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Kristin M Peters, Bradley A Carlson, Vadim N Gladyshev, Petra A Tsuji
Selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) have been implicated in the regulation of various cell signaling pathways, many of which are linked to colorectal malignancies. In this in-depth excurse into the selenoprotein literature, we review possible roles for human selenoproteins in colorectal cancer, focusing on the typical hallmarks of cancer cells and their tumor-enabling characteristics. Human genome studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms in various genes coding for selenoproteins have revealed potential involvement of glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and other proteins...
May 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Current Protein and Peptide Science, 2014, 15(6): 598-607. Selenium and Selenoproteins: An Overview on Different Biological Systems Erika Mangiapane*, Alessandro Pessione and Enrica Pessione Regrettably authors of the article entitled "Selenium and Selenoproteins: An Overview on Different Biological Systems" declare that due to a oversight at there end, in the original article, there is an error in the reported name of the bacterial strain. The bacterial strain was reported as Lactobacillus reuteri Lb2 (DSM 16143) but it should have been reported as Lactobacillus reuteri Lb26 (DSM 16341)...
2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Li Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Wen-Hsing Cheng
Accumulation of genome and macromolecule damage is a hallmark of aging, age-associated degeneration, and genome instability syndromes. Although processes of aging are irreversible, they can be modulated by genome maintenance pathways and environmental factors such as diet. Selenium (Se) confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, but Se compounds and other proteins that incorporate Se nonspecifically also impact optimal health. Bruce Ames proposed that the aging process could be mitigated by a subset of low-hierarchy selenoproteins whose levels are preferentially reduced in response to Se deficiency...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Sarah P Short, Jennifer M Pilat, Christopher S Williams
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential to human health, the function of which is mediated in part by incorporation into a class of proteins known as selenoproteins (SePs). As many SePs serve antioxidant functions, Se has long been postulated to protect against inflammation and cancer development in the gut by attenuating oxidative stress. Indeed, numerous studies over the years have correlated Se levels with incidence and severity of intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
May 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Noah C Peeri, Jordan H Creed, Gabriella M Anic, Reid C Thompson, Jeffrey J Olson, Renato V LaRocca, Sajeel A Chowdhary, John D Brockman, Travis A Gerke, L Burton Nabors, Kathleen M Egan
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element obtained through diet that plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium intake and polymorphisms in selenoproteins have been linked to the risk of certain cancers though data for glioma are sparse. METHODS: In a case-control study of glioma, we examined the associations of selenium in toenails and genetic variants in the selenoenzyme pathway with the risk of glioma and patient survival...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Rayudu Gopalakrishna, Usha Gundimeda, Sarah Zhou, Bui Helena, Arne Holmgren
The cancer-preventive mechanism of selenium should address the way low concentrations of selenometabolites react with cellular targets without being diffused from the sites of generation, the way selenium selectively kills tumor cells, and the intriguing U-shaped curve that is seen with dietary supplementation of selenium and cancer prevention. Protein kinase C (PKC), a receptor for tumor promoters, is well suited for this mechanism. Due to the catalytic redox cycle, low concentrations of methylselenol, a postulated active metabolite of selenium, react with the tumor-promoting lipid hydroperoxide bound to PKC to form methylseleninic acid (MSA), which selectively reacts with thiol residues present within the vicinity of the PKC catalytic domain to inactivate it...
