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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921784/the-evolution-of-gonad-expenditure-and-gonadosomatic-index-gsi-in-male-and-female-broadcast-spawning-invertebrates
#1
Geoff A Parker, Steven A Ramm, Jussi Lehtonen, Jonathan M Henshaw
Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring...
September 18, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915446/embracing-chemical-and-structural-diversity-with-uconga-a-universal-conformer-generation-and-analysis-program
#2
Nathaniel R Gunby, Sarah L Masters, Deborah L Crittenden
Molecular properties depend on molecular structure, so the first step in any computational chemistry investigation is to generate all thermally accessible conformers. Typically it is necessary to make a trade-off between the number of conformers to be explored and the accuracy of the method used to calculate their energies. Ab initio potential energy surface scans can, in principle, be applied to any molecule, but their conformational cost scales poorly with both molecular size and dimensionality of the search space...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914689/the-european-journal-of-cancer-prevention-special-issue-on-joining-forces-for-better-cancer-registration-in-europe-achievements-and-perspectives
#3
Giorgia Randi, Carlo La Vecchia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913966/good-practices-for-real-world-data-studies-of-treatment-and-or-comparative-effectiveness-recommendations-from-the-joint-ispor-ispe-special-task-force-on-real-world-evidence-in-health-care-decision-making
#4
Marc L Berger, Harold Sox, Richard J Willke, Diana L Brixner, Hans-Georg Eichler, Wim Goettsch, David Madigan, Amr Makady, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Rosanna Tarricone, Shirley V Wang, John Watkins, C Daniel Mullins
PURPOSE: Real-world evidence (RWE) includes data from retrospective or prospective observational studies and observational registries and provides insights beyond those addressed by randomized controlled trials. RWE studies aim to improve health care decision making. METHODS: The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) created a task force to make recommendations regarding good procedural practices that would enhance decision makers' confidence in evidence derived from RWD studies...
September 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913963/reporting-to-improve-reproducibility-and-facilitate-validity-assessment-for-healthcare-database-studies-v1-0
#5
Shirley V Wang, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Marc L Berger, Jeffrey Brown, Frank de Vries, Ian Douglas, Joshua J Gagne, Rosa Gini, Olaf Klungel, C Daniel Mullins, Michael D Nguyen, Jeremy A Rassen, Liam Smeeth, Miriam Sturkenboom
PURPOSE: Defining a study population and creating an analytic dataset from longitudinal healthcare databases involves many decisions. Our objective was to catalogue scientific decisions underpinning study execution that should be reported to facilitate replication and enable assessment of validity of studies conducted in large healthcare databases. METHODS: We reviewed key investigator decisions required to operate a sample of macros and software tools designed to create and analyze analytic cohorts from longitudinal streams of healthcare data...
September 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911059/forcing-the-vicious-circle-sarcopenia-increases-toxicity-decreases-response-to-chemotherapy-and-worsens-with-chemotherapy
#6
F Bozzetti
Sarcopenia has recently emerged as a new condition that, independently from malnutrition, may adversely affect the prognosis of cancer patients. Purpose of this narrative review is to define the prevalence of sarcopenia in different primaries, its role in leading to chemotherapy toxicity and decreased compliance with the oncological therapy and the effect of some drugs on the onset of sarcopenia. Finally, the review aims to describe the current approaches to restore the muscle mass through nutrition, exercise and anti-inflammatory agents or multimodal programmes with a special emphasis on the results of randomized controlled trials...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910478/a-shift-from-resilience-to-human-performance-optimization-in-special-operations-training-advancements-in-theory-and-practice
#7
Gloria H Park, Lauren A Messina, Patricia A Deuster
Within the Department of Defense over the past decade, a focus on enhancing Warfighter resilience and readiness has increased. For Special Operation Forces (SOF), who bear unique burdens for training and deployment, programs like the Preservation of the Force and Family have been created to help support SOF and their family members in sustaining capabilities and enhancing resilience in the face of prolonged warfare. In this review, we describe the shift in focus from resilience to human performance optimization (HPO) and the benefits of human performance initiatives that include holistic fitness...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910476/no-ordinary-sleeper-cell-managing-the-varied-problems-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#8
Jason Jarvis
Plasmodium vivax malaria is an essential yet elusive target of tropical disease eradication efforts, and is the focus of this literature review. This review will reacquaint Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medics with the basic principles of malaria as context for understanding the several confounding issues particular to P. vivax infections. The review concludes with current malaria guidelines and malaria mitigation strategies.
