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special forces

Caleb D Johnson, Andrew J Simonson, Matthew E Darnell, James P DeLany, Meleesa F Wohleber, Christopher Connaboy
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, two in a hot environment (n=21) and one in a cool environment (n=8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly-labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the three missions, mean energy expenditure (4,618 ± 1,350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2,429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2,200 kcal/day...
November 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jan David Kijlstra, Dongjian Hu, Peter van der Meer, Ibrahim J Domian
Human pluripotent stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) hold great promise for applications in human disease modeling, drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and, ultimately, regenerative medicine. The ability to study multiple parameters of hPSC-CM function, such as contractile and electrical activity, calcium cycling, and force generation, is therefore of paramount importance. hPSC-CMs cultured on stiff substrates like glass or polystyrene do not have the ability to shorten during contraction, making them less suitable for the study of hPSC-CM contractile function...
November 15, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
M Gorostidi, C Villalain, R Ruiz, I Jaunarena, A Lekuona
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe our technique for excision of the pre-caval and laterocaval nodes using an extraperitoneal approach. This technique was developed to make the dissection and excision of the less accessible nodes in an easier and safer way by minimizing the risk of great vessels injury and bleeding. DESIGN: Step-by-step description of the surgical procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). SETTING: The procedure was performed at a teaching hospital, Hospital Universitario Donostia (Spain)...
November 11, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
Sheng-Che Yen, Laura C Olsavsky, Caitlin M Cloonan, Amelia R Llanos, Kara J Dwyer, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
While asymmetries have been observed between the dominant and non-dominant legs, it is unclear whether they have different abilities in isometric force control (IFC). The purpose of this study was to compare ankle IFC between the legs. IFC is important for stabilization rather than object manipulation, and people typically use their non-dominant leg for stabilization tasks. Additionally, studies suggested that a limb can better acquire a motor task when the control mechanism of the task is related to what the limb is specialized for...
November 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
Banafsheh Khodaei, Hassan Saeedi, Maryam Jalali, Maede Farzadi, Ehsan Norouzi
BACKGROUNDS: The effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution has been proven by researchers but there are some controversies about advantages of custom-made foot orthoses to less expensive prefabricated foot orthoses. METHODS: Nineteen flatfeet adults between 18 and 45 participated in this study. CAD-CAM foot orthoses were made for these patients according to their foot scan. Prefabricated foot orthoses were prepared according to their foot size. Plantar pressure, force and contact area were measured using pedar(®)-x in-shoe system wearing shoe alone, wearing CAD-CAM foot orthoses and wearing prefabricated foot orthoses...
July 13, 2017: Foot
Venkataramana Sridhar, Mirza M Billah, John W Hildreth
Many current watershed modeling efforts now incorporate surface water and groundwater for managing water resources since the exchanges between groundwater and surface water need a special focus considering the changing climate. The influence of groundwater dynamics on water and energy balance components is investigated in the Snake River Basin (SRB) by coupling the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and MODFLOW models (VIC-MF) for the period of 1986 through 2042. A 4.4% increase in base flows and a 10.3% decrease in peak flows are estimated by VIC-MF compared to the VIC model in SRB...
November 9, 2017: Ground Water
Joao Francisco Ventrici de Souza, Yang Liu, Shuo Wang, Pablo Dorig, Tonya L Kuhl, Jane Frommer, Gang-Yu Liu
Direct writing methods are a generic and simple means to produce designed structures in three-dimensions (3D). The printing is achieved by extruding printing materials through a nozzle, which provides a platform to deliver a wide range of materials. Although this method has been routinely used for 3D printing at macroscopic scales, miniaturization to micrometer and nanometer scales and building hierarchical structures at multidimensional scales represent new challenges in research and development. The current work addresses these challenges by combining the spatial precision of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and local delivery capability of microfluidics...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lori Rainchuso, Helen Salisbury
Purpose: The aim of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of public health dental hygienists on providing preventive care to underserved populations in Massachusetts.Methods: Non-probability purposive sampling was used for initial participant recruitment, and snowball sampling occurred thereafter. Data collection occurred through semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analysis was conducted using Pitney and Parker's eight-step CREATIVE process.Results: Data saturation occurred with 10 participants (n=10), one-third of the public health dental hygienists who are practicing in Massachusetts...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
Daniela Brites, Sebastien Gagneux
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) consists of a clonal group of several mycobacterial lineages pathogenic to a range of different mammalian hosts. In this chapter, we discuss the origins and the evolutionary forces shaping the genomic diversity of the human-adapted MTBC. Advances in whole-genome sequencing have brought invaluable insights into the macro-evolution of the MTBC, and the biogeographical distribution of the different MTBC lineages, the phylogenetic relationships between these lineages...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
F F Cruz, P R M Rocco, P Pelosi
The extracellular matrix represents the three-dimensional scaffold of the alveolar wall, which is composed of a layer of epithelial and endothelial cells, their basal membrane, and a thin interstitial layer containing fibrous proteins, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and proteoglycans. Mechanical ventilation with low and high tidal volumes can induce proteoglycan fragmentation, which may cause activation of the inflammatory cascade, leading to the main features of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI): alveolar edema and collagen deposition...
November 7, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Magali Alexander López Chavira, Ricardo Marcelín-Jiménez
The study of complex networks has become an important subject over the last decades. It has been shown that these structures have special features, such as their diameter, or their average path length, which in turn are the explanation of some functional properties in a system such as its fault tolerance, its fragility before attacks, or the ability to support routing procedures. In the present work, we study some of the forces that help a network to evolve to the point where structural properties are settled...
