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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791381/fringe-projection-system-for-high-temperature-workpieces-design-calibration-and-measurement
#1
Rüdiger Beermann, Lorenz Quentin, Eduard Reithmeier, Markus Kästner
In the Collaborative Research Centre 1153, Tailored Forming, the geometry of hot measurement objects needs to be captured quickly, areally, and with high precision. The documentation of the hybrid components' shrinkage behavior directly after the forming process can yield insight into the development of residual stresses. In this paper, we present a fringe projection measurement setup designed for the topography measurement of high-temperature steel shafts, comprising two cameras with different lenses and a projector...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789347/scaling-of-avian-bipedal-locomotion-reveals-independent-effects-of-body-mass-and-leg-posture-on-gait
#2
REVIEW
Monica A Daley, Aleksandra Birn-Jeffery
Birds provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationships between body size, limb morphology and bipedal locomotor function. Birds are ecologically diverse and span a large range of body size and limb proportions, yet all use their hindlimbs for bipedal terrestrial locomotion, for at least some part of their life history. Here, we review the scaling of avian striding bipedal gaits to explore how body mass and leg morphology influence walking and running. We collate literature data from 21 species, spanning a 2500× range in body mass from painted quail to ostriches...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788859/female-judo-athletes-physical-test-performances-are-unrelated-to-technical-tactical-competition-skills
#3
Rafael L Kons, Juliano Dal Pupo, Jonathan Ache-Dias, Daniele Detanico
This study analyzed the relationship between generic and judo-specific physical test performances and technical-tactical competition performances among 19 female judo athletes. Participant data were gathered in two stages: (a) physical tests-countermovement jump (CMJ), handgrip strength, Special Judo Fitness Test and Judogi Grip Strength Test; and (b) match performances recorded for technical-tactical analysis. Pearson's linear correlation and multiple linear regression analysis showed no significant correlations between any technical-tactical parameter and judo-specific physical tests...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787545/recent-advances-in-austere-combat-surgery-use-of-aortic-balloon-occlusion-as-well-as-blood-challenges-by-special-operations-medical-forces-in-recent-combat-operations
#4
D Marc Northern, Justin D Manley, Regan Lyon, Daniel Farber, Benjamin J Mitchell, Kristopher J Filak, Jonathan Lundy, Joe J DuBose, Todd E Rasmussen, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) for control of non-compressible torso hemorrhage is a technology that is increasingly being utilized in the combat casualty setting. Its use in the resource restricted environment holds potential to improve hemorrhage control, decrease blood product utilization, decrease morbidity, and improve combat mortality. The objective of this report is to present the single largest series of REBOA use on severely injured combat casualties...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785034/trophic-overlap-between-expanding-and-contracting-fish-predators-in-a-range-margin-undergoing-change
#5
Mats Westerbom, Antti Lappalainen, Olli Mustonen, Alf Norkko
Climate change is predicted to cause a freshening of the Baltic Sea, facilitating range expansions of freshwater species and contractions of marine. Resident marine flounders (Platichthys flesus) and expansive freshwater roach (Rutilus rutilus) are dominant consumers in the Baltic Sea sublittoral where they occur in partial sympatry. By comparing patterns of resource use by flounders and roach along a declining resource gradient of blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) our aim was to explore predator functional responses and the degree of trophic overlap...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776079/directed-motion-of-spheres-induced-by-unbiased-driving-forces-in-viscous-fluids-beyond-the-stokes-law-regime
#6
Jesús Casado-Pascual
The emergence of directed motion is investigated in a system consisting of a sphere immersed in a viscous fluid and subjected to time-periodic forces of zero average. The directed motion arises from the combined action of a nonlinear drag force and the applied driving forces, in the absence of any periodic substrate potential. Necessary conditions for the existence of such directed motion are obtained and an analytical expression for the average terminal velocity is derived within the adiabatic approximation...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773769/weathering-us-cuba-political-storms-jos%C3%A3-rubiera-phd-cuba-s-chief-weather-forecaster
#7
Gail Reed
Full disclosure: chief weather forecaster is not his official title, but rather one affectionally conferred on Dr Rubiera by the Cuban people, who look to him not only in times of peril, but also to learn about the science of meteorology. Anyone who has taken a taxi in Cuba during hurricane season (June 1 to November 30), and bothered to ask the driver, will receive a clear explanation about how hurricanes are formed, what the Saffir-Simpson scale is all about, and how the season is shaping up-all courtesy of Dr Rubiera's talent for communication during nightly weather forecasts and special broadcasts...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773448/the-role-of-the-common-gamma-chain-family-cytokines-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-based-anti-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Heleen H Van Acker, Diana Campillo-Davo, Gils Roex, Maarten Versteven, Evelien L Smits, Viggo F Van Tendeloo
Cytokines of the common gamma-chain receptor family, comprising interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21, are vital with respect to organizing and sustaining healthy immune cell functions. Supporting the anti-cancer immune response, these cytokines inspire great interest for their use as vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapies. It is against this background that gamma delta (γδ) T cells, as special-force soldiers and natural contributors of the tumor immunosurveillance, also received a lot of attention the last decade...