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910473/optimization-of-simulation-and-moulage-in-military-related-medical-training
#9
Christopher Petersen, Stephen C Rush, Isabelle Gallo, Bryan Dalere, Brian Staak, Litt Moore, Win Kerr, Matthew Chandler, Will Smith
Preparation of Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medics as first responders for the battle space and austere environments is critical to optimize survival and quality of life for our Operators who may sustain serious and complex wounding patterns and illnesses. In the absence of constant clinical exposure for these medics, it is necessary to maximize all available training opportunities. The incorporation of scenario-based training helps weave together teamwork and the ability to practice treatment protocols in a tactical, controlled training environment to reproduce, to some degree, the environment in and stressors under which care will need to be delivered...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910472/a-descriptive-analysis-of-occupational-fatalities-due-to-felonious-assault-among-u-s-law-enforcement-officers-during-tactical-incidents-1996-2014
#10
Moriah S Thompson, Tyler M Hartman, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about occupational fatalities among tactical officers. A greater understanding of such injuries is needed to improve officer safety. The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of line-of-duty deaths secondary to felonious assault during tactical incidents. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed of open-source de-identified Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) data inclusive of the years 1996-2014...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910468/estimation-of-dog-bite-risk-and-related-morbidity-among-personnel-working-with-military-dogs
#11
H Schermann, N Eiges, A Sabag, E Kazum, A Albagli, M Salai, A Shlaifer
BACKGROUND: Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910467/the-golden-hour-offset-surgical-treatment-team-operational-concept-experience-of-the-102nd-forward-surgical-team-in-operation-freedom-s-sentinel-2015-2016
#12
Jerry M Benavides, Linda C Benavides, Diane F Hale, Jonathan B Lundy
Theater Special Operations Force (SOF) medical planners have begun using Army Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) to maintain a golden hour for U.S. SOF during Operation Freedom's Sentinel required adaptation in FST training, configuration, personnel, equipment, and employment to form Golden Hour Offset Surgical Treatment Teams (GHOST-Ts). This article describes one such FST's experience in Operation Freedom's Sentinel while deployed for 9 months in support of SOF in southern Afghanistan.
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905955/a-low-cost-large-field-of-view-scanning-ion-conductance-microscope-for-studying-nanoparticle-cell-membrane-interactions
#13
Astrid Gesper, Philipp Hagemann, Patrick Happel
Nanoparticles have the potential to become versatile tools in the medical and life sciences. One potential application is delivering drugs or other compounds to the cell cytoplasm, which requires the nanoparticles to bind to or cross the cell membrane. However, there are only a few tools available which allow studying the interaction of nanoparticles and the cell membrane of living cells in a physiological environment. Currently, the tool which least biases living cells is Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM)...
September 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905131/exploring-evidence-of-positive-selection-signatures-in-cattle-breeds-selected-for-different-traits
#14
Mengistie Taye, Wonseok Lee, Soomin Jeon, Joon Yoon, Tadelle Dessie, Olivier Hanotte, Okeyo Ally Mwai, Stephen Kemp, Seoae Cho, Sung Jong Oh, Hak-Kyo Lee, Heebal Kim
Since domestication, the genome landscape of cattle has been changing due to natural and artificial selection forces resulting in several general and specialized cattle breeds of the world. Identifying genomic regions affected due to these forces in livestock gives an insight into the history of selection for economically important traits and genetic adaptation to specific environments of the populations under consideration. This study explores the genes/genomic regions under selection in relation to the phenotypes of Holstein, Hanwoo, and N'Dama cattle breeds using Tajima's D, XP-CLR, and XP-EHH population statistical methods...
