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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431451/-experience-with-the-hind-foot-relaxation-boot
#1
Hans Zwipp, Michael Borrmann, Eberhard Walter
The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430550/round-table-on-malignant-hyperthermia-in-physically-active-populations-meeting-proceedings
#2
Yuri Hosokawa, Douglas J Casa, Henry Rosenberg, John F Capacchione, Emmanuel Sagui, Sheila Riazi, Luke N Belval, Patricia A Deuster, John F Jardine, Stavros A Kavouras, Elaine C Lee, Kevin C Miller, Sheila M Muldoon, Francis G O'Connor, Scott R Sailor, Nyamkhishig Sambuughin, Rebecca L Stearns, William M Adams, Robert A Huggins, Lesley W Vandermark
CONTEXT:   Recent case reports on malignant hyperthermia (MH)-like syndrome in physically active populations indicate potential associations among MH, exertional heat stroke (EHS), and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER). However, an expert consensus for clinicians working with these populations is lacking. OBJECTIVE:   To provide current expert consensus on the (1) definition of MH; (2) history, etiology, and pathophysiology of MH; (3) epidemiology of MH; (4) association of MH with EHS and ER; (5) identification of an MH-like syndrome; (6) recommendations for acute management of an MH-like syndrome; (7) special considerations for physically active populations; and (8) future directions for research...
April 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429302/ethics-guidelines-in-environmental-epidemiology-their-development-and-challenges-we-face
#3
REVIEW
Shira Kramer, Colin L Soskolne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review integrates historical developments and key events in bringing ethics into epidemiology in general and into environmental epidemiology in particular. The goal is to provide context for and discern among the various approaches and motivations that drive the need for ethical conduct in support of the public interest. RECENT FINDINGS: The need for ethics guidelines in epidemiology is different from developments in other biomedical-related fields by virtue of its focus on populations rather than on individuals...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429016/synergetic-effects-of-k-and-mg-2-ion-intercalation-on-the-electrochemical-and-actuation-properties-of-the-two-dimensional-ti3c2-mxene
#4
Qiang Gao, Jeremy Come, Michael Naguib, Stephen Jesse, Yury Gogotsi, Nina Balke
Two-dimensional materials, such as MXenes, are attractive candidates for energy storage and electrochemical actuators due to their high volume changes upon ion intercalation. Of special interest for boosting energy storage is the intercalation of multivalent ions such as Mg(2+), which suffers from sluggish intercalation and transport kinetics due to its ion size. By combining traditional electrochemical characterization techniques with electrochemical dilatometry and contact resonance atomic force microscopy, the synergetic effects of the pre-intercalation of K(+) ions are demonstrated to improve the charge storage of multivalent ions, as well as tune the mechanical and actuation properties of the Ti3C2 MXene...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424773/septins-focus-cellular-growth-for-host-infection-by-pathogenic-fungi
#5
REVIEW
Michelle Momany, Nicholas J Talbot
One of the key challenges faced by microbial pathogens is invasion of host tissue. Fungal pathogens adopt a number of distinct strategies to overcome host cell defenses, including the development of specialized infection structures, the secretion of proteins that manipulate host responses or cellular organization, and the ability to facilitate their own uptake by phagocytic mechanisms. Key to many of these adaptations is the considerable morphogenetic plasticity displayed by pathogenic species. Fungal pathogens can, for example, shift their growth habit between non-polarized spores, or yeast-like cells, and highly polarized hyphal filaments...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#6
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416675/integrin-extension-enables-ultrasensitive-regulation-by-cytoskeletal-force
#7
Jing Li, Timothy A Springer
Integrins undergo large-scale conformational changes upon activation. Signaling events driving integrin activation have previously been discussed conceptually, but not quantitatively. Here, recent measurements of the intrinsic ligand-binding affinity and free energy of each integrin conformational state on the cell surface, together with the length scales of conformational change, are used to quantitatively compare models of activation. We examine whether binding of cytoskeletal adaptors to integrin cytoplasmic domains is sufficient for activation or whether exertion of tensile force by the actin cytoskeleton across the integrin-ligand complex is also required...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415256/turbulent-compressible-fluid-renormalization-group-analysis-scaling-regimes-and-anomalous-scaling-of-advected-scalar-fields
#8
N V Antonov, N M Gulitskiy, M M Kostenko, T Lučivjanský
We study a model of fully developed turbulence of a compressible fluid, based on the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, by means of the field-theoretic renormalization group. In this approach, scaling properties are related to the fixed points of the renormalization group equations. Previous analysis of this model near the real-world space dimension 3 identified a scaling regime [N. V. Antonov et al., Theor. Math. Phys. 110, 305 (1997)TMPHAH0040-577910.1007/BF02630456]. The aim of the present paper is to explore the existence of additional regimes, which could not be found using the direct perturbative approach of the previous work, and to analyze the crossover between different regimes...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415194/migration-of-a-droplet-in-a-cylindrical-tube-in-the-creeping-flow-regime
