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Fetal intervention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542585/highly-efficient-maternal-fetal-zika-virus-transmission-in-pregnant-rhesus-macaques
#1
Sydney M Nguyen, Kathleen M Antony, Dawn M Dudley, Sarah Kohn, Heather A Simmons, Bryce Wolfe, M Shahriar Salamat, Leandro B C Teixeira, Gregory J Wiepz, Troy H Thoong, Matthew T Aliota, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Kim L Weisgrau, Logan J Vosler, Mariel S Mohns, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Mustafa N Rasheed, Christina M Newman, Michael E Graham, Oliver E Wieben, Patrick A Turski, Kevin M Johnson, Jennifer Post, Jennifer M Hayes, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Michele L Schotzko, Josh A Eudailey, Sallie R Permar, Eva G Rakasz, Emma L Mohr, Saverio Capuano, Alice F Tarantal, Jorge E Osorio, Shelby L O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with human congenital fetal anomalies. To model fetal outcomes in nonhuman primates, we administered Asian-lineage ZIKV subcutaneously to four pregnant rhesus macaques. While non-pregnant animals in a previous study contemporary with the current report clear viremia within 10-12 days, maternal viremia was prolonged in 3 of 4 pregnancies. Fetal head growth velocity in the last month of gestation determined by ultrasound assessment of head circumference was decreased in comparison with biparietal diameter and femur length within each fetus, both within normal range...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542561/impaired-functional-capacity-of-fetal-endothelial-cells-in-preeclampsia
#2
Lars Brodowski, Jennifer Burlakov, Sarah Hass, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is one of the main contributers to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. A history of preeclampsia puts mother and offspring at an increased cardiovascular risk in later life. We hypothesized that at the time of birth functional impairments of fetal endothelial cells can be detected in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and that a therapeutic intervention using 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 can reverse the adverse effects of preeclampsia on cell function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540847/risk-factors-for-transmission-of-hiv-from-mother-to-child-in-bangui
#3
S C H Diemer, R N Ngbale, J D D Longo, O Bami Dienhot, C E Gaunefet
the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui...
May 24, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538237/update-on-postnatal-steroids
#4
Henry L Halliday
Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537579/developmental-origins-of-diabetes-an-indian-perspective
#5
REVIEW
G V Krishnaveni, C S Yajnik
The developmental origins of health disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that altered environmental influences (nutrition, metabolism, pollutants, stress and so on) during critical stages of fetal growth predisposes individuals to diabetes and other non-communicable disease in later life. This phenomenon is thought to reflect permanent effects ('programming') of unbalanced fetal development on physiological systems. Intrauterine programming may underlie the characteristic Indian 'thin-fat' phenotype and the current unprecedented epidemic of diabetes on the backdrop of multigenerational maternal undernutrition in the country...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531885/fetal-treatment-2017-the-evolution-of-fetal-therapy-centers-a-joint-opinion-from-the-international-fetal-medicine-and-surgical-society-ifmss-and-the-north-american-fetal-therapy-network-naftnet
#6
Anita J Moon-Grady, Ahmet Baschat, Darrell Cass, Mahesh Choolani, Joshua A Copel, Timothy M Crombleholme, Jan Deprest, Stephen P Emery, Mark I Evans, Francois I Luks, Mary E Norton, Greg Ryan, Kuojen Tsao, Ross Welch, Michael Harrison
More than 3 decades ago, a small group of physicians and other practitioners active in what they called "fetal treatment" authored an opinion piece outlining the current status and future challenges anticipated in the field. Many advances in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal care and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have been made in the intervening years, yet a thoughtful reassessment of the basic tenets put forth in 1982 has not been published. The present effort will aim to provide a framework for contemporary redefinition of the field of fetal treatment, with a brief discussion of the necessary minimum expertise and systems base for the provision of different types of interventions for both the mother and fetus...