September 13, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902998/activation-of-c-h-bonds-of-alkyl-and-arylnitriles-by-the-tacl5-pph3-lewis-pair
#15
Md Mamdudur Rahman, Mark D Smith, José A Amaya, Thomas M Makris, Dmitry V Peryshkov
A new pathway of activation of C-H bonds of alkyl- and arylnitriles by a cooperative action of TaCl5 and PPh3 under mild conditions is reported. Coordination of nitriles to the highly Lewis acidic Ta(V) center resulted in an activation of their aliphatic and aromatic C-H bonds, allowing nucleophilic attack and deprotonation by the relatively weak base PPh3. The propensity of Ta(V) to form multiple bonds to nitrogen-containing ligands is an important driving force of the reaction as it led to a sequence of bond rearrangements and the emergence of, in the case of benzonitrile, a zwitterionic enediimido complex of Ta(V) through C═C double bond formation between two activated nitrile fragments...
September 13, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902975/optical-and-optoelectronic-property-analysis-of-nanomaterials-inside-transmission-electron-microscope
#16
REVIEW
Joseph F S Fernando, Chao Zhang, Konstantin L Firestein, Dmitri Golberg
In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allows one to investigate nanostructures at high spatial resolution in response to external stimuli, such as heat, electrical current, mechanical force and light. This review exclusively focuses on the optical, optoelectronic and photocatalytic studies inside TEM. With the development of TEMs and specialized TEM holders that include in situ illumination and light collection optics, it is possible to perform optical spectroscopies and diverse optoelectronic experiments inside TEM with simultaneous high resolution imaging of nanostructures...
September 13, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898926/hybrid-cell-centred-vertex-model-for-multicellular-systems-with-equilibrium-preserving-remodelling
#17
P Mosaffa, A Rodríguez-Ferran, J J Muñoz
We present a hybrid vertex/cell-centred model for mechanically simulating planar cellular monolayers undergoing cell reorganisation. Cell centres are represented by a triangular nodal network, while the cell boundaries are formed by an associated vertex network. The two networks are coupled through a kinematic constraint which we allow to relax progressively. Special attention is paid to the change of cell-cell connectivity due to cell reorganisation or remodelling events. We handle these situations by using a variable resting length and applying an Equilibrium-Preserving Mapping (EPM) on the new connectivity, which computes a new set of resting lengths that preserve nodal and vertex equilibrium...
September 12, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891636/cuaac-based-click-chemistry-in-self-healing-polymers
#18
Diana Döhler, Philipp Michael, Wolfgang H Binder
Click chemistry has emerged as a significant tool for materials science, organic chemistry, and bioscience. Based on the initial concept of Barry Sharpless in 2001, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has triggered a plethora of chemical concepts for linking molecules and building blocks under ambient conditions, forming the basis for applications in autonomous cross-linking materials. Self-healing systems on the other hand are often based on mild cross-linking chemistries that are able to react either autonomously or upon an external trigger...
September 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886611/-mass-casualty-incident-special-features-of-threatening-situations
#19
Björn Hossfeld, Thomas Wurmb, Florent Josse, Matthias Helm
Terrorist attacks or amok runs may cause "threatening situations" for emergency medical services (EMS), fire fighters and physicians. Cooperation with the police is of paramount importance. In order to minimize the risk to rescue personnel and affected persons, emergency medical care has to follow tactical principles. So, the strategy in such "threatening situations" is "Stop the bleeding and clear the scene". The police define three areas of danger: unsafe, partly safe and secure. Medical care in these areas follows the concept of Tactical Combat Casualty Care...
September 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886235/in-the-search-for-a-lead-structure-among-series-of-potent-and-selective-hydantoin-5-ht7-r-agents-the-drug-likeness-in-vitro-study
#20
Gniewomir Latacz, Annamaria Lubelska, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Anna Partyka, Andrzej Sobiło, Agnieszka Olejarz, Katarzyna Kucwaj-Brysz, Grzegorz Satała, Andrzej J Bojarski, Anna Wesołowska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Jadwiga Handzlik
Since the year 1993, when 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) was discovered, there is no selective 5-HT7 R ligand introduced to the pharmaceutical market. One out of the main reasons disqualifying the 5-HT7 R ligands are weak drugability properties, including metabolic instability or low permeability. This study is focused on the search of a lead compound by "drug-likeness" estimation of the first series of selective and potent 5-HT7 R ligands among 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(2-hydroxy-3-(4-aryl-piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-5-methyl-imidazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives (11-16)...
September 8, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
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