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Nanoparticles and medical imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300729/novel-magnetic-multicore-nanoparticles-designed-for-mpi-and-other-biomedical-applications-from-synthesis-to-first-in-vivo-studies
#1
Harald Kratz, Matthias Taupitz, Angela Ariza de Schellenberger, Olaf Kosch, Dietmar Eberbeck, Susanne Wagner, Lutz Trahms, Bernd Hamm, Jörg Schnorr
Synthesis of novel magnetic multicore particles (MCP) in the nano range, involves alkaline precipitation of iron(II) chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. This step yields green rust, which is oxidized to obtain magnetic nanoparticles, which probably consist of a magnetite/maghemite mixed-phase. Final growth and annealing at 90°C in the presence of a large excess of carboxymethyl dextran gives MCP very promising magnetic properties for magnetic particle imaging (MPI), an emerging medical imaging modality, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296261/novel-recombinant-traceable-c-met-antagonist-avimer-antibody-mimetic-obtained-by-bacterial-expression-analysis
#2
Bahram Baghban Kohnehrouz, Afsaneh Talischian, Alireza Dehnad, Shahnoush Nayeri
Background: Avimers are originally types of artificial proteins with multiple binding sites for specific binding to certain antigens. Various radioisotopes and nanoparticles link these molecules, which are widely used in early detection in tissue imaging, treatment and study on carcinogenesis. Among these, c-Met antagonist avimer (C426 avimer), with ability to bind the c-Met receptor of tyrosine kinase (RTK) is an attractive candidate for targeted cancer therapy. In this study, a novel traceable C426 avimer gene was designed and introduced by adding the 12nt tracer binding site encoded four specific amino acid residues at the C-terminal region of C426 avimer coding sequence...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251503/preparation-of-a-strong-gelatin-short-linear-glucan-nanocomposite-hydrogel-via-an-in-situ-self-assembly-process
#3
Shengju Ge, Man Li, Na Ji, Jing Liu, Hongyan Mu, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
Gelatin hydrogel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, nonimmunogenicity, and biodegradability, but it has limited applications in the food and medical industries due to its poor mechanical properties. Herein, we first developed an in situ self-assembly process for the preparation of gelatin-short linear glucan (SLG) nanocomposite hydrogels with enhanced mechanical strength. The microstructure, dynamic viscoelasticity, compression behavior, and thermal characteristic of gelatin-SLG nanocomposite hydrogels were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic rheological experiments, compression tests, and texture profile analysis tests...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234737/hepatic-toxicity-assessment-of-cationic-liposome-exposure-in-healthy-and-chronic-alcohol-fed-mice
#4
Ali Kermanizadeh, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Martin Roursgaard, Steffen Loft, Peter Møller
The utilisation of nanoparticles as the means of targeted delivery of therapeutics and/or imaging agents could greatly enhance the specific transport of biologically active payloads to target tissues while avoiding or reducing undesired side-effects. To allow for this to become a reality, the question of potential toxicological effects needs to be addressed. In the present investigation, a cationic liposome with prospective for medical applications was constructed and thoroughly assessed for any material-induced hepatic adverse effects in vivo - in healthy and alcoholic hepatic disease models and in vitro - (HepG2 cells)...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216759/pharmaceutical-potential-of-quantum-dots
#5
Swati Jha, Prateek Mathur, Suman Ramteke, Narendra Kumar Jain
Quantum dots (QDs) or fluorescent nanocrystals are designed nanoparticles that are promising for several biological and bio-medical applications as well as drug delivery and simultaneous cellular imaging. QD's have exhibited promising potential primarily in receptor based targeting as a result of their distinctive physicochemical properties. Functionalized QDs (f-QDs) have been developed as effective, safe, nano-sized smart systems to deliver a wide range of bio-actives. Surface modified fluorescent carbon QDs with surface modification have attracted attention as targeting ligand to accomplish cellular targeting with enhanced specificity...
