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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344068/interlimb-differences-in-coordination-of-unsupported-reaching-movements
#1
Jacob E Schaffer, Robert L Sainburg
Previous research suggests that interlimb differences in coordination associated with handedness might result from specialized control mechanisms that are subserved by different cerebral hemispheres. Based largely on the results of horizontal plane reaching studies, we have proposed that the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for predictive control of limb dynamics, while the non-dominant hemisphere is specialized for controlling limb impedance. The current study explores interlimb differences in control of 3-D unsupported reaching movements...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341421/mutations-evolution-and-the-central-role-of-a-self-defined-fitness-function-in-the-initiation-and-progression-of-cancer
#2
Robert A Gatenby, Joel Brown
The origin and progression of cancer is widely viewed as "somatic evolution" driven by the accumulation of random genetic changes. This theoretical model, however, neglects fundamental conditions for evolution by natural selection, which include competition for survival and a local environmental context. Recent observations that the mutational burden in different cancers can vary by 2 orders of magnitude and that multiple mutations, some of which are "oncogenic," are observed in normal tissue suggests these neglected Darwinian dynamics may play a critical role in modifying the evolutionary consequences of molecular events...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341148/lipidomics-prospects-from-a-technological-perspective
#3
Alexander Triebl, Jürgen Hartler, Martin Trötzmüller, Harald C Köfeler
Over the last two decades, lipidomics has evolved into an 'omics' technology pari passu with benchmarking 'omics' technologies, such as genomics or proteomics. The driving force behind this development was a constant advance in mass spectrometry and related technologies. The aim of this opinion article is to give the interested reader a concise but still comprehensive overview about the technological state of the art in lipidomics, current challenges and perspectives for future development. As such, this article guides through the whole workflow of lipidomics, from sampling to data analysis...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339567/role-of-biomechanical-forces-in-hyperfiltration-mediated-glomerular-injury-in-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#4
Tarak Srivastava, Ganesh Thiagarajan, Uri S Alon, Ram Sharma, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Mukut Sharma
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) including solitary kidney constitute the main cause of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Children born with CAKUT develop signs of CKD only during adolescence and do not respond to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. Early cellular changes underlying CKD progression to end-stage renal disease by early adulthood are not well understood. The mechanism of maladaptive hyperfiltration that occurs from loss of functional nephrons, including solitary kidney, is not clear...
January 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336548/nutrient-sensing-by-absorptive-and-secretory-progenies-of-small-intestinal-stem-cells
#5
Kunihiro Kishida, Sarah C Pearce, Shiyan Yu, Nan Gao, Ronaldo P Ferraris
Nutrient sensing triggers responses by the gut-brain axis modulating hormone release, feeding behavior and metabolism that become dysregulated in metabolic syndrome and some cancers. Except for absorptive enterocytes and secretory enteroendocrine cells, the ability of many intestinal cell types to sense nutrients is still unknown, hence we hypothesized that progenitor stem cells (ISC) possess nutrient sensing ability inherited by progenies during differentiation. We directed via modulators of Wnt and Notch signaling, differentiation of precursor mouse intestinal crypts into specialized organoids each containing ISC, enterocyte, goblet or Paneth cells at relative proportions much higher than in situ as determined by mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry of cell type biomarkers...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334696/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-angiogenic-potential-of-endothelial-cells
#6
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Daniel T O Carvalho, Miguel J S Ferreira, Guilherme Aresta, Manuela E Gomes, Jack J W A van Loon, Kim Van der Heiden, Pedro L Granja
Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a key event in pathology, including cancer progression, but also in homeostasis and regeneration. As the phenotype of endothelial cells (ECs) is continuously regulated by local biomechanical forces, studying endothelial behaviour in altered gravity might contribute to new insights towards angiogenesis modulation. This study aimed at characterizing EC behaviour after hypergravity exposure (more than 1g), with special focus on cytoskeleton architecture and capillary-like structure formation...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332982/mod-special-issue-on-the-roles-of-physical-forces-in-animal-development
