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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908428/contribution-of-mammalian-selenocysteine-containing-proteins-to-carcinogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Elena Gennadyevna Varlamova, Irina Valentinovna Cheremushkina
Oxidative stress caused by a sharp growth of free radicals in the organism is a major cause underlying the occurrence of all kinds of malignant formations. Selenium is an important essential trace element found in selenoproteins in the form of selenocysteine, an amino acid differing from cysteine for the presence of selenium instead of sulfur and making such proteins highly active. To date the role of selenium has been extensively investigated through studying the functions of selenoproteins in carcinogenesis...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908419/selenium-levels-in-human-breast-carcinoma-tissue-are-associated-with-a-common-polymorphism-in-the-gene-for-selenop-selenoprotein-p
#2
Dede N Ekoue, Sofia Zaichick, Klara Valyi-Nagy, Matthew Picklo, Craig Lacher, Kent Hoskins, Michael A Warso, Marcelo G Bonini, Alan M Diamond
Selenium supplementation of the diets of rodents has consistently been shown to suppress mammary carcinogenesis and some, albeit not all, human epidemiological studies have indicated an inverse association between selenium and breast cancer risk. In order to better understand the role selenium plays in breast cancer, 30 samples of tumor tissue were obtained from women with breast cancer and analyzed for selenium concentration, the levels of several selenium-containing proteins and the levels of the MnSOD anti-oxidant protein...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881738/human-selenoprotein-p-and-s-variant-mrnas-with-different-numbers-of-secis-elements-and-inferences-from-mutant-mice-of-the-roles-of-multiple-secis-elements
#3
Sen Wu, Marco Mariotti, Didac Santesmasses, Kristina E Hill, Janinah Baclaocos, Estel Aparicio-Prat, Shuping Li, John Mackrill, Yuanyuan Wu, Michael T Howard, Mario Capecchi, Roderic Guigó, Raymond F Burk, John F Atkins
Dynamic redefinition of the 10 UGAs in human and mouse selenoprotein P (Sepp1) mRNAs to specify selenocysteine instead of termination involves two 3' UTR structural elements (SECIS) and is regulated by selenium availability. In addition to the previously known human Sepp1 mRNA poly(A) addition site just 3' of SECIS 2, two further sites were identified with one resulting in 10-25% of the mRNA lacking SECIS 2. To address function, mutant mice were generated with either SECIS 1 or SECIS 2 deleted or with the first UGA substituted with a serine codon...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868237/selenium-enriched-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-improves-growth-antioxidant-status-and-selenoprotein-gene-expression-in-arbor-acres-broilers
#4
F Chen, L Zhu, H Qiu, S Qin
One hundred and fifty 7-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned into five groups: group 1 served as a control that was fed a basal diet without selenium (Se) supplementation; groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.15, 0.5 and 1.5 mg Se as Se-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SSC) per kg of diet; and group 5 was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.15 mg per kg of Se as sodium selenite (SS). Growth performance, glutathione peroxidase (GPX ) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in plasma and liver, and cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX -1) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX -4) mRNA levels in liver were determined...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833152/selenium-binding-lactoferrin-is-taken-into-corneal-epithelial-cells-by-a-receptor-and-prevents-corneal-damage-in-dry-eye-model-animals
#5
Akihiro Higuchi, Hiroyoshi Inoue, Yoshio Kaneko, Erina Oonishi, Kazuo Tsubota
The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, which causes many ocular diseases including dry eye. Previously, we showed that selenium compounds, e.g., selenoprotein P and Se-lactoferrin, were candidates for treatment of dry eye. This paper shows the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin for the treatment of dry eye compared with Diquas as a control drug using two dry eye models and incorporation of lactoferrin into corneal epithelial cells via lactoferrin receptors. We show the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin eye drops in the tobacco smoke exposure rat dry eye model and short-term rabbit dry eye model, although Diquas eye drops were only effective in the short-term rabbit dry eye model...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832637/acute-overfeeding-does-not-alter-liver-or-adipose-tissue-derived-cytokines-in-healthy-humans
#6
Miaoxin Chen, Bo Liu, Campbell H Thompson, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The secretions of liver-derived cytokines angiopoietin-like 6, insulin-like growth factor 1, selenoprotein-P and C-reactive protein and adipokines, adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 are altered in obese individuals, and they directly induce insulin resistance in both cellular and animal models. This study is aimed at examining the effects of acute overnutrition on these cytokines in healthy individuals, and identifying association with markers of insulin resistance...
November 11, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822290/dietary-selenium-augments-sarcoplasmic-calcium-release-and-mechanical-performance-in-mice
#7
Dóra Bodnár, Olga Ruzsnavszky, Tamás Oláh, Beatrix Dienes, Ildikó Balatoni, Éva Ungvári, Ilona Benkő, Beáta Babka, József Prokisch, László Csernoch, Péter Szentesi
BACKGROUND: As an essential trace element selenium plays a significant role in many physiological functions of the organs. It is found within muscles as selenocystein in selenoprotein N, which is involved in redox-modulated calcium homeostasis and in protection against oxidative stress. METHODS: The effects of two different selenium compounds (selenate and NanoSe in 0.5 and 5 ppm concentration for two weeks) on muscle properties of mice were examined by measuring in vivo muscle performance, in vitro force in soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles and changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in single fibers from flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817049/overexpression-of-endogenous-anti-oxidants-with-selenium-supplementation-protects-trophoblast-cells-from-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-apoptosis-in-a-bcl-2-dependent-manner
#8
Alisha Khera, Jessica J Vanderlelie, Olivia Holland, Anthony V Perkins
The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red)...