May 23, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519244/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-update-on-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#7
Genny Raffaeli, Giacomo Cavallaro, K Karel Allegaert, Enno Diederik Wildschut, Monica Fumagalli, Massimo Agosti, Dick Tibboel, Fabio Mosca
Substance use among pregnant women is a major public health issue. Both prescription opioid use and illicit opioid abuse have increased dramatically in recent years. Prolonged in utero drug exposure may result in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), an acute multisystemic clinical entity that occurs in the first days of life. This syndrome is caused by abrupt discontinuation of fetal exposure to licit or illicit drugs chronically consumed by the mother during pregnancy and transmitted to the fetus through the placenta...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515164/mrna-levels-of-placental-iron-and-zinc-transporter-genes-are-upregulated-in-gambian-women-with-low-iron-and-zinc-status
#8
Modou Lamin Jobarteh, Harry J McArdle, Grietje Holtrop, Ebrima A Sise, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore
Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood.Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport.Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512745/implementation-of-multi-disciplinary-care-reduces-maternal-mortality-in-women-with-sickle-cell-disease-living-in-low-resource-setting
#9
Eugenia Vicky Asare, Edeghonghon Olayemi, Theodore Boafor, Yvonne Dei-Adomakoh, Enoch Mensah, Harriet Ghansah, Yvonne Osei-Bonsu, Selina Crabbe, Latif Musah, Charles Hayfron-Benjamin, Brittany Covert, Adetola A Kassim, Andra James, Mark Rodeghier, Michael R DeBaun, Samuel A Oppong
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. In women with SCD living in low-resource settings, pregnancy is associated with significantly increased maternal and perinatal mortality rates. We tested the hypothesis that implementing a multidisciplinary obstetric and hematology care team in a low-resource setting would significantly reduce maternal and perinatal mortality rates. We conducted a before-and-after study, at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary obstetric-hematology care team for women with SCD in a combined SCD-Obstetric Clinic...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509617/intergenerational-transmission-of-traumatization-theoretical-framework-and-implications-for-prevention
#10
Ariel J Lang, Maria A Gartstein
Intergenerational transmission of traumatization (ITT) occurs when traumatized parents have offspring with increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Although fetal exposure to the maternal biological milieu is known to be one factor in ITT, PTSD-driven parent-child interactions represent an additional important and potentially modifiable contributor. The Perinatal Interactional Model of ITT presented herein proposes that PTSD leads to social learning and suboptimal parent-child interactions, which undermine child regulatory capacity and increase distress, largely explaining poor social-emotional outcomes for offspring of parents with PTSD...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509326/polish-gynecological-society-recommendations-for-labor-induction
#11
Dorota Bomba-Opoń, Krzysztof Drews, Hubert Huras, Piotr Laudański, Tomasz Paszkowski, Mirosław Wielgoś
Labor induction involves artificial stimulation of childbirth before the natural, spontaneous onset of labor. It is one of the most common procedures in modern obstetrics. The frequency of labor induction has doubled in recent decades due to the development of perinatology and methods of monitoring fetal well-being in particular. Currently, one in five pregnant women and 30-40% of women delivering vaginally undergo this procedure. Reasons for induction include reduction of the perinatal mortality and morbidity of the fetus and newborn, as well as the reduction of maternal complications...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508519/fetal-cardiac-remodeling-in-twin-pregnancies-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#12
Brenda Valenzuela-Alcaraz, Mónica Cruz-Lemini, Mérida Rodríguez-López, Ana Goncé, Laura García-Otero, Helena Ayuso, Marta Sitges, Bart Bijnens, Juan Balasch, Eduard Gratacós, Fátima Crispi
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that singleton fetuses conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) present cardiovascular remodeling that may persist postnatally. Twin pregnancies are more frequent in the ART population, and are associated with increased adverse perinatal outcomes like hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. However, it is unknown whether cardiac remodeling is also present in twin pregnancies conceived by ART. Our aim was to assess the presence of fetal cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in twin pregnancies conceived by ART, as compared to spontaneously conceived (SC) ones...
May 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505190/dynamic-interaction-between-fetal-adversity-and-a-genetic-score-reflecting-dopamine-function-on-developmental-outcomes-at-36-months
#13
Adrianne R Bischoff, Irina Pokhvisneva, Étienne Léger, Hélène Gaudreau, Meir Steiner, James L Kennedy, Kieran J O'Donnell, Josie Diorio, Michael J Meaney, Patrícia P Silveira
BACKGROUND: Fetal adversity, evidenced by poor fetal growth for instance, is associated with increased risk for several diseases later in life. Classical cut-offs to characterize small (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) newborns are used to define long term vulnerability. We aimed at exploring the possible dynamism of different birth weight cut-offs in defining vulnerability in developmental outcomes (through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development), using the example of a gene vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500823/aflatoxin-exposure-during-pregnancy-maternal-anemia-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#14
Laura E Smith, Andrew J Prendergast, Paul C Turner, Jean H Humphrey, Rebecca J Stoltzfus
AbstractPregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia...