#7
EDITORIAL
Christian Dahmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331075/myosin-activity-drives-actomyosin-bundle-formation-and-organization-in-contractile-cells-of-the-c-elegans-spermatheca
#8
Alison C E Wirshing, Erin J Cram
Stress fibers, contractile actomyosin bundles, are important for cellular force production and adaptation to physical stress and have been well-studied within the context of cell migration. However, less is known about actomyosin bundle formation and organization in vivo and in specialized contractile cells, such as smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells. The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a bag-like organ of 24 myoepithelial cells that houses the sperm and is the site of fertilization. During ovulation, spermathecal cells are stretched by oocyte entry and then coordinately contract to expel the fertilized embryo into the uterus...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328999/what-the-electrical-impedance-can-tell-about-the-intrinsic-properties-of-an-electrodynamic-shaker
#9
Bernd Lütkenhöner
Small electrodynamic shakers are becoming increasingly popular for diagnostic investigations of the human vestibular system. More specifically, they are used as mechanical stimulators for eliciting a vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). However, it is largely unknown how shakers perform under typical measurement conditions, which considerably differ from the normal use of a shaker. Here, it is shown how the basic properties of a shaker can be determined without requiring special sensors such as accelerometers or force gauges...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328685/whole-blood-transfusion-closest-to-the-point-of-injury-during-french-remote-military-operations
#10
Yann Daniel, Anne Sailliol, Thomas Pouget, Sébastien Peyrefitte, Sylvain Ausset, Christophe Martinaud
To improve the survival of combat casualties, interest in the earliest resort to whole blood (WB) transfusion on the battlefield has been emphasized. Providing volume, coagulation factors, plasma and oxygenation capacity, WB appears actually as an ideal product severe trauma management. WB can be collected in advance, and stored for subsequent utilization, or can be drawn, directly on the battlefield, once a soldier is wounded, from an uninjured companion and immediately transfused.Such concepts require a great control of risks at each step, especially regarding ABO mismatches, and transfusion transmitted diseases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323843/dynamic-postural-control-and-associated-attentional-demands-in-contemporary-dancers-versus-non-dancers
#11
Geneviève Sirois-Leclerc, Anthony Remaud, Martin Bilodeau
Postural control is not a fully automatic process, but requires a certain level of attention, particularly as the difficulty of the postural task increases. This study aimed at testing whether experienced contemporary dancers, because of their specialized training involving the control of posture/balance, would present with a dual-task performance suggesting lesser attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control compared with non-dancers. Twenty dancers and 16 non-dancers performed a dynamic postural tracking task in both antero-posterior and side-to-side directions, while standing on a force platform...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323522/detection-of-cytosine-and-cpg-density-in-proto-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressor-genes-in-promoter-sequences-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Senol Dogan, Anis Cilic, Damir Marjanovic, Amina Kurtovic-Kozaric
Aberrant methylation is one of the driving forces of cancer genome development. Although the rate of methylation appears massively variable across the genome, it is mainly observed in histone modification, chromatin organization, DNA accessibility, or promoter sequence. Methylation of promoter sequence occurs mostly to cytosine nucleotides, which can affect transcription factors' binding affinities. In this study, we demonstrated that cytosine repeats (C types density), consisting of CC, CCC, CCCC, CCCCC, CCCCCC, CCCCCCC motifs and CpG islands density in 25 proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and control genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia...
March 21, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321592/resonance-frequency-breathing-biofeedback-to-reduce-symptoms-of-subthreshold-ptsd-with-an-air-force-special-tactics-operator-a-case-study
#13
Lorene M Petta
The prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been estimated to be several times higher in military populations compared to the national average. Special Tactics operators are a group that is more likely to avoid seeking psychological care due to the stigma and other consequences the diagnosis may have on their military careers. There is a need for more effective and less stigmatizing interventions to treat this population. Psychophysiological methods have been proven to be efficacious in treating PTSD, yet have received less attention as an adjunctive intervention...