#9
Binita Nath, Gautam Biswas, Amaresh Dalal, Kirti Chandra Sahu
The migration of a neutrally buoyant droplet in a tube containing another immiscible liquid is investigated numerically in the creeping flow regime. A fully developed velocity profile is imposed at the inlet of the tube. The interface between the two immiscible fluids is captured using a coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid approach. The deformation and breakup dynamics of the droplet are investigated in terms of three dimensionless parameters, namely, the ratio between the radius of the undeformed droplet and the radius of the capillary tube, the viscosity ratio between the dispersed and the continuous phases, and the capillary number that measures the relative importance of the viscous force over the surface tension force...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414087/quantifying-the-potential-and-flux-landscapes-of-multi-locus-evolution
#10
Li Xu, Jin Wang
Exploration of multi-locus evolution is critically important for understanding evolutionary dynamics. Recombination and epistasis lead to complex evolutionary dynamics. Quantifying the stability and function of such multi-locus evolutionary systems globally is a long-standing challenge for evolutionary biologists. The conventional Wright, Fisher and quasi-linkage equilibrium (QLE) theories can only be applied to highly restricted, simplified and special evolutionary scenarios. In this study, we developed a non-equilibrium potential and flux landscape theory to explore the multi-locus evolution beyond Wright, Fisher and the QLE...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412539/laparoscopic-reoperative-anti-reflux-surgery-is-more-cost-effective-than-open-approach
#11
Farzaneh Banki, Matthew Weaver, David Roife, Chandni Kaushik, Anshu Khanna, Kelly Ochoa, Charles C Miller
BACKGROUND: We previously reported the outcomes of laparoscopic and open reoperative antireflux surgery. The aim of this study was to compare costs. METHODS: Retrospective review. Financial and procedure coding data were obtained using a cost accounting system. There were 49 procedures in 46 patients: 36 females/10 males. There were 38 laparoscopic (including 4 conversions); and 11 open procedures (7 transabdominal repairs and 4 gastric preserving Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402659/development-of-the-abeem%C3%AF-%C3%AF-polarization-force-field-for-base-pairs-with-amino-acid-residue-complexes
#12
Cui Liu, Yue Li, Bing-Yu Han, Li-Dong Gong, Li-Nan Lu, Zhong-Zhi Yang, Dong-Xia Zhao
DNA damage caused by oxidized bases can lead to aging and cancer in living beings. Luckily, a repair enzyme is able to repair the oxidized bases. The key step is to accurately recognize the oxidized bases, which mainly rely on complex hydrogen bond interactions. We have calibrated the charge parameters and torsional parameters of the ABEEMσπ polarization force field (ABEEMσπ PFF) to accurately describe the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions. Taking the experiment and quantum chemical method as the benchmark, a series of properties of base pair-amino acid residue systems, DNA and DNA-protein interaction systems were calculated and compared with those of other force fields...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400519/balance-of-microtubule-stiffness-and-cortical-tension-determines-the-size-of-blood-cells-with-marginal-band-across-species
#13
Serge Dmitrieff, Adolfo Alsina, Aastha Mathur, François J Nédélec
The fast bloodstream of animals is associated with large shear stresses. To withstand these conditions, blood cells have evolved a special morphology and a specific internal architecture to maintain their integrity over several weeks. For instance, nonmammalian red blood cells, mammalian erythroblasts, and platelets have a peripheral ring of microtubules, called the marginal band, that flattens the overall cell morphology by pushing on the cell cortex. In this work, we model how the shape of these cells stems from the balance between marginal band rigidity and cortical tension...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396443/plasma-fibronectin-stabilizes-borrelia-burgdorferi-endothelial-interactions-under-vascular-shear-stress-by-a-catch-bond-mechanism
#14
Alexandra F Niddam, Rhodaba Ebady, Anil Bansal, Anne Koehler, Boris Hinz, Tara J Moriarty
Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394607/graphene-nanobubbles-produced-by-water-splitting
#15
Hongjie An, Beng Hau Tan, James Guo Sheng Moo, Sheng Liu, Martin Pumera, Claus-Dieter Ohl
Graphene nanobubbles are of significant interest due to their ability to trap mesoscopic volumes of gas for various applications in nanoscale engineering. However, conventional protocols to produce such bubbles are relatively elaborate and require specialized equipment to subject graphite samples to high temperatures or pressures. Here, we demonstrate the formation of graphene nanobubbles between layers of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) with electrolysis. Although this process can also lead to the formation of gaseous surface nanobubbles on top of the substrate, the two types of bubbles can easily be distinguished using atomic force microscopy...
