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Omega 3

Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
Ichiro Tatsuno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Ji-Won Lee, Bill X Huang, HeungSun Kwon, Md Abdur Rashid, Giorgi Kharebava, Abhishek Desai, Samarjit Patnaik, Juan Marugan, Hee-Yong Kim
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is an omega-3 fatty acid essential for proper brain development. N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide), an endogenous metabolite of DHA, potently promotes neurogenesis, neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not known. Here, we demonstrate orphan G-protein coupled receptor 110 (GPR110, ADGRF1) as the synaptamide receptor, mediating synaptamide-induced bioactivity in a cAMP-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic characterization and cellular fluorescence tracing with chemical analogues of synaptamide reveal specific binding of GPR110 to synaptamide, which triggers cAMP production with low nM potency...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
L D'Amore, F Ceci, S Mattia, M Fabbi, P Negro, F Gossetti
BACKGROUND: In ventral hernia repair, when prosthetic material is placed intraperitoneally, it may lead to an inflammatory reaction resulting in adhesions between the mesh and abdominal viscera. Several meshes have been developed to minimize this process. In this experimental study, the ability of different combined meshes to attenuate the adhesion formation was examined. METHODS: Three commercially available lightweight porous combined meshes were placed intraperitoneally to repair an abdominal wall defect in rats: DynaMesh-IPOM (PVDF + PP), TiMesh (titanium-coated filament PP) and C-QUR/FX (omega-3 fatty acid-coated filament PP)...
October 18, 2016: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Tijen Kaya Temiz, Omer Demir, Fatma Simsek, Yusuf Cem Kaplan, Selen Bahceci, Barıs Karadas, Aslı Celik, Gokhan Koyluoglu
AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO)-mediated colonic motility was altered in rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model, using different isoforms of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was induced by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) in saline once daily from postnatal days 8 to 21. Control animals received saline instead of AA. Experiments were performed at the end of 8 weeks...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
L De Rooy, H Hamdallah, S C Dyall
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequate supply of arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids is essential for brain development, and extremely preterm infants may be at risk of deficiency. Current levels of ARA and DHA given to extremely preterm infants and the amounts available for accretion have not been established, although recent evidence suggests DHA intake is at a level likely to lead to severe deficits. This study quantified the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes from all sources in the first six weeks of life of preterm infants in standard care...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricia Casas-Agustench, Antonio Cherubini, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthy aging is a public health priority. The maintenance of adequate physical function is recognized as a key element of healthy aging. In recent years, scientific evidence has increased concerning the ability of lipids, in particular omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to positively influence muscle and overall physical function in older patients. The article will critically review observational as well as intervention studies on this topic, and it will elucidate the potential biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on physical function...
October 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Mariane Curado Borges, Fabiana de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Rosa Weiss Telles, Marcus Vinícius Melo de Andrade, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia, Cristina Costa Duarte Lanna
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group...
September 22, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Alessandro Laviano, Gianluca Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Angela Koverech
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor in cancer patients. The pathogenesis is related to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. However, whether nutritional support may contribute to effectively prevent and treat cachexia remains a debated issue. RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent evidence demonstrates that anabolic windows of opportunity occur during the clinical trajectory of cancer patients. Also, the use of specific nutrients, namely omega-3 fatty acids, may enhance the efficacy of nutritional support when tumor-driven inflammatory response is high...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Dafna Willner, Valeria Spennati, Shelly Stohl, Giulia Tosti, Simone Aloisio, Federico Bilotta
Spine surgery has been growing rapidly as a neurosurgical operation, with an increase of 220% over a 15-year period. Intraoperative blood transfusion is a major outcome determinant of spine procedures. Various approaches, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies, have been tested to decrease both intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. The aim of this systematic review is to report clinical evidence on the relationship between intraoperative blood loss (primary outcome) and on transfusion requirements and postoperative complications (secondary outcomes) in patients undergoing spine surgery...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bernardo Duarte, Maria Teresa Cabrita, Carla Gameiro, Ana Rita Matos, Rita Godinho, João Carlos Marques, Isabel Caçador
A profound analysis of A. tripolium photochemical traits under salinity exposure is lacking in the literature, with very few references focusing on its fatty acid profile role in photophysiology. To address this, the deep photochemical processes were evaluated by Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) Fluorometry coupled with a discrimination of its leaf fatty acid profile. Plants exposed to 125-250 mM NaCl showed higher photochemical light harvesting efficiencies and lower energy dissipation rates. under higher NaCl exposure, there is evident damage of the oxygen evolving complexes (OECs)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Biology
