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Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Hiroshi Chadani, Soichiro Usui, Oto Inoue, Takashi Kusayama, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Takeshi Kato, Hisayoshi Murai, Hiroshi Furusho, Ayano Nomura, Hirofumi Misu, Toshinari Takamura, Shuichi Kaneko, Masayuki Takamura
Selenoprotein P (SeP), a liver-derived secretory protein, functions as a selenium supply protein in the body. SeP has been reported to be associated with insulin resistance in humans through serial analysis of gene expression. Recently, SeP has been found to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated cell proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and impair angiogenesis in a mouse hind limb model. In this study, the role of SeP in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has been investigated...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Maria O'Kane, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Maria S Mulhern, J J Strain, Emer M Mackle, Duygu Koca, Lutz Schomburg, Sarah Hill, Jennifer O'Reilly, Diana Kmiotek, Christian Deitrich, Sarah C Bath, Alison J Yeates
Background: Recent evidence has highlighted the prevalence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in women of childbearing age and pregnant women, with important public health ramifications due to the role of iodine, which is required for thyroid hormone production, in neurodevelopment. Cow milk contributes the greatest amount to iodine intakes in several countries. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increased cow milk consumption on iodine status, thyroid hormone concentrations, and selenium status...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jose Pedro Friedmann Angeli, Marcus Conrad
Selenium has transitioned from an environmental poison and carcinogen to an essential micronutrient associated with a broad array of health promoting effects. These beneficial effects are now accepted to be linked to its incorporation into selenoproteins, a family of rare proteins utilizing a specialized translation machinery to integrate selenium in the form of selenocysteine. Despite this recognised role, much less is known regarding the actual role of selenium in these proteins. Here, we will provide the reader with an overview of the essential role of specific selenoproteins and their link to pathology based on mouse studies and relevant mutations discovered in humans...
March 6, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ting Gong, Daniel J Torres, Marla J Berry, Matthew W Pitts
The hypothalamus is the central neural site governing food intake and energy expenditure. During the past 25 years, understanding of the hypothalamic cell types, hormones, and circuitry involved in the regulation of energy metabolism has dramatically increased. It is now well established that the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts upon two distinct groups of hypothalamic neurons that comprise opposing arms of the central melanocortin system. These two cell populations are anorexigenic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neurons that express agouti-related peptide (AGRP)...
March 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Roger A Sunde, Edward T Zemaitis, Andrew B Blink, Julia A Lawinger
Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1) is the major selenoprotein in most tissues in animals. Knockout (KO) of Gpx1 decreases Gpx1 activity to near zero and substantially reduces liver selenium (Se) levels, but has no overt effects in otherwise healthy mice. To investigate the impact of deletion of Gpx1 on Se metabolism, Se flux, and apparent Se requirements, KO, Gpx1 heterozygous (Het), and Gpx1 wild-type (WT) mice were fed Se-deficient diet for 17 weeks, then repleted with graded levels of Se (0-0.3 μg Se/g as Na2 SeO3 ) for 7 days, and selenoprotein activities and transcripts were determined in blood, liver, and kidney...
March 3, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Yasuhiro Horibata, Orly Elpeleg, Ayelet Eran, Yoshio Hirabayashi, David Savitzki, Galit Tal, Hanna Mandel, Hiroyuki Sugimoto
Ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (EPT1), also known as selenoprotein 1 (SELENOI), is an enzyme that transfers phosphoethanolamine from cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-ethanolamine to lipid acceptors to produce ethanolamine glycerophospholipids such as diacyl-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and ether-linked plasmalogen (plasmenyl-PE). However, to date there has been no analysis of the metabolomic consequence of the mutation of EPT1 on the concentration of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in mammalian cells...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Dimitrios Tsitsipatis, Keshav Gopal, Holger Steinbrenner, Lars-Oliver Klotz
Hepatic production and release of metabolites, nutrients and micronutrient transporters is tightly regulated at the level of gene expression. In this regard, transcription factor FOXO1 modulates the expression of genes such as G6PC and SELENOP, encoding the catalytic subunit of glucose 6-phosphatase and the plasma selenium transporter selenoprotein P, respectively. Here, we analyzed the role of cysteine residues in FOXO1 in controlling its activity with respect to regulation of G6PC and SELENOP in HepG2 human hepatoma cells...
February 26, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shaneice K Nettleford, K Sandeep Prabhu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by severe flares and remissions, is a debilitating condition. While the etiology is unknown, many immune cells, such as macrophages, T cells and innate lymphoid cells, are implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous studies have shown the ability of micronutrient selenium (Se) and selenoproteins to impact inflammatory signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, two transcription factors, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ, which are involved in the activation of immune cells, and are also implicated in various stages of inflammation and resolution, respectively, are impacted by Se status...
March 1, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nikolay Solovyev, Evgenii Drobyshev, Geir Bjørklund, Yaroslav Dubrovskii, Roman Lysiuk, Margaret P Rayman
The essential trace element, selenium (Se), is crucial to the brain but it may be potentially neurotoxic, depending on dosage and speciation; Se has been discussed for decades in relation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) is a secreted heparin-binding glycoprotein which serves as the main Se transport protein in mammals. In vivo studies showed that this protein might have additional functions such as a contribution to redox regulation. The current review focuses on recent research on the possible role of SELENOP in AD pathology, based on model and human studies...