May 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hsiu-Chuan Lin, Chi-Wei Yeh, Yen-Fu Chen, Ting-Ting Lee, Pei-Yun Hsieh, Domnita V Rusnac, Sung-Ya Lin, Stephen J Elledge, Ning Zheng, Hsueh-Chi S Yen
The proteolysis-assisted protein quality control system guards the proteome from potentially detrimental aberrant proteins. How miscellaneous defective proteins are specifically eliminated and which molecular characteristics direct them for removal are fundamental questions. We reveal a mechanism, DesCEND (destruction via C-end degrons), by which CRL2 ubiquitin ligase uses interchangeable substrate receptors to recognize the unusual C termini of abnormal proteins (i.e., C-end degrons). C-end degrons are mostly less than ten residues in length and comprise a few indispensable residues along with some rather degenerate ones...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
Elena Gennadyevna Varlamova
The functions performed by the ER are diverse: synthesis of steroid hormones, synthesis of proteins for the plasma membrane, lysosomes, as well as proteins meant for exocytosis, protein folding, formation of disulfide bonds, N-linked glycosylation, etc. Selenoproteins localized in this organelle are definitely involved in the processes occurring in it, and the most common of them include participation in protein degradation, regulation of ER stress and redox metabolism. ER stress has been registered in many types of cancer cells...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Isabelle Rohn, Talke Anu Marschall, Nina Kroepfl, Kenneth Bendix Jensen, Michael Aschner, Simon Tuck, Doris Kuehnelt, Tanja Schwerdtle, Julia Bornhorst
The essential micronutrient selenium (Se) is required for various systemic functions, but its beneficial range is narrow and overexposure may result in adverse health effects. Additionally, the chemical form of the ingested selenium contributes crucially to its health effects. While small Se species play a major role in Se metabolism, their toxicological effects, bioavailability and metabolic transformations following elevated uptake are poorly understood. Utilizing the tractable invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans allowed for an alternative approach to study species-specific characteristics of organic and inorganic Se forms in vivo, revealing remarkable species-dependent differences in the toxicity and bioavailability of selenite, selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys)...
May 17, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Zhepeng Sun, Zhe Xu, Dongxu Wang, Haidong Yao, Shu Li
Selenium (Se) deficiency inhibits immune cell differentiation, affects immune response, and leads to cellular and humoral immune dysfunction. However, the impact of Se deficiency on the differentiation and Th1/Th2 balance of dendritic cells is still unclear. In this study, we replicated a model of Se-deficient chickens by feeding the chickens with a low-Se diet (i.e., the content of Se is 0.008 mg per kg diet). On this basis, we explored the effect of Se deficiency on the differentiation of chicken dendritic cells by induction culture of peripheral blood monocyte cells...
May 16, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Wei Li, Milton Talukder, Xue-Tong Sun, Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Jing Ge, Jin-Long Li
Selenoprotein W (SelW) is an important member of the avian selenoprotein family. It is well known for its important role in protecting neurons from oxidative stress during neuronal development. d-Amino acid (d-serine), as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), can mediate neurotoxicity. d-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is responsible for regulating the d-serine levels in cells. However, the correlation between SelW and DAAO is not clear yet. To investigate the regulations between SelW and DAAO, chicken embryo monolayer neurons were treated with d-serine and/or Se...
May 16, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Xiaoyan Hu, Jincheng Luo, Hehuan Lai, Mengdi Li, Xiaolin Zheng, Tingting Nie, Fenglan Li, Hui Li
The tRNA selenocysteine 1 associated protein 1 (Trnau1ap, initially named SECp43) is involved in Selenocysteine (Sec) biosynthesis and incorporation into selenoproteins, which play a key role in biological processes, such as embryonic development. We previously reported that downregulation of Trnau1ap inhibited proliferation of cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells. However, the effects of Trnau1ap on cell proliferation and migration of embryonic development are not known, and the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, lentiviral shRNA vectors were transfected in NIH3T3, JEG-3 and Bewo cells (embryonic, trophoblast and placental cells)...
May 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Evangelos Zoidis, Isidoros Seremelis, Nikolaos Kontopoulos, Georgios P Danezis
Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec in its polypeptide chain is defined as selenoprotein. Members of the selenoproteins family exert various functions and their synthesis depends on specific cofactors and on dietary Se. The Se intake in productive animals such as chickens affect nutrient utilization, production performances, antioxidative status and responses of the immune system...