November 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810737/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-key-enzymatic-activities-of-hepatic-thioredoxin-and-glutathione-systems-in-selenium-optimal-mice-but-activates-hepatic-nrf2-responses-in-selenium-deficient-mice
#9
Ruixia Dong, Dongxu Wang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ke Zhang, Pingping Chen, Chung S Yang, Jinsong Zhang
Selenium participates in the antioxidant defense mainly through a class of selenoproteins, including thioredoxin reductase. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active catechin in green tea. Depending upon the dose and biological systems, EGCG may function either as an antioxidant or as an inducer of antioxidant defense via its pro-oxidant action or other unidentified mechanisms. By manipulating the selenium status, the present study investigated the interactions of EGCG with antioxidant defense systems including the thioredoxin system comprising of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, the glutathione system comprising of glutathione and glutathione reductase coupled with glutaredoxin, and the Nrf2 system...
October 24, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802322/the-selenocysteine-specific-elongation-factor-contains-unique-sequences-that-are-required-for-both-nuclear-export-and-selenocysteine-incorporation
#10
Aditi Dubey, Paul R Copeland
Selenocysteine (Sec) is a critical residue in at least 25 human proteins that are essential for antioxidant defense and redox signaling in cells. Sec is inserted into proteins cotranslationally by the recoding of an in-frame UGA termination codon to a Sec codon. In eukaryotes, this recoding event requires several specialized factors, including a dedicated, Sec-specific elongation factor called eEFSec, which binds Sec-tRNASec with high specificity and delivers it to the ribosome for selenoprotein production...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802219/selenoprotein-s-reduces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-phosphorylation-of-tau-potential-role-in-selenate-mitigation-of-tau-pathology
#11
Rachel H L H Rueli, Daniel J Torres, Andrea S T Dewing, Arlene C Kiyohara, Stephanie M Barayuga, Miyoko T Bellinger, Jane H Uyehara-Lock, Lon R White, Paula I Moreira, Marla J Berry, George Perry, Frederick P Bellinger
Previous studies demonstrated that selenium in the form of sodium selenate reduces neurofibrillary tangle formation in Alzheimer's disease models. Hyperphosphorylation of tau, which leads to formation of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease, is increased by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Selenoprotein S (SelS) is part of an ER membrane complex that removes misfolded proteins from the ER as a means to reduce ER stress. Selenate, as with other forms of selenium, will increase selenoprotein expression...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793924/potential-of-selenium-compounds-as-new-anticancer-agents-for-cholangiocarcinoma
#12
Xurui Dai, Suyanee Thongchot, Hasaya Dokduang, Watcharin Loilome, Narong Khuntikeo, Attapol Titapun, Piti Ungarreevittaya, Puangrat Yongvanit, Anchalee Techasen, Nisana Namwat
We examined the in vitro effects of the selenium compounds sodium selenite (Se) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cholangiocarcima (CCA) cell growth and migration to determine their potential usefulness as anticancer agents. The effect of both compounds on the selenoprotein M level was investigated, as well as the association between the expression level of selenoprotein M and the patients' clinicopathological data. Se and SeMet inhibited CCA cell growth with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793789/inhibition-of-candida-albicans-biofilm-by-pure-selenium-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-pulsed-laser-ablation-in-liquids
#13
Grégory Guisbiers, Humberto H Lara, Ruben Mendoza-Cruz, Guillermo Naranjo, Brandy A Vincent, Xomalin G Peralta, Kelly L Nash
Selenoproteins play an important role in the human body by accomplishing essential biological functions like oxido-reductions, antioxidant defense, thyroid hormone metabolism and immune response; therefore, the possibility to synthesize selenium nanoparticles free of any contaminants is exciting for future nano-medical applications. This paper reports the first synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation in de-ionized water. Those pure nanoparticles have been successfully used to inhibit the formation of Candida albicans biofilms...
October 25, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777322/the-potential-toxicological-insights-about-the-anti-hiv-drug-azidothymidine-derived-monoselenides-in-human-leukocytes-toxicological-insights-of-new-selenium-azidothymidine-analogs
#14
Doc Mariano, D de Souza, D F Meinerz, J Allebrandt, A F de Bem, W Hassan, Oed Rodrigues, Jbt da Rocha
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide disease characterized by impairments of immune function. AIDS can be associated with oxidative stress (OS) that can be linked to selenium (Se) deficiency. Se is fundamental for the synthesis of selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. These enzymes catalyze the decomposition of reactive oxygen species and contribute to maintain equilibrium in cell redox status. Literature data indicate that organoselenium compounds, such as ebselen and diphenyl diselenide, have antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo models associated with OS...