February 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Sagar H Barage, Deepti D Deobagkar, Vijay B Baladhye
Selenoproteins are a group of proteins which contain selenocysteine (Sec or U) in their primary structure. Selenoproteins play a critical role in antioxidant defense, hormone metabolism, immune responses and muscle development. The selenoprotein H (SELENOH) is essential in the regulation of gene expression in response to redox status and antioxidant defense. It has Sec residue located in conserved CXXU motif similar to other selenoproteins. However, exact biological function of Sec residue in SELENOH is not known in detail...
February 26, 2018: Amino Acids
Peter Heitland, Helmut D Köster
Most of the Se in human serum is bound to selenoprotein P (SEPP1) in which Se is present in form of selenocysteine. The SEPP1 is a new possible biomarker for the Se status and for this reason we developed a fast, simple and reliable method for the quantitative determination of SEPP1 in serum by affinity chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. It is possible to separate SEPP1 from other selenoproteins in serum in only 5 min, which allows high sample throughput in clinical laboratories. Measured and certified concentrations of total Se and Se(SEPP1) are in good agreement for the reference material SRM 1950...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jordan Sonet, Katarzyna Bierla, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Ryszard Lobinski, Laurent Chavatte
Glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), one of the most responsive selenoproteins to the variation of selenium concentration, is often used to evaluate "selenium status" at a cellular or organismal level. The four major types of analytical methodologies to quantify Gpx1 were revisited. They include (i) an enzymatic assay, (ii, iii) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with (ii) western blot detection of protein or (iii) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) detection of selenium, and (iv) size-exclusion chromatography with ICP MS detection...
June 29, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Tessa van Dijk, Jan-Dirk Vermeij, Silvana van Koningsbruggen, Phillis Lakeman, Frank Baas, Bwee Tien Poll-The
Mutations in the SEPSECS gene are associated with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous group of rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders, mainly affecting pons and cerebellum. Patients have severe motor and cognitive impairments and often die during infancy. Here, we report a 23-year-old woman with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and cognitive impairment, in whom a homozygous missense mutation in the SEPSECS gene (c.1321G>A; p.Gly441Arg) was identified with whole exome sequencing...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Margaret P Rayman, Kristian Hillert Winther, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Frederick Cold, Marianne Thvilum, Saverio Stranges, Eliseo Guallar, Søren Cold
BACKGROUND: Selenium, an essential trace element, is incorporated into selenoproteins with a wide range of health effects. Selenoproteins may reach repletion at a plasma selenium concentration of ~125µg/L, at which point the concentration of selenoprotein P reaches a plateau; whether sustained concentrations higher than this are beneficial, or indeed detrimental, is unknown. OBJECTIVE: In a population of relatively low selenium status, we aimed to determine the effect on mortality of long-term selenium supplementation at different dose levels...
February 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
N Connor Payne, Drew R Barber, Erik L Ruggles, Robert J Hondal
Dimedone is a widely used reagent to assess the redox state of cysteine-containing proteins as it will alkylate sulfenic acid residues, but not sulfinic acid residues. While it has been reported that dimedone can label selenenic acid residues in selenoproteins, we investigated the stability, and reversibility of this label in a model peptide system. We also wondered whether dimedone could be used to detect seleninic acid residues. We used benzenesulfinic acid, benzeneseleninic acid, and model selenocysteine-containing peptides to investigate possible reactions with dimedone...
February 16, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Xian Fu, Dieter Söll, Anastasia Sevostyanova
Selenocysteine (Sec), a rare genetically encoded amino acid with unusual chemical properties, is of great interest for protein engineering. Sec is synthesized on its cognate tRNA (tRNA Sec ) by the concerted action of several enzymes. While all other aminoacyl-tRNAs are delivered to the ribosome by the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), Sec-tRNA Sec requires a dedicated factor, SelB. Incorporation of Sec into protein requires recoding of the stop codon UGA aided by a specific mRNA structure, the SECIS element. This unusual biogenesis restricts the use of Sec in recombinant proteins, limiting our ability to study the properties of selenoproteins...
February 15, 2018: RNA Biology
Romina di Giuseppe, Sandra Plachta-Danielzik, Manja Koch, Ute Nöthlings, Sabrina Schlesinger, Jan Borggrefe, Marcus Both, Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek, Gunnar Jacobs, Wolfgang Lieb
PURPOSE: The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Yifeng Zhou, Qiaoyu Tang, Meiru Wu, Di Mou, Hui Liu, Shouchuang Wang, Chi Zhang, Li Ding, Jie Luo
Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans. Cardamine hupingshanensis (Brassicaceae), found in the Wuling mountain area of China, has been identified as a novel Se hyperaccumulator plant. However, the mechanism for selenium tolerance in Cardamine plants remains unknown. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from seedlings of C. hupingshanensis treated with selenite. Approximately 100 million clean sequencing reads were de novo assembled into 48,989 unigenes, of which 39,579 and 33,510 were expressed in the roots and leaves, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
R Swart, A E Schutte, J M van Rooyen, C M C Mels
Selenium is an important co-factor for the optimal functioning of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Studies investigating the associations of selenium with blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamic measures are sparse. This study investigated whether 24h blood pressure, vascular resistance, arterial compliance and arterial stiffness relate to both serum selenium and GPx activity. In this cross-sectional study selenium levels, GPx activity, ambulatory blood pressure and arterial stiffness of 200 black and 209 white school teachers from South Africa were measured...
February 2018: Food Research International
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