April 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499362/active-delivery-of-the-anterior-arm-and-incidence-of-second-degree-perineal-tears-a-clinical-practice-evaluation
#15
Nicolas Mottet, Marine Bonneaud, Astrid Eckman-Lacroix, Rajeev Ramanah, Didier Riethmuller
BACKGROUND: Evaluate the feasibility of active delivery of the anterior arm during spontaneous delivery. This maneuver could decrease incidence of second-degree perineal tears because it reduces fetal biacromial diameter. METHODS: An observational comparative prospective study was conducted at our teaching maternity from July 2012 to March 2013. The study included 199 nulliparous women ≥18 years, who met the following criteria: singleton pregnancy, vaginal delivery with occiput anterior presentation, on epidural analgesia, from 37 weeks of gestation onward...
May 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499185/prevalence-and-profile-of-neurodevelopment-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd-amongst-australian-aboriginal-children-living-in-remote-communities
#16
James P Fitzpatrick, Jane Latimer, Heather Carmichael Olson, Maureen Carter, June Oscar, Barbara R Lucas, Robyn Doney, Claire Salter, Julianne Try, Genevieve Hawkes, Emily Fitzpatrick, Marmingee Hand, Rochelle E Watkins, Tracey W Tsang, Carol Bower, Manuela L Ferreira, John Boulton, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND: Despite multiple risk factors for neurodevelopmental vulnerability, few studies have assessed neurodevelopmental performance of Australian Aboriginal children. An important risk factor for neurodevelopmental vulnerability is prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), which places children at risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). AIMS: This study assesses neurodevelopment outcomes in a population of Australian Aboriginal children with and without PAE...
May 9, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497181/new-directions-in-fetal-surgery-for-myelomeningocele
#17
Sandra K Kabagambe, Y Julia Chen, Melissa A Vanover, Payam Saadai, Diana L Farmer
The treatment of children with myelomeningocele (MMC) has improved over time, from supportive management to early postnatal closure to prenatal repair of the defect. The Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) showed that prenatal repair of MMC resulted in improved neurological outcomes compared to postnatal closure. Follow-up studies showed that prenatal repair was, as with any other fetal intervention, associated with higher rates of obstetrical complications. There was no significant difference in urological outcomes...
May 11, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490370/behavioral-interventions-to-promote-adequate-sleep-among-women-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Jennette Palcic Moreno, Theresa A Nicklas, Tom Baranowski
BACKGROUND: Short and poor sleep have been associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, such as overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes, especially among women. Women therefore represent an important target for interventions aimed at improving sleep and such interventions have been advocated to enhance maternal, fetal, and infant health. This systematic review will assess the efficacy or effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting adequate sleep among women. The primary outcomes will be changes in sleep duration and/or sleep quality from baseline to post-intervention and to the last available follow-up measured either through self-reports or objectively...
May 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483162/quo-vadis-trophoblast-exploring-the-new-ways-of-an-old-cell-lineage
#19
Sascha Drewlo, D Randall Armant
Trophoblast cells are the first embryonic lineage to differentiate during human development, and are needed to sustain fetal life through their role in constructing a placenta. As the fetus grows, the trophoblast rapidly expands and further differentiates to produce an extravillous subtype that invades the maternal tissues. Some of the extravillous trophoblast cells find their way into the reproductive tract, and can be safely captured by noninvasive collection from the endocervical canal, similarly to a Pap smear...
April 26, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478816/effects-of-hypnosis-during-pregnancy-a-psychophysiological-study-on-maternal-stress
#20
Fabien Legrand, Corinne Grévin-Laroche, Elisabeth Josse, Guillaume Polidori, Hervé Quinart, Redha Taïar
Because it induces a state of reduced awareness and deep relaxation, hypnosis is thought to be efficient at relieving stress and anxiety. This study examined whether hypnosis may alter the pattern and time evolution of maternal and fetal stress. Here we report a 23-yrs-old primigravida woman at 31-weeks' gestation who underwent daily sessions of hypnosis during one week. An A (baseline)-B (intervention) - A' (return to baseline) design was used. Each study phase lasted one week. The State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) was completed daily...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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