October 24, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755963/reproductive-dysfunction-after-mercury-exposure-at-low-levels-evidence-for-a-role-of-glutathione-peroxidase-gpx-1-and-gpx4-in-male-rats
#15
Caroline S Martinez, Franck M Peçanha, Daniela S Brum, Francielli W Santos, Jeferson L Franco, Ana Paula P Zemolin, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernando B Junior, María J Alonso, Mercedes Salaices, Dalton V Vassallo, Fábio G Leivas, Giulia A Wiggers
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and mercury contamination and toxicity are serious hazards to human health. Some studies have shown that mercury impairs male reproductive function, but less is known about its effects following exposure at low doses and the possible mechanisms underlying its toxicity. Herein we show that exposure of rats to mercury chloride for 30 days (first dose 4.6µgkg-1, subsequent doses 0.07µgkg-1day-1) resulted in mean (±s.e.m.) blood mercury concentrations of 6.8±0...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752918/minimum-selenium-requirements-increase-when-repleting-second-generation-selenium-deficient-rats-but-are-not-further-altered-by-vitamin-e-deficiency
#16
Roger A Sunde, Kevin M Thompson, Kevin L Fritsche, Jacqueline K Evenson
Second-generation selenium-deficient weanling rats fed graded levels of dietary Se were used (a) to study the impact of initial Se deficiency on dietary Se requirements; (b) to determine if further decreases in selenoperoxidase expression, especially glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), affect growth or gross disease; and (c) to examine the impact of vitamin E deficiency on biochemical and molecular biomarkers of Se status. Rats were fed a vitamin E-deficient and Se-deficient crystalline amino acid diet (3 ng Se/g diet) or that diet supplemented with 100 μg/g all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate and/or 0, 0...
October 17, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752786/selenite-and-ebselen-supplementation-attenuates-d-galactose-induced-oxidative-stress-and-increases-expression-of-selr-and-sep15-in-rat-lens
#17
Jie Dai, Jun Zhou, Hongmei Liu, Kaixun Huang
Selenite and ebselen supplementation has been shown to possess anti-cataract potential in some experimental animal models of cataract, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-cataract effects and the underlying mechanisms of selenite and ebselen supplementation on galactose induced cataract in rats, a common animal model of sugar cataract. Transmission electron microscopy images of lens fiber cells (LFC) and lens epithelial cells (LEC) were observed in D-galactose-induced experimental cataractous rats treated with or without selenite and ebselen, also redox homeostasis and expression of proteins such as selenoprotein R (SELR), 15kD selenoprotein (SEP15), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), β-crystallin protein, aldose reductase (AR) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were estimated in the lenses...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726062/response-of-selenium-and-selenogenome-in-immune-tissues-to-lps-induced-inflammatory-reactions-in-pigs
#18
Lv-Hui Sun, Ding-An Pi, Ling Zhao, Xiu-Ying Wang, Luo-Yi Zhu, De-Sheng Qi, Yu-Lan Liu
Circulating concentration of the essential trace element selenium (Se) was significantly lower in inflammatory disorders. Although Se plays physiological roles mainly through the function of 25 selenoproteins, the response of the selenogenome in immune tissues during inflammatory reactions remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the Se retention and selenogenome expression in immune tissues during the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in porcine. A total of 12 male pigs were randomly divided into two groups and injected with LPS or saline...
October 11, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720946/6-3-4-dihydro-1h-isoquinoline-2-yl-n-6-methoxypyridine-2-yl-nicotinamide-26-dimn-26-decreases-cell-proliferation-by-induction-of-apoptosis-and-downregulation-of-androgen-receptor-signaling-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#19
Hye-Eun Choi, Ji-Sun Shin, Dong-Gyu Leem, Soo-Dong Kim, Won-Jea Cho, Kyung-Tae Lee
Previously, we reported that 6-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl) nicotinamide (DIMN) analogues inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells as an anti-androgenic compound. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of these DIMN derivatives and found that DIMN-26 most potently inhibited the proliferation of the LNCap-LN3 androgen-dependent and DU145 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The G2/M phase arrest was found due to increases in the activation of cdc2 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, CDK1)/cyclin B1 complex...
December 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708257/crystal-structures-of-the-human-elongation-factor-eefsec-suggest-a-non-canonical-mechanism-for-selenocysteine-incorporation
#20
Malgorzata Dobosz-Bartoszek, Mark H Pinkerton, Zbyszek Otwinowski, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Dieter Söll, Paul R Copeland, Miljan Simonović
Selenocysteine is the only proteinogenic amino acid encoded by a recoded in-frame UGA codon that does not operate as the canonical opal stop codon. A specialized translation elongation factor, eEFSec in eukaryotes and SelB in prokaryotes, promotes selenocysteine incorporation into selenoproteins by a still poorly understood mechanism. Our structural and biochemical results reveal that four domains of human eEFSec fold into a chalice-like structure that has similar binding affinities for GDP, GTP and other guanine nucleotides...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
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