May 14, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769835/correlations-between-angular-velocities-in-selected-joints-and-velocity-of-table-tennis-racket-during-topspin-forehand-and-backhand
#9
Ziemowit Bańkosz, Sławomir Winiarski
The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between angular velocities in individual joints and racket velocity for different topspin forehand and backhand strokes in table tennis. Ten elite female table tennis players participated, presenting different kinds of topspin forehands and backhands - after a no-spin ball (FH1, BH1), after a backspin ball (FH2, BH2) and "heavy" topspin (FH3, BH3). Range of motion was measured with the BTS Smart-E (BTS Bioengineering, Milan, Italy) motion analysis system with a specially developed marker placement protocol for the upper body parts and an acoustic sensor attached to the racket to identify ball-racket contact...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769361/convergence-of-biannual-moulting-strategies-across-birds-and-mammals
#10
REVIEW
Roxanne S Beltran, Jennifer M Burns, Greg A Breed
Birds and mammals have developed numerous strategies for replacing worn feathers and hair. Moulting usually occurs on an annual basis; however, moults that take place twice per year (biannual moults) also occur. Here, we review the forces driving the evolution of various moult strategies, focusing on the special case of the complete biannual moult as a convergence of selection pressures across birds and mammals. Current evidence suggests that harsh environmental conditions or seasonality (e.g. larger variation in temperatures) drive evolution of a biannual moult...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766388/molecular-evolution-of-metaplasia-to-adenocarcinoma-in-the-esophagus
#11
REVIEW
William M Grady, Ming Yu
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), a condition where the normal squamous epithelia is replaced by specialized intestinal metaplasia in response to chronic gastroesophageal acid reflux. In a minority of individuals, BE can progress to low- and high-grade dysplasia and eventually to intra-mucosal and then invasive carcinoma. BE provides researchers with a unique model to characterize the process by which a carcinoma arises from its precursor lesion. Molecular studies of BE have demonstrated that it is not simply a metaplastic tissue, but rather it harbors frequent alterations that are also present in dysplastic BE and in EAC...
May 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764540/-2018-national-consensus-on-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training-in-china
#12
Lixiang Wang, Qingyi Meng, Tao Yu
To promote the technical training and scientific popularization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in China, the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Specialized Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association combined with the Science Popularization Branch of the Chinese Medical Association wrote "2018 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in China". The formation was based on the general outline about "2016 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in China", and to implement the important strategies included the "three pre" policy, prevention, precognition, and pre-warning, before the cardiac arrest (CA); the "three modernization" methods, standardized, diversified and individualized, during the CA; and the "three life" strategies, the rebirth, the extra and the extended, after the CA; and also combined with the concrete National conditions and clinical practice of China area...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763828/combinatorial-multispectral-thermodynamics-docking-and-site-directed-mutagenesis-reveal-the-cognitive-characteristics-of-honey-bee-chemosensory-protein-to-plant-semiochemical
#13
Jing Tan, Xinmi Song, Xiaobin Fu, Fan Wu, Fuliang Hu, Hongliang Li
In the chemoreceptive system of insects, there are always some soluble binding proteins, such as some antennal-specific chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which are abundantly distributed in the chemosensory sensillar lymph. The antennal-specific CSPs usually have strong capability to bind diverse semiochemicals, while the detailed interaction between CSPs and the semiochemicals remain unclear. Here, by means of the combinatorial multispectral, thermodynamics, docking and site-directed mutagenesis, we detailedly interpreted a binding interaction between a plant semiochemical β-ionone and antennal-specific CSP1 from the worker honey bee...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762034/ionic-liquid-based-paclitaxel-preparation-a-new-potential-formulation-for-cancer-treatment
#14
Chowdhury Md Raihan, Rahman Md Moshikur, Rie Wakabayashi, Yoshiro Tahara, Noriho Kamiya, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Masahiro Goto