December 7, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184077/the-structural-magnetic-and-optical-properties-of-tmn-zno-42-tm%C3%A2-%C3%A2-fe-co-and-ni-hetero-nanostructure
#6
Yaowen Hu, Chuting Ji, Xiaoxu Wang, Jinrong Huo, Qing Liu, Yipu Song
The magnetic transition-metal (TM) @ oxide nanoparticles have been of great interest due to their wide range of applications, from medical sensors in magnetic resonance imaging to photo-catalysis. Although several studies on small clusters of TM@oxide have been reported, the understanding of the physical electronic properties of TMn@(ZnO)42 is far from sufficient. In this work, the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of TMn@(ZnO)42 (TM = Fe, Co and Ni) hetero-nanostructure are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175803/review-nanopreparations-for-better-drug-delivery
#7
Muhammad Imran Qadir
Nanomedicines are a recent development to face medical and pharmaceutical challenges because nanoparticles have unique properties. They are very small in size and are easy to handle. One more advantage is that they are not harmful for the human body. Poorly soluble drugs have serious problems with their delivery and dosage forms. Formulation strategies by means of nanocarrier systems, such as polymeric micelles, can resolve the trouble. Micelles from PEG-diacyllipids, e.g. PEG-PE, are of special attention. On the other hand, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique can be useful to set up stable nanocolloids of low solubility...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111687/time-gated-imaging-of-latent-fingerprints-and-specific-visualization-of-protein-secretions-via-molecular-recognition
#8
Jie Wang, Qinqin Ma, Haoyang Liu, Yingqian Wang, Haijing Shen, Xiaoxia Hu, Chao Ma, Quan Yuan, Weihong Tan
Persistent nanophosphors can remain luminescent after excitation ceases; thus, they offer a promising way to avoid background fluorescence interference in bioimaging. In this work, Zn2GeO4:Ga,Mn (ZGO:Ga,Mn) persistent luminescence nanoparticles were developed and they were employed for time-gated imaging of latent fingerprints (LFP). The nanoparticles were functionalized with a carboxyl group and utilized to label LFP through reacting with the amino group in the LFP. Results proved the potent ability of ZGO:Ga,Mn in eliminating background fluorescence to afford highly sensitive LFP imaging...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102240/emerging-biomedical-applications-of-enzyme-like-catalytic-nanomaterials
#9
REVIEW
David P Cormode, Lizeng Gao, Hyun Koo
Nanomaterials have been developed for many biomedical applications, including medical imaging, drug delivery, and antimicrobial coatings. Intriguingly, nanoparticles can display 'enzyme-like' activity and have been explored as alternatives to natural enzymes in several industrial and energy-related applications. Recently, these catalytic nanomaterials with enzyme-mimetic properties have found new biomedical applications, from biofilm disruption to protection against neurodegeneration and tumor prevention. In this review we focus on recent in vivo studies demonstrating potential therapeutic uses of catalytic nanomaterials...
October 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097909/molecular-imaging-of-cancer-with-nanoparticle-based-theranostic-probes
#10
REVIEW
Ying-Yu Ma, Ke-Tao Jin, Shi-Bing Wang, Hui-Ju Wang, Xiang-Min Tong, Dong-Sheng Huang, Xiao-Zhou Mou
Although advancements in medical technology supporting cancer diagnosis and treatment have improved survival, these technologies still have limitations. Recently, the application of noninvasive imaging for cancer diagnosis and therapy has become an indispensable component in clinical practice. However, current imaging contrasts and tracers, which are in widespread clinical use, have their intrinsic limitations and disadvantages. Nanotechnologies, which have improved in vivo detection and enhanced targeting efficiency for cancer, may overcome some of the limitations of cancer diagnosis and therapy...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067383/integrated-microhall-magnetometer-to-measure-the-magnetic-properties-of-nanoparticles
#11
Changwook Min, Jongmin Park, Jae Kyoung Mun, Yongjun Lim, Jouha Min, Jong-Won Lim, Dong-Min Kang, Ho-Kyun Ahn, Tae-Hyun Shin, Jinwoo Cheon, Hae-Seung Lee, Ralph Weissleder, Cesar M Castro, Hakho Lee
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used in biomedical and clinical applications, including medical imaging, therapeutics, and biological sample processing. Rapid characterization of MNPs, notably their magnetic moments, should facilitate optimization of particle synthesis and accelerate assay development. Here, we report a compact and low-cost magnetometer for fast, on-site MNP characterization. Termed integrated microHall magnetometer (iHM), our device was fabricated using standard semiconductor processes: an array of Hall sensors, transistor switches, and amplifiers were integrated into a single chip, thus improving the detection sensitivity and facilitating chip operation...