May 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Caroline Vindry, Théophile Ohlmann, Laurent Chavatte
BACKGROUND: Interest in selenium research has considerably grown over the last decades owing to the association of selenium deficiencies with an increased risk of several human diseases, including cancers, cardiovascular disorders and infectious diseases. The discovery of a genetically encoded 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, is a fascinating breakthrough in molecular biology as it is the first addition to the genetic code deciphered in the 1960s. Selenocysteine is a structural and functional analog of cysteine, where selenium replaces sulfur, and its presence is critical for the catalytic activity of selenoproteins...
May 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiaobing Liu, Dangling Zhang, Yaxing Hao, Qian Liu, Yuqi Wu, Xin Liu, Jing Luo, Tao Zhou, Bishao Sun, Xing Luo, Jie Xu, Qingqing Wang, Zhenxing Yang, Longkun Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cyanidin is an anthocyanin found in many foods. Although its variable antioxidant levels are well-documented, little is known about its effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumorigenesis. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of cyanidin on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of renal cell carcinoma lines and demonstrated, for the first time, significant inhibitory effects of cyanidin on RCC tumorigenesis. METHODS: RCC cells were treated with different doses of cyanidin and the effects were tested by Cell Counting Kit-8 reagent, clone formation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Manpreet Kaur, Sucheta Sharma
BACKGROUND: Selenium induced oxidative stress as well as synthesis of non-specific selenoproteins has been attributed to its toxicity in plants. Selenium toxicity can affect growth, chlorophyll and protein synthesis and crop yield. This study reveals the effects of different sources (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) and levels (2 and 4 mg Se kg-1 soil) of Se on its uptake, leaf physiology, antioxidant defense system, isoenzymic patterns and mitochondrial activity in wheat cultivar PBW621 at tillering and ear-initiation stages...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Eric R Gann, Steven W Wilhelm
While viruses with distinct phylogenetic origins and different nucleic acid types can infect and lyse eukaryotic phytoplankton, "giant" dsDNA viruses have been found to be associated with important ecological processes, including the collapse of algal blooms. However, the molecular aspects of giant virus-host interactions remain largely unknown. Aureococcus anophagefferens virus (AaV), a giant virus in the Mimiviridae clade, is known to play a critical role in regulating the fate of brown tide blooms caused by the pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jun Liu, Rujin Cheng, Sharon Rozovsky
The versatile chemistry of the genetically encoded amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) is employed in Nature to expand the reactivity of enzymes. In addition to, its role in biology, Sec is used in protein engineering to modify folding, stability, and reactivity of proteins, to introduce conjugations and to facilitate reactions. However, due to limitations related to Sec's insertion mechanism in Nature, much of the production of Sec containing peptides and proteins relies on synthesis and semisynthesis. Here, we review recent advances that have enabled the assembly of complicated selenoproteins, including novel uses of protecting groups for solid phase peptide synthesis, rapid selenoester driven chemical ligations and versatile expressed protein ligations...
April 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Yali Ye, Weixia Bian, Fen Fu, Jian Hu, Hongmei Liu
Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of many diseases including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. A significant association of selenoprotein S (SelS) gene polymorphism with atherosclerotic CVD has been reported in epidemiologic studies, but the underlying mechanism is far from clear. To investigate the role of SelS in inflammation-induced vascular calcification, osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were compared between the cells with and without SelS knockdown...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Sun Hee Yim, Robert A Everley, Frank A Schildberg, Sang-Goo Lee, Andrea Orsi, Zachary R Barbati, Kutay Karatepe, Dmitry E Fomenko, Petra A Tsuji, Hongbo R Luo, Steven P Gygi, Roberto Sitia, Arlene H Sharpe, Dolph L Hatfield, Vadim N Gladyshev
Selenof (15-kDa selenoprotein; Sep15) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident thioredoxin-like oxidoreductase that occurs in a complex with UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. We found that Selenof deficiency in mice leads to elevated levels of non-functional circulating plasma immunoglobulins and increased secretion of IgM during in vitro splenic B cell differentiation. However, Selenof knockout animals show neither enhanced bacterial killing capacity nor antigen-induced systemic IgM activity, suggesting that excess immunoglobulins are not functional...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
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