Paclitaxel (PTX) injection (i.e. Taxol) has been used as an effective chemotherapeutic treatment for various cancers. However, the current Taxol formulation contains Cremophor EL, which causes hypersensitivity reactions during intravenous administration and precipitation by aqueous dilution. This article reports the preliminary results on the ionic liquid (IL)-based PTX formulations developed to address the aforementioned issues. The formulations were composed of PTX/cholinium amino acid ILs/ethanol/tween-80/water...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758960/biomechanical-investigation-of-orthodontic-treatment-planning-based-on-orthodontic-force-measurement-and-finite-element-method-before-implementation-a-case-study
#15
Jianlei Wu, Yunfeng Liu, Jianxing Zhang, Wei Peng
BACKGROUND: Orthodontic treatment planning (OTP) is primarily depended on clinical experiences of orthodontists at present, while equivocal OTP would increase the possibility of treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate a methodology for quantitatively evaluating OTP, using theoretical analyses, orthodontic forces measurement (OFM) and finite element method (FEM). METHODS: An OTP was theoretically designed based on a clinical case and forces on incisors in OTP were measured on a specialized platform...
April 27, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758728/amphibian-sacculus-and-the-forced-kuramoto-model-with-intrinsic-noise-and-frequency-dispersion
#16
Seung Ji, Dolores Bozovic, Robijn Bruinsma
The amphibian sacculus (AS) is an end organ that specializes in the detection of low-frequency auditory and vestibular signals. In this paper, we propose a model for the AS in the form of an array of phase oscillators with long-range coupling, subject to a steady load that suppresses spontaneous oscillations. The array is exposed to significant levels of frequency dispersion and intrinsic noise. We show that such an array can be a sensitive and robust subthreshold detector of low-frequency stimuli, though without significant frequency selectivity...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758657/one-dimensional-reduction-of-viscous-jets-i-theory
#17
Cyril Pitrou
We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753626/fgf-and-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-link-form-and-function-during-jaw-development-and-evolution
#18
Katherine C Woronowicz, Stephanie E Gline, Safa T Herfat, Aaron J Fields, Richard A Schneider
How does form arise during development and change during evolution? How does form relate to function, and what enables embryonic structures to presage their later use in adults? To address these questions, we leverage the distinct functional morphology of the jaw in duck, chick, and quail. In connection with their specialized mode of feeding, duck develop a secondary cartilage at the tendon insertion of their jaw adductor muscle on the mandible. An equivalent cartilage is absent in chick and quail. We hypothesize that species-specific jaw architecture and mechanical forces promote secondary cartilage in duck through the differential regulation of FGF and TGFβ signaling...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743785/effect-of-organic-dust-exposure-on-pulmonary-functions-in-workers-of-vegetable-market-with-special-reference-to-its-microbial-content
#19
Arun Goel, Balram Ji Omar, Rajesh Kathrotia, Prashant M Patil, Sunita Mittal
Context: Wholesale vegetable market is a rich source of generation of organic dust as loads of fruits and vegetables are loaded and unloaded here daily. Thus, regular workers are exposed to this organic dust for a considerable period of time depending on their work schedule. This study was planned to determine the microbial status of organic dust and to explore its association with pulmonary functions in the workers of wholesale vegetable market in Rishikesh. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional exploratory/observational study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742023/handedness-results-from-complementary-hemispheric-dominance-not-global-hemispheric-dominance-evidence-from-mechanically-coupled-bilateral-movements
#20
Elizabeth J Woytowicz, Kelly P Westlake, Jill Whitall, Robert L Sainburg
Two contrasting views of handedness can be described as 1) complementary dominance, in which each hemisphere is specialized for different aspects of motor control, and 2) global dominance, in which the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for all aspects of motor control. The present study sought to determine which motor lateralization hypothesis best predicts motor performance during common bilateral task of stabilizing an object (e.g. bread) with one hand while applying forces to the object (e...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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