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fMRI stroke cognitive impairment

P H R Silva, C T Spedo, A A Barreira, R F Leoni
BACKGROUND: The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is widely used for cognitive evaluation of information processing speed (IPS), required in many cognitive operations. Despite being unspecific for different neurological disorders, it is sensitive to assess impaired performance related to stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. However, in addition to evaluate the presence and severity of IPS impairment, it is of interest to determine the localization and integration of brain regions responsible for the functions assessed by the SDMT...
February 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Tianlu Wang, Dante Mantini, Celine R Gillebert
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback aids the modulation of neural functions by training self-regulation of brain activity through operant conditioning. This technique has been applied to treat several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, but its effectiveness for stroke rehabilitation has not been examined yet. Here, we systematically review the effectiveness of rt-fMRI neurofeedback training in modulating motor and cognitive processes that are often impaired after stroke...
September 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Julie Coloigner, Yeun Kim, Adam Bush, Soyoung Choi, Melissa C Balderrama, Thomas D Coates, Sharon H O'Neil, Natasha Lepore, John C Wood
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic blood disorder that is often associated with acute and chronic cerebrovascular complications, including strokes and impaired cognition. Using functional resting state magnetic resonance images, we performed whole-brain analysis of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), to detect areas of spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent signal across brain regions. We compared the ALFF of 20 SCD patients to that observed in 19 healthy, age and ethnicity-matched, control subjects...
2017: PloS One
Jiao Liu, Qin Wang, Feiwen Liu, Haiyan Song, Xiaofeng Liang, Zhengkun Lin, Wenjun Hong, Shanli Yang, Jia Huang, Guohua Zheng, Jing Tao, Li-Dian Chen
Post-stroke memory dysfunction (PMD) is one of the most common forms of cognitive impairment among stroke survivors. However, only a limited number of studies have directly investigated the neural mechanisms associated with memory decline. The aim of the present study was to identify dynamic changes in the functional organization of the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network of patients with PMD. A total of 27 patients with PMD who experienced a stroke in the right hemisphere were enrolled in the current study, along with 27 healthy control subjects matched by age, sex, and educational level...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Simon Fischer-Baum, Ava Jang, David Kajander
Damage to certain left hemisphere regions leads to reading impairments, at least acutely, though some individuals eventually recover reading. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown a relationship between reading recovery and increases in contralesional and perilesional activation during word reading tasks, relative to controls. Questions remain about how to interpret these changes in activation. Do these changes reflect functional take-over, a reorganization of functions in the damaged brain? Or do they reveal compensatory masquerade or the use of alternative neural pathways to reading that are available in both patients and controls? We address these questions by studying a single individual, CH, who has made a partial recovery of reading familiar words following stroke...
2017: Neural Plasticity
Tao Wang, Feng Xiao, Guangyao Wu, Jian Fang, Zhenmeng Sun, Hongliang Feng, Junjian Zhang, Haibo Xu
Carotid artery stenosis without transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke is considered as "asymptomatic." However, recent studies have demonstrated that these asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) patients had cognitive impairment in tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, and memory, indicating that "asymptomatic" carotid stenosis may not be truly asymptomatic. In this study, when 19 aCAS patients compared with 24 healthy controls, aCAS patients showed significantly poorer performance on global cognition, memory, and executive function...
2017: Neural Plasticity
Robert Darkow, Andrew Martin, Anna Würtz, Agnes Flöel, Marcus Meinzer
Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance recovery after stroke. However, fundamental knowledge about how tDCS impacts neural processing in the lesioned human brain is currently lacking. In the present study, it was investigated how tDCS modulates brain function in patients with post-stroke language impairment (aphasia). In a cross-over, randomized trial, patients named pictures of common objects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Concurrently, excitatory (anodal-) or sham-tDCS (1 mA, 20 min, or 30 s, respectively) was administered to the left primary motor cortex, a montage with demonstrated potential to improve aphasic language...
March 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Renate M van de Ven, Ben Schmand, Erny Groet, Dick J Veltman, Jaap M J Murre
BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors frequently suffer from executive impairments even in the chronic phase after stroke, and there is a need for improved rehabilitation of these functions. One way of improving current rehabilitation treatment may be by online cognitive training. Based on a review of the effectiveness of computer-based cognitive training in healthy elderly, we concluded that cognitive flexibility may be a key element for an effective training, which results in improvements not merely on trained tasks but also in untrained tasks (i...
August 20, 2015: BMC Neurology
Efrat Kliper, Einor Ben Assayag, Amos D Korczyn, Eitan Auriel, Ludmila Shopin, Hen Hallevi, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Anat Mike, Moran Artzi, Ilana Klovatch, Natan M Bornstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
The hippocampus is known to play a vital role in learning and memory and was demonstrated as an early imaging marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its role as a predictor for mild cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke is unclear. The main purpose of this study was to examine the associations between hippocampal volume, mean diffusivity (MD) and connectivity and cognitive state following stroke. Eighty three consecutive first ever mild to moderate stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors from our ongoing prospective TABASCO (Tel Aviv Brain Acute Stroke Cohort) study underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans within 7 days of stroke onset...