2017: PloS One
Yi Liu, Fang Song, Shu Wu, Shushu He, Mingmei Meng, Chunxiao Lv, Qingqing Yang, Song Chen
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical loading-induced changes in protein and mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its key signaling factors glycoprotein 130 (gp130), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and the Src homology phosphotyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) at the tension and compression sides of the teeth in mouse models. METHODS: A total of 55 C57B/6 mice (10 weeks old) were divided into 3 groups...
November 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Merrel T Holley, Ashkan YekrangSafakar, Mazvita Maziveyi, Suresh K Alahari, Kidong Park
Adherent cells produce cellular traction force (CTF) on a substrate to maintain their physical morphologies, sense external environment, and perform essential cellular functions. Precise characterization of the CTF can expand our knowledge of various cellular processes as well as lead to the development of novel mechanical biomarkers. However, current methods that measure CTF require special substrates and fluorescent microscopy, rendering them less suitable in a clinical setting. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and direct approach to measure the combined CTF of a large cell population using thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cantilevers...
November 4, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
Glenna T Clifton, Jennifer A Carr, Andrew A Biewener
Several groups of birds have convergently evolved the ability to swim using their feet despite facing trade-offs with walking. However, swimming relative to terrestrial performance varies across these groups. Highly specialized divers, such as loons and grebes, excel at swimming underwater but struggle to stand on land, whereas species that primarily swim on the water surface, such as Mallards, retain the ability to move terrestrially. The identification of skeletal features associated with a swimming style and conserved across independent groups suggests that the hindlimb of foot-propelled swimming birds has adapted to suit the physical challenges of producing propulsive forces underwater...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Luc Belloni
The exact molecular bridge function of the extended simple point charge model of liquid water at room temperature is extracted from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation data. The projections gμν(mnl)(r) onto rotational invariants of the highly directional pair distribution function g(r,Ω) are accumulated during simulation performed with N = 512 molecules (cubic box size L ≈ 25 Å). Making intensive use of anisotropic integral equation techniques, the molecular Ornstein-Zernike equation fed with the MC data available at short distances and completed beyond L/2 with the hypernetted chain closure valid at long distances is then inverted in order to derive on the whole r range the direct correlation function cμν(mnl)(r), the cavity function yμν(mnl)(r), the negative excess potential of mean force lnyμν(mnl)(r), and, finally, the holy grail in such liquid state theory, the bridge function bμν(mnl)(r) projections...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Fabien Pacaud, Jean-Marc Delaye, Thibault Charpentier, Laurent Cormier, Mathieu Salanne
Sodium borosilicate glasses Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 (NBS) are complex systems from a structural point of view. Three main building units are present: tetrahedral SiO4 and BO4 (B(IV)) and triangular BO3 (B(III)). One of the salient features of these compounds is the change of the B(III)/B(IV) ratio with the alkali concentration, which is very difficult to capture in force fields-based molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, we develop a polarizable force field that is able to reproduce the boron coordination and more generally the structure of several NBS systems in the glass and in the melt...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jean-Philip Piquemal, Kenneth D Jordan
This Special Topic issue entitled "From Quantum Mechanics to Force Fields" is dedicated to the ongoing efforts of the theoretical chemistry community to develop a new generation of accurate force fields based on data from high-level electronic structure calculations and to develop faster electronic structure methods for testing and designing force fields as well as for carrying out simulations. This issue includes a collection of 35 original research articles that illustrate recent theoretical advances in the field...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yingxiang Liu, Shengjun Shi, Chunhong Li, Weishan Chen, Liang Wang, Junkao Liu
A bi-directional standing wave linear piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator with four driving feet is proposed in this work. Two sandwich type transducers operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid modes are set parallelly. The working mode of the transducer is not simple hybrid vibrations of a longitudinal one and a bending one, but a special coupling vibration mode contained both longitudinal and bending components. Two transducers with the same structure and unsymmetrical boundary conditions are set parallelly to accomplish the bi-directional driving: the first transducer can push the runner forward, while the other one produces the backward driving...
October 26, 2017: Ultrasonics
Fabrizio Menardo, Coraline R Praz, Thomas Wicker, Beat Keller
BACKGROUND: Grass powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, Ascomycota) is a major pathogen of cereal crops and has become a model organism for obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens of plants. The sequenced genomes of two formae speciales (ff.spp.), B.g. hordei and B.g. tritici (pathogens of barley and wheat), were found to be enriched in candidate effector genes (CEGs). Similar to other filamentous pathogens, CEGs in B. graminis are under positive selection. Additionally, effectors are more likely to have presence-absence polymorphisms than other genes among different strains...
October 31, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Hari-Mandir K Khalsa, Attila C Denes, Diane M Pasini-Hill, Jeffrey C Santelli, Ross J Baldessarini
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the implementation of crisis intervention teams by law enforcement agencies in Colorado. METHODS: Rates of Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) use, arrests, use of force, and injuries were assessed during 6,353 incidents involving individuals experiencing a mental health crisis. Relationships among original complaint, psychiatric illness, substance abuse, violence risk, and disposition of crisis calls were analyzed. RESULTS: Rates of SWAT use (<1%), injuries (<1%), arrests (<5%), and use of force (<5%) were low...
November 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
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