March 20, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302294/a-test-in-context-e-a-and-e-e-to-assess-diastolic-dysfunction-and-lv-filling-pressure
#14
REVIEW
Sumeet S Mitter, Sanjiv J Shah, James D Thomas
Diastolic dysfunction represents a combination of impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation, restoration forces, myocyte lengthening load, and atrial function, culminating in increased LV filling pressures. Current Doppler echocardiography guidelines recommend using early to late diastolic transmitral flow velocity (E/A) to assess diastolic function, and E to early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity (E/e') to estimate LV filling pressures. Although both parameters have important diagnostic and prognostic implications, they should be interpreted in the context of a patient's age and the rest of the echocardiogram to describe diastolic function and guide patient management...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296391/reparametrization-of-protein-force-field-nonbonded-interactions-guided-by-osmotic-coefficient-measurements-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#15
Mark S Miller, Wesley K Lay, Shuxiang Li, William C Hacker, Jiadi An, Jianlan Ren, Adrian H Elcock
There is a small, but growing, body of literature describing the use of osmotic coefficient measurements to validate and reparametrize simulation force fields. Here we have investigated the ability of five very commonly used force field and water model combinations to reproduce the osmotic coefficients of seven neutral amino acids and five small molecules. The force fields tested include AMBER ff99SB-ILDN, CHARMM36, GROMOS54a7, and OPLS-AA, with the first of these tested in conjunction with the TIP3P and TIP4P-Ew water models...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295871/promoting-resource-stewardship-reducing-inappropriate-free-thyroid-hormone-testing
#16
Julie A Gilmour, Alanna Weisman, Steven Orlov, Robert J Goldberg, Alyse Goldberg, Hayley Baranek, Geetha Mukerji
RATIONALE: Free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) tests are often ordered when not clinically warranted. Preventing laboratory overuse by reducing inappropriate fT4 and fT3 testing is one strategy to promote resource stewardship. OBJECTIVES: (1) To characterize the frequency of inappropriate fT4 and fT3 testing and (2) to implement a quality improvement strategy aimed at reducing the number of these tests performed. METHODS: Quality improvement tools were used to create sequential change ideas: (1) education of physicians regarding appropriate indications for ordering fT4/fT3 and (2) implementation of a hospital-wide laboratory and forced-function system with a reflex fT4...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291853/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-loosening-of-different-interchangeable-abutments-in-internal-connection-type-implants
#17
Ji-Man Park, Chang-Hyun Baek, Seong-Joo Heo, Seong-Kyun Kim, Jai-Young Koak, Shin-Koo Kim, Urs C Belser
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the loosening of interchangeable one-piece abutments connected to internal-connection-type implants after cyclic loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four implant abutment groups (n = 7 in each group) with Straumann tissue-level implants were assessed: Straumann solid abutment (group S), Southern Implants solid abutment (group SI), Implant Direct straight abutment (group ID), and Blue Sky Bio regular platform abutment (group BSB)...
March 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291484/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-united-states-air-force-aeromedical-evacuation-nurses-and-technicians
#18
Julie M Swearingen, Tanya M Goodman, Wayne L Chappelle, William T Thompson
Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) are specialized military medical personnel who provide high-acuity care in an aeromedical environment. The rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was assessed in CCATT personnel and their rates were compared to general aeromedical evacuation (AE) personnel. As part of a computer-based occupational stress survey, 188 crew members (138 AE nurses and technicians, 50 CCATT nurses and respiratory therapists) completed the PTSD Checklist - Military Version...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291452/slack-reducing-band-improves-combat-application-tourniquet-pressure-profile-and-hemorrhage-control-rate
#19
Dean Nachman, Avi Benov, Amiram Shovali, Yavnai Nirit, Roy Nadler, Yitzhak Avraham, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: The Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) is the tourniquet of choice in the Israeli defense forces. Applying the device loosely before windlass twisting is a main pitfall in CAT application. This study objective is to assess the effectiveness of a novel design modification of the CAT, aiming to prevent loose applications, by minimizing the slack. METHODS: Using the HapMed leg tourniquet trainer, an above the knee traumatic amputation was simulated. Active duty combatants and Special Forces basic medics were randomly assigned to apply the modified (n = 67) or conventional CAT (n = 65) once...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290949/dod-supported-overseas-training-rotations-in-tropical-medicine-and-global-health-2000-2015
#20
James D Mancuso, Patrick W Hickey, Rodney L Coldren, Amy K Korman, Lisa W Keep, Robert F DeFraites, Maria Smith, Luke J Mancuso, Jose L Sanchez
In 1999, the Department of Defense developed a tropical medicine training program (TMTP) to train military physicians, medical students, and scientists in performing surveillance activities in an overseas environment. This review describes the competencies, educational approach, program participants, institutional collaborations, and process outcomes of the TMTP from 2000 to 2015. TMTP-sponsored rotations addressed a wide variety of interdisciplinary competencies, many of which have military-unique applications...
March 2017: Military Medicine
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