November 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039094/immunoelectron-microscopy-for-visualization-of-nanoparticles
#12
Sarah R Anderson, David Parmiter, Ulrich Baxa, Kunio Nagashima
Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) on a solid phase such as a carbon film is a fast and powerful way to detect and visualize surface antigens on nanoparticles by using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Nanoparticles, in particular ones for medical applications, are often modified on the surface with soft materials to make them more soluble, less toxic, or targetable to cancerous tumors. Imaging the soft material on the surface of solid nanoparticles by electron microscopy is often a challenge. IEM can overcome this issue in cases where antibodies to any of the surface material are available, which is often the case for proteins, but also for commonly used materials such as polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038384/multimodal-nanoparticle-imaging-agents-design-and-applications
#13
REVIEW
Benjamin P Burke, Christopher Cawthorne, Stephen J Archibald
Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038377/recent-development-of-nanoparticles-for-molecular-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Jonghoon Kim, Nohyun Lee, Taeghwan Hyeon
Molecular imaging enables us to non-invasively visualize cellular functions and biological processes in living subjects, allowing accurate diagnosis of diseases at early stages. For successful molecular imaging, a suitable contrast agent with high sensitivity is required. To date, various nanoparticles have been developed as contrast agents for medical imaging modalities. In comparison with conventional probes, nanoparticles offer several advantages, including controllable physical properties, facile surface modification and long circulation time...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027917/porcine-dental-epithelial-cells-differentiated-in-a-cell-sheet-constructed-by-magnetic-nanotechnology
#15
Wataru Koto, Yoshinori Shinohara, Kazuyuki Kitamura, Takanori Wachi, Seicho Makihira, Kiyoshi Koyano
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used in medical examinations, treatments, and basic research, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. In this study, MNPs with magnetic force were applied to tissue engineering for dental enamel regeneration. The internalization of MNPs into the odontogenic cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. A combined cell sheet consisting of dental epithelial cells (DECs) and dental mesenchymal cells (DMCs) (CC sheet) was constructed using magnetic force-based tissue engineering technology...
October 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022987/double-mesoporous-core-shell-nanosystems-based-on-platinum-nanoparticles-functionalized-with-lanthanide-complexes-for-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy
#16
Lei Zhao, Xiaoqian Ge, Guihua Yan, Xiao Wang, Pengfei Hu, Liyi Shi, Otto S Wolfbeis, Hongjie Zhang, Lining Sun
A double-mesoporous nanosystem was synthesized for treating as well as imaging cancer cells by using a simple and mild method. The mesoporous platinum (Pt) nanoparticles acting as a core show excellent photothermal effect under illumination with an 808 nm near infrared (NIR) laser. The mesoporous silica linked with a lanthanide (Gd) complex acting as a shell displays potential applications as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The final mPt@mSiO2-GdDTPA nanosystems exhibit good biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, when investigated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and histological and serum biochemistry analysis...
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019498/characterization-of-carboxylate-nanoparticle-adhesion-with-the-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#17
Amy Lyden, Lisa Lombardi, Wilfried Sire, Peng Li, Jeremy C Simpson, Geraldine Butler, Gil U Lee
Candida albicans is the lead fungal pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infections worldwide and has mortality rates of 43%. Nanoparticles have been identified as a means to improve medical outcomes for Candida infections, enabling sample concentration, serving as contrast agents for in vivo imaging, and delivering therapeutics. However, little is known about how nanoparticles interact with the fungal cell wall. In this report we used laser scanning confocal microscopy to examine the interaction of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles of specific surface chemistry and diameter with C...
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990364/synthesis-functionalization-and-design-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-theranostic-applications
#18
REVIEW
Jalal Mosayebi, Mehdi Kiyasatfar, Sophie Laurent
In order to translate nanotechnology into medical practice, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been presented as a class of non-invasive nanomaterials for numerous biomedical applications. In particular, MNPs have opened a door for simultaneous diagnosis and brisk treatment of diseases in the form of theranostic agents. This review highlights the recent advances in preparation and utilization of MNPs from the synthesis and functionalization steps to the final design consideration in evading the body immune system for therapeutic and diagnostic applications with addressing the most recent examples of the literature in each section...
October 9, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989270/robust-visualization-and-discrimination-of-nanoparticles-by-interferometric-imaging
#19
Jacob Trueb, Oguzhan Avci, Derin Sevenler, John H Connor, M Selim Ünlü
Single-molecule and single-nanoparticle biosensors are a growing frontier in diagnostics. Digital biosensors are those which enumerate all specifically immobilized biomolecules or biological nanoparticles, and thereby achieve limits of detection usually beyond the reach of ensemble measurements. Here we review modern optical techniques for single nanoparticle detection and describe the single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensor (SP-IRIS). We present challenges associated with reliably detecting faint nanoparticles with SP-IRIS, and describe image acquisition processes and software modifications to address them...
March 2017: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984078/controlling-non-equilibrium-structure-formation-on-the-nanoscale
#20
Benedikt Buchmann, Fabian Manfed Hecht, Carla Pernpeintner, Theobald Lohmüller, Andreas Bausch
Controlling the structure formation of gold nanoparticle aggregates is a promising approach towards novel applications in many fields, ranging from (bio-)sensing to (bio-)imaging to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. To steer structure formation, the DNA-DNA interactions of DNA strands that are coated to the surface of the particles have become a valuable tool to achieve precise control over the inter-particle potentials. In equilibrium approaches this technique is commonly used to study particle crystallization and ligand binding...
October 6, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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