February 2016: Hippocampus
Edoardo G Spinelli, Francesca Caso, Federica Agosta, Giuseppe Gambina, Giuseppe Magnani, Elisa Canu, Valeria Blasi, Daniela Perani, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Massimo Filippi
Crossed aphasia has been reported mainly as post-stroke aphasia resulting from brain damage ipsilateral to the dominant right hand. Here, we described a case of a crossed nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), who developed a corticobasal syndrome (CBS). We collected clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging data for four consecutive years from a 55-year-old right-handed lady (JV) presenting with speech disturbances. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) and DaT-scan with (123)I-Ioflupane were obtained...
October 2015: Journal of Neurology
Indira García-Cordero, Lucas Sedeño, Daniel Fraiman, Damian Craiem, Laura Alethia de la Fuente, Paula Salamone, Cecilia Serrano, Luciano Sposato, Facundo Manes, Agustín Ibañez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke and neurodegeneration cause significant brain damage and cognitive impairment, especially if the insular cortex is compromised. This study explores for the first time whether these 2 causes differentially alter connectivity patterns in the insular cortex. METHODS: Resting state-functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from patients with insular stroke, patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, and healthy controls...
September 2015: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Rocco S Calabrò, Placido Bramanti, Annalisa Baglieri, Francesco Corallo, Rosaria De Luca, Simona De Salvo, Silvia Marino
BACKGROUND: Functional studies have been previous reported in stroke patients, but no studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging have been performed in Moyamoya disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cortical and cerebellar reorganization in a moyamoya patient. METHODS: We reported a case of a patient suffering from moyamoya disease, undergoing a neuropsychological assessment, a neurocognitive rehabilitative treatment, an electroencephalogram evaluation, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging examination...
January 2015: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Sarah C Tyler, Samhita Dasgupta, Sara Agosta, Lorella Battelli, Emily D Grossman
Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997)...
April 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Mai-lan Liu, Xiao-rong Chang, Yi-qin Yuan
Using keywords of "acupuncture, fMRI and resting state", authors of the present paper retrieved papers in both Chinese and English from CNKI and PubMed databases without time limitation. A total of 13 articles (11 for acupuncture and 2 for moxibustion) met the standards were subjected to analysis. Of the 13 papers, 6 involve acupuncture analgesia, 2 moxibustion analgesia, 3 mild cognitive impairment, one involves stroke, and the rest one is for depression. Research results of acupuncture analgesia revealed that the analgesic effect is closely related to its regulation on "pain matrix" brain regions and pain-related default mode network...
October 2014: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Marion Smits, Lize C Jiskoot, Janne M Papma
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate the white matter (WM) tracts underlying the perisylvian cortical regions known to be associated with language function. The arcuate fasciculus is composed of 3 segments (1 long and 2 short) whose separate functions correlate with traditional models of conductive and transcortical motor or sensory aphasia, respectively. DTI mapping of language fibers is useful in presurgical planning for patients with dominant hemisphere tumors, particularly when combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2014: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Ji-Young Park, Yun-Hee Kim, Won Hyuk Chang, Chang-hyun Park, Yong-Il Shin, Sung Tae Kim, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Although a considerable number of patients suffer from cognitive impairments after stroke, the neural mechanism of cognitive recovery has not yet been clarified. Repeated resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this study to examine longitudinal changes in the default-mode network (DMN) during the 6 months after stroke, and to investigate the relationship between DMN changes and cognitive recovery. Out of 24 initially recruited right-hemispheric stroke patients, 11 (eight males, mean age 55...
August 2014: European Journal of Neuroscience
Dan Zhu, Jingling Chang, Sonya Freeman, Zhongjian Tan, Juan Xiao, Ying Gao, Jian Kong
Language is an essential higher cognitive function supported by large-scale brain networks. In this study, we investigated functional connectivity changes in the left frontoparietal network (LFPN), a language-cognition related brain network in aphasic patients. We enrolled 13 aphasic patients who had undergone a stroke in the left hemisphere and age-, gender-, educational level-matched controls and analyzed the data by integrating independent component analysis (ICA) with a network connectivity analysis method...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zhi-cheng Lin, Jing Tao, Yan-lin Gao, Da-zhi Yin, A-zhen Chen, Li-dian Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the central mechanism of cognitive training in patients with stroke, using resting state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Patients with stroke and executive function and memory deficit were randomized to receive computer-assisted cognitive training (treatment group; total 60 h training over 10 weeks) or no training (control group). All participants received neuropsychological assessment and RS fMRI at baseline and 10 weeks...
June 2014: Journal of International Medical Research
Denise Y Harvey, Tao Wei, Timothy M Ellmore, A Cris Hamilton, Tatiana T Schnur
Understanding a word requires mapping sounds to a word-form and then identifying its correct meaning, which in some cases necessitates the recruitment of cognitive control processes to direct the activation of semantic knowledge in a task appropriate manner (i.e., semantic control). Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies identify a fronto-temporal network important for word comprehension. However, little is known about the connectional architecture subserving controlled retrieval and selection of semantic knowledge during word comprehension...
April 2013: Neuropsychologia
Robert A Mason, Chantel S Prat, Marcel Adam Just
This study examined how the brain system adapts and reconfigures its information processing capabilities to maintain cognitive performance after a key cortical center [left posterior superior temporal gyrus (LSTGp)] is temporarily impaired during the performance of a language comprehension task. By applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to LSTGp and concurrently assessing the brain response with functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that adaptation consisted of 1) increased synchronization between compensating regions coupled with a decrease in synchronization within the primary language network and 2) a decrease in activation at the rTMS site as well as in distal regions, followed by their recovery...
June 2014: Cerebral Cortex
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