Kate J Bowen, William S Harris, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Early secondary prevention trials of fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) capsules reported beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, including all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death. These clinical findings, as well as observational and experimental data, demonstrated that omega-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of coronary outcomes and overall mortality and were the basis for recommendations made in the early 2000s to increase omega-3 PUFA intake. In the last 6 years, however, results from both primary and secondary prevention trials have generally failed to show a beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation, bringing current recommendations into question...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Marie-Odile Husson, Delphine Ley, Céline Portal, Madeleine Gottrand, Thomas Hueso, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Frédéric Gottrand
OBJECTIVES: Although n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) are used widely in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, their effect in infectious disease requires a particular attention. METHODS: The present article discusses their anti-inflammatory and immune properties involved in the host defence and presents a systematic review of the effects of their oral administration on the prevention and outcome of experimental and clinical infections...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Infection
Sonika Ahlawat, Sachinandan De, Priyanka Sharma, Rekha Sharma, Reena Arora, R S Kataria, T K Datta, R K Singh
Hybrid sterility or reproductive isolation in mammals has been attributed to allelic incompatibilities in a DNA-binding protein PRDM9. Not only is PRDM9 exceptional in being the only known 'speciation gene' in vertebrates, but it is also considered to be the fastest evolving gene in the genome. The terminal zinc finger (ZF) domain of PRDM9 specifies genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspot locations in mammals. Intriguingly, PRDM9 ZF domain is highly variable between as well as within species, possibly activating different recombination hotspots...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Graham Mazereeuw, Nathan Herrmann, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, David W L Ma, Paul I Oh, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) treatment in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients remains unpredictable. N-3 PUFA can mitigate oxidative stress, which is common in CAD and may contribute to depressive symptoms. This study investigated whether greater pre-treatment oxidative stress, measured by the ratios of late-stage lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE], and 8-isoprostane [8-ISO]) to an early-stage marker (lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]), predicted n-3 PUFA antidepressant benefits in CAD...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jin-Bo Han, Guo-Qing Li, Pin-Jun Wan, Tao-Tao Zhu, Qing-Wei Meng
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is a family of multifunctional enzymes that are involved in detoxification of poisonous compounds. In the present paper, the Leptinotarsa decemlineata genome and transcriptome dataset were mined and 30 GST genes were identified. These GSTs belonged to cytosolic (29 genes) and microsomal (1 gene) classes. Among them 3 GSTs (LdGSTe2, LdGSTs4, and LdGSTo3) possessed splice variants. Of the 29 cytosolic LdGSTs, 3, 10, 5, 4, 4, and 1 members were classified as delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, theta, and zeta subclasses respectively, along with 2 unclassified genes...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
A Burdzinska, B Dybowski, W Zarychta-Wisniewska, A Kulesza, R Zagozdzon, Z Gajewski, L Paczek
Cell therapy is emerging as an alternative treatment of stress urinary incontinence. However, many aspects of the procedure require further optimization. A large animal model is needed to reliably test cell delivery methods. In this study we aim to determine suitability of the goat as an experimental animal for testing intraurethral autologous cell transplantation in terms of urethral anatomy and cell culture parameters. The experiments were performed in 12 mature/aged female goats. Isolated caprine muscle derived cells (MDC) were myogenic in vitro and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) population was able to differentiate into adipo-, osteo- and chondrogenic lineages...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Matteo Ciocci, Egidio Iorio, Felicia Carotenuto, Haneen A Khashoggi, Francesca Nanni, Sonia Melino
The improvement of solubility and/or dissolution rate of poorly soluble natural compounds is an ideal strategy to make them optimal candidates as new potential drugs. Accordingly, the allyl sulfur compounds and omega-3 fatty acids are natural hydrophobic compounds that exhibit two important combined properties: cardiovascular protection and antitumor activity. Here, we have synthesized and characterized a novel formulation of diallyl disulfide (DADS) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) as protein-nanoemulsions (BAD-NEs), using ultrasounds...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Youn Yi Jo, Ji Yeon Lee, Chul-Kyu Park
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is expressed in primary sensory neurons and is commonly regarded as a "pain" neurotransmitter. Upon peripheral inflammation, SP activates the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and potentiates activity of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is coexpressed by nociceptive neurons. Therefore, SP functions as an important neurotransmitter involved in the hypersensitization of inflammatory pain. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inhibits TRPV1 activity via activation of the chemerin 23 receptor (ChemR23)-an RvE1 receptor located in dorsal root ganglion neurons-and therefore exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory pain...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
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