-Seung Lee, Ralph Weissleder, Cesar M Castro, Hakho Lee
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used in biomedical and clinical applications, including medical imaging, therapeutics, and biological sample processing. Rapid characterization of MNPs, notably their magnetic moments, should facilitate optimization of particle synthesis and accelerate assay development. Here, we report a compact and low-cost magnetometer for fast, on-site MNP characterization. Termed integrated microHall magnetometer (iHM), our device was fabricated using standard semiconductor processes: an array of Hall sensors, transistor switches, and amplifiers were integrated into a single chip, thus improving the detection sensitivity and facilitating chip operation...
October 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039094/immunoelectron-microscopy-for-visualization-of-nanoparticles
#5
Sarah R Anderson, David Parmiter, Ulrich Baxa, Kunio Nagashima
Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) on a solid phase such as a carbon film is a fast and powerful way to detect and visualize surface antigens on nanoparticles by using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Nanoparticles, in particular ones for medical applications, are often modified on the surface with soft materials to make them more soluble, less toxic, or targetable to cancerous tumors. Imaging the soft material on the surface of solid nanoparticles by electron microscopy is often a challenge. IEM can overcome this issue in cases where antibodies to any of the surface material are available, which is often the case for proteins, but also for commonly used materials such as polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038384/multimodal-nanoparticle-imaging-agents-design-and-applications
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin P Burke, Christopher Cawthorne, Stephen J Archibald
Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038377/recent-development-of-nanoparticles-for-molecular-imaging
#7
REVIEW
Jonghoon Kim, Nohyun Lee, Taeghwan Hyeon
Molecular imaging enables us to non-invasively visualize cellular functions and biological processes in living subjects, allowing accurate diagnosis of diseases at early stages. For successful molecular imaging, a suitable contrast agent with high sensitivity is required. To date, various nanoparticles have been developed as contrast agents for medical imaging modalities. In comparison with conventional probes, nanoparticles offer several advantages, including controllable physical properties, facile surface modification and long circulation time...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027917/porcine-dental-epithelial-cells-differentiated-in-a-cell-sheet-constructed-by-magnetic-nanotechnology
#8
Wataru Koto, Yoshinori Shinohara, Kazuyuki Kitamura, Takanori Wachi, Seicho Makihira, Kiyoshi Koyano
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used in medical examinations, treatments, and basic research, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. In this study, MNPs with magnetic force were applied to tissue engineering for dental enamel regeneration. The internalization of MNPs into the odontogenic cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. A combined cell sheet consisting of dental epithelial cells (DECs) and dental mesenchymal cells (DMCs) (CC sheet) was constructed using magnetic force-based tissue engineering technology...
October 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022987/double-mesoporous-core-shell-nanosystems-based-on-platinum-nanoparticles-functionalized-with-lanthanide-complexes-for-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy
#9
Lei Zhao, Xiaoqian Ge, Guihua Yan, Xiao Wang, Pengfei Hu, Liyi Shi, Otto S Wolfbeis, Hongjie Zhang, Lining Sun
A double-mesoporous nanosystem was synthesized for treating as well as imaging cancer cells by using a simple and mild method. The mesoporous platinum (Pt) nanoparticles acting as a core show excellent photothermal effect under illumination with an 808 nm near infrared (NIR) laser. The mesoporous silica linked with a lanthanide (Gd) complex acting as a shell displays potential applications as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The final mPt@mSiO2-GdDTPA nanosystems exhibit good biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, when investigated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and histological and serum biochemistry analysis...
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019498/characterization-of-carboxylate-nanoparticle-adhesion-with-the-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#10
Amy Lyden, Lisa Lombardi, Wilfried Sire, Peng Li, Jeremy C Simpson, Geraldine Butler, Gil U Lee
Candida albicans is the lead fungal pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infections worldwide and has mortality rates of 43%. Nanoparticles have been identified as a means to improve medical outcomes for Candida infections, enabling sample concentration, serving as contrast agents for in vivo imaging, and delivering therapeutics. However, little is known about how nanoparticles interact with the fungal cell wall. In this report we used laser scanning confocal microscopy to examine the interaction of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles of specific surface chemistry and diameter with C...
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990364/synthesis-functionalization-and-design-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-theranostic-applications
#11
REVIEW
Jalal Mosayebi, Mehdi Kiyasatfar, Sophie Laurent
In order to translate nanotechnology into medical practice, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been presented as a class of non-invasive nanomaterials for numerous biomedical applications. In particular, MNPs have opened a door for simultaneous diagnosis and brisk treatment of diseases in the form of theranostic agents. This review highlights the recent advances in preparation and utilization of MNPs from the synthesis and functionalization steps to the final design consideration in evading the body immune system for therapeutic and diagnostic applications with addressing the most recent examples of the literature in each section...
October 9, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989270/robust-visualization-and-discrimination-of-nanoparticles-by-interferometric-imaging
#12
Jacob Trueb, Oguzhan Avci, Derin Sevenler, John H Connor, M Selim Ünlü
Single-molecule and single-nanoparticle biosensors are a growing frontier in diagnostics. Digital biosensors are those which enumerate all specifically immobilized biomolecules or biological nanoparticles, and thereby achieve limits of detection usually beyond the reach of ensemble measurements. Here we review modern optical techniques for single nanoparticle detection and describe the single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensor (SP-IRIS). We present challenges associated with reliably detecting faint nanoparticles with SP-IRIS, and describe image acquisition processes and software modifications to address them...