April 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392048/properties-of-hydrodynamic-j-type-countercurrent-chromatography-for-protein-separation-using-aqueous-two-phase-systems-with-special-reference-to-constructing-conical-columns
#16
Jianjian Ding, Shifei Li, Yuqing Zhao, Yue Hugh Guan, Li Deng, Qiuyun Deng
Protein separation using hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography (CCC), where low backpressure is inherent, is more challenging, more time consuming and more costly when compared with separating small molecules. The most hopeful approach is to rationally design suitable columns for already commercialized J-type CCC machinery. By comparing 3 column geometries (3D helix, 2D spiral and 3D cone), we firstly constructed the mechanical model tailored to the conical column on J-type CCC using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) on protein separation...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389823/chaperone-driven-polymer-translocation-through-nanopore-spatial-distribution-and-binding-energy
#17
Rouhollah Haji Abdolvahab
Chaperones are binding proteins working as a driving force in biopolymer translocation. They bind to the biopolymer near the pore and prevent its backsliding. Chaperones may have different spatial distributions. Recently, we showed the importance of their spatial distribution in translocation and its effects on the sequence dependency of the translocation time. Here we focus on homopolymers and exponential distribution. Because of the exponential distribution of chaperones, the energy dependency of the translocation time will change...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386533/the-civic-turn-of-immigrant-integration-policies-in-the-scandinavian-welfare-states
#18
EDITORIAL
Karin Borevi, Kristian Kriegbaum Jensen, Per Mouritsen
This special issue addresses the question of how to understand the civic turn within immigrant integration in the West towards programs and instruments, public discourses and political intentions, which aim to condition, incentivize, and shape through socialization immigrants into 'citizens'. Empirically, it focuses on the less studied Scandinavian cases of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. In this introduction, we situate the contributions to this special issue within the overall debate on civic integration and convergence...
2017: Comparative Migration Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386214/chaperones-in-polyglutamine-aggregation-beyond-the-q-stretch
#19
REVIEW
E F E Kuiper, Eduardo P de Mattos, Laura B Jardim, Harm H Kampinga, Steven Bergink
Expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches in at least nine unrelated proteins lead to inherited neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. The expansion size in all diseases correlates with age at onset (AO) of disease and with polyQ protein aggregation, indicating that the expanded polyQ stretch is the main driving force for the disease onset. Interestingly, there is marked interpatient variability in expansion thresholds for a given disease. Between different polyQ diseases the repeat length vs. AO also indicates the existence of modulatory effects on aggregation of the upstream and downstream amino acid sequences flanking the Q expansion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383117/an-alternative-prosthetic-approach-for-rehabilitation-of-two-edentulous-maxillectomy-patients-clinical-report
#20
Murat Yenisey, Şafak Külünk, Necati Kaleli
Obturator prosthesis is a common treatment method for maxillectomy patients for maintaining their oronasal separation and resuming their social lives. After tumor resection, the remaining anatomical structures have a significant effect on prosthesis retention. The present study describes the rehabilitation of two maxillectomy patients after cancer surgery using a prosthesis consisting of a denture and a special retentive obturator that is positioned in the anatomical undercuts of the nasal cavity. These patients have undergone total and subtotal maxillectomy surgery after the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
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