March 2017: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984078/controlling-non-equilibrium-structure-formation-on-the-nanoscale
#13
Benedikt Buchmann, Fabian Manfed Hecht, Carla Pernpeintner, Theobald Lohmüller, Andreas Bausch
Controlling the structure formation of gold nanoparticle aggregates is a promising approach towards novel applications in many fields, ranging from (bio-)sensing to (bio-)imaging to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. To steer structure formation, the DNA-DNA interactions of DNA strands that are coated to the surface of the particles have become a valuable tool to achieve precise control over the inter-particle potentials. In equilibrium approaches this technique is commonly used to study particle crystallization and ligand binding...
October 6, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972736/design-and-functionalization-of-the-nir-responsive-photothermal-semiconductor-nanomaterials-for-cancer-theranostics
#14
Xiaojuan Huang, Wenlong Zhang, Guoqiang Guan, Guosheng Song, Rujia Zou, Junqing Hu
Despite the development of medical technology, cancer still remains a great threat to the survival of people all over the world. Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive method for selective photothermal ablation of cancer cells without damages to normal cells. Recently, copper chalcogenide semiconductors have emerged as a promising photothermal agent attributed to strong absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region and high photothermal conversion efficiency. An earlier study witnessed a rapid increase in their development for cancer therapy, including CuS, Cu2-xSe and CuTe nanocrystals...
October 3, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971421/application-of-theranostics-in-oncology
#15
Georgios Lymperopoulos, Panagiotis Lymperopoulos, Victoria Alikari, Chrisoula Dafogianni, Sofia Zyga, Nikoletta Margari
In recent years, due to the development of nanotechnology new horizons in treatment and diagnosis of cancer open up. Development of nano-systems for simultaneous transfer of active substances and imaging of tumor regions gathers an important amount of scientific interest. This new category of nano-systems is called Theranostics. Theranostics methods can provide multiple benefits by inserting nanoparticles into the patient and using photodynamic therapy and pave the way for personalized medicine. The objective of this paper is to study the use and application of Theranostics in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, in order to achieve personalized anticancer treatment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971240/development-of-a-paper-based-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-lipopolysaccharides-of-salmonella-serovars
#16
Florian Schenk, Patricia Weber, Julian Vogler, Lars Hecht, Andreas Dietzel, Günter Gauglitz
Lateral flow type detection is becoming interesting not only in regions with a poor medical infrastructure but also for practitioners in day-to-day clinical work or for veterinary control in case of possible epidemics. In this work, we describe the first steps of development of a multi-channel strip with potential internal calibration of multiparametric and colorimetric lateral flow assays for the simultaneous detection of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Salmonella enteritidis (S...
October 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933183/an-update-on-nanoparticle-based-contrast-agents-in-medical-imaging
#17
Neda Naseri, Elham Ajorlou, Fatemeh Asghari, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi
Despite the great value of current exogenous contrast agents for providing main diagnostic information, they still have certain drawbacks such as short blood half life, nonspecific biodistribution, fast clearance, slight renal toxicity and poor contrast in fat patients. Nanoparticles (NPs) are used as novel contrast agents that represent a promising strategy for the non invasive diagnosis. As a platform, nanoparticulates are compatible for developing targeted contrast agents. Advances in nanotechnology will provide enhanced sensitivity and specificity for tumor imaging enabling earlier detection of metastases...
September 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921952/nano-air-seeds-trapped-in-mesoporous-janus-nanoparticles-facilitate-cavitation-and-enhance-ultrasound-imaging
#18
Konstantin Tamarov, Andrey Sviridov, Wujun Xu, Markus Malo, Valery Andreev, Victor Timoshenko, Vesa-Pekka Lehto
The current contrast agents utilized in ultrasound (US) imaging are based on microbubbles which suffer from a short lifetime in systemic circulation. The present study introduces a new type of contrast agent for US imaging based on bioresorbable Janus nanoparticles (NPs) that are able to generate microbubbles in situ under US radiation for extended time. The Janus NPs are based on porous silicon (PSi) that was modified via a nanostopper technique. The technique was exploited to prepare PSi NPs which had hydrophobic pore walls (inner face), while the external surfaces of the NPs (outer face) were hydrophilic...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916107/genetically-functionalized-ferritin-nanoparticles-with-a-high-affinity-protein-binder-for-immunoassay-and-imaging
#19
Jong-Won Kim, Woosung Heu, Sukyo Jeong, Hak-Sung Kim
Molecular detection of target molecules with high sensitivity and specificity is of great significance in bio and medical sciences. Here, we present genetically functionalized ferritin nanoparticles with a high-affinity protein binder, and their utility as a signal generator in a variety of immunoassays and imaging. As a high-affinity protein binder, human IgG-specific repebody, which is composed of LRR (Leucine-rich repeat) modules, was used. The repebody was genetically fused to the N-terminal heavy-chain ferritin, and the resulting subunits were self-assembled to the repebody-ferritin nanoparticles composed of 24 subunits...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905955/a-low-cost-large-field-of-view-scanning-ion-conductance-microscope-for-studying-nanoparticle-cell-membrane-interactions
#20
Astrid Gesper, Philipp Hagemann, Patrick Happel
Nanoparticles have the potential to become versatile tools in the medical and life sciences. One potential application is delivering drugs or other compounds to the cell cytoplasm, which requires the nanoparticles to bind to or cross the cell membrane. However, there are only a few tools available which allow studying the interaction of nanoparticles and the cell membrane of living cells in a physiological environment. Currently, the tool which least biases living cells is Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM)...
September 28, 2017: Nanoscale
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