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Selenoprotein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330096/selenoprotein-h-controls-cell-cycle-progression-and-proliferation-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#1
REVIEW
Martin Bertz, Katrin Kühn, Solveigh C Koeberle, Mike F Müller, Doerte Hoelzer, Karolin Thies, Stefanie Deubel, René Thierbach, Anna P Kipp
Selenoprotein H (SELENOH) is supposed to be involved in redox regulation as well as in tumorigenesis. However, its role in healthy and transformed cells of the gastrointestinal tract remains elusive. We analysed SELENOH expression in cells depending on their selenium supply and differentiation status and found that SELENOH expression was increased in tumor tissue, in undifferentiated epithelial cells from mice and in colorectal cancer lines as compared to more differentiated ones. Knockdown studies in human colorectal cancer cells revealed that repression of SELENOH decreased cellular differentiation and increased proliferation and migration...
January 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329926/characterization-of-selenoprotein-p-cdna-of-the-antarctic-toothfish-dissostichus-mawsoni-and-its-role-under-cold-pressure
#2
Yan Li, Juntao Luo, Qiongqiong Xu, Yanwen Hou, Penglei Jiang, Yutian Sun, Hanxu Lu, Bingshe Han, Junfang Zhang
Our previous study using comparative genome analysis revealed a significant gene copy number gain of Dissostichus mawsoni selenoprotein P (Dm-SEPP) during the evolutionary radiation of Antarctic notothenioids, suggesting that Dm-SEPP contribute to this process, but the detailed structure and function of this gene product remain unclear. In the present study, the Dm-SEPP cDNA was cloned and characterized. The Dm-SEPP cDNA contains 17 selenocysteines (Sec) encoded by TGA codons and 2 typical SECIS elements located in the 3'-UTR...
January 9, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327078/the-role-of-the-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-system-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-towards-a-possible-prognostic-marker
#3
REVIEW
Alexey A Tinkov, Geir Bjørklund, Anatoly V Skalny, Arne Holmgren, Margarita G Skalnaya, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Jan Aaseth
Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a selenoprotein with three existing isoenzymes (TrxR1, TrxR2, and TrxR3), which is found primarily intracellularly but also in extracellular fluids. The main substrate thioredoxin (Trx) is similarly found (as Trx1 and Trx2) in various intracellular compartments, in blood plasma, and is the cell's major disulfide reductase. Thioredoxin reductase is necessary as a NADPH-dependent reducing agent in biochemical reactions involving Trx. Genetic and environmental factors like selenium status influence the activity of TrxR...
January 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314169/correlations-of-selenof-and-selenop-genotypes-with-serum-selenium-levels-and-prostate-cancer
#4
Dede N Ekoue, Emmanuel Ansong, Li Liu, Virgilia Macias, Ryan Deaton, Craig Lacher, Matthew Picklo, Larisa Nonn, Peter H Gann, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Gail S Prins, Vincent L Freeman, Alan M Diamond
BACKGROUND: Selenium status is inversely associated with the incidence of prostate cancer. However, supplementation trials have not indicated a benefit of selenium supplementation in reducing cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding selenoprotein 15 (SELENOF) are associated with cancer incidence/mortality and present disproportionately in African Americans. Relationships among the genotype of selenoproteins implicated in increased cancer risk, selenium status, and race with prostate cancer were investigated...
January 5, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311488/role-of-supplementary-selenium-on-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-in-nsy-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Koichi Murano, Hirofumi Ogino, Tomofumi Okuno, Tomohiro Arakawa, Hitoshi Ueno
The role of supplementary selenium on the induction of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in a diabetic mouse model was investigated in NSY mice on a high fat diet (HFD) and administered seleno-L-methionine (SeMet)-containing water for 12 weeks. Significant increases in oral glucose tolerance-tested (OGTT), insulin tolerance-tested, and non-fasting blood glucose levels were observed in mice on a HFD, as well as the significant increases in OGTT and non-fasting plasma insulin levels. Mice on a HFD had decreased plasma adiponectin levels and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298985/selenium-implications-for-outcomes-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#6
REVIEW
Rachael Tindell, Trent Tipple
Extremely preterm infants are at high risk for morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity likely related to their exposure to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species early in life. Selenium is a trace mineral contributes to the proper function of multiple systems including immunity, redox regulation, and inflammation via the "selenoenzymes" glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and selenoprotein P. Given that selenium accretion via the placenta occurs primarily during the third trimester, preterm neonates are born selenium deficient...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296229/selenium-against-lead-induced-apoptosis-in-chicken-nervous-tissues-via-mitochondrial-pathway
#7
Yihao Zhu, Xiaoyan Jiao, Yang An, Shu Li, Xiaohua Teng
To investigate alleviative effect of selenium (Se) on lead (Pb)-induced apoptosis in chicken nervous tissues, 7-day-old chickens were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was fed a standard diet and drinking water. In the Pb and Se/Pb groups, (CH3OO)2Pb was dissolved in drinking water. In the Se and Se/Pb groups, Na2SeO3 was put into the standard diet. Embryonic neurocytes were divided into the control, Se (containing Na2SeO3), Pb (containing (CH3COO)2Pb), and Se/Pb (containing Na2SeO3 and (CH3COO)2Pb) groups...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290465/selenium-utilization-by-gpx4-is-required-to-prevent-hydroperoxide-induced-ferroptosis
#8
Irina Ingold, Carsten Berndt, Sabine Schmitt, Sebastian Doll, Gereon Poschmann, Katalin Buday, Antonella Roveri, Xiaoxiao Peng, Florencio Porto Freitas, Tobias Seibt, Lisa Mehr, Michaela Aichler, Axel Walch, Daniel Lamp, Martin Jastroch, Sayuri Miyamoto, Wolfgang Wurst, Fulvio Ursini, Elias S J Arnér, Noelia Fradejas-Villar, Ulrich Schweizer, Hans Zischka, José Pedro Friedmann Angeli, Marcus Conrad
Selenoproteins are rare proteins among all kingdoms of life containing the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine resembles cysteine, differing only by the substitution of selenium for sulfur. Yet the actual advantage of selenolate- versus thiolate-based catalysis has remained enigmatic, as most of the known selenoproteins also exist as cysteine-containing homologs. Here, we demonstrate that selenolate-based catalysis of the essential mammalian selenoprotein GPX4 is unexpectedly dispensable for normal embryogenesis...
December 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286308/selenoprotein-k-increases-efficiency-of-dhhc6-catalyzed-protein-palmitoylation-by-stabilizing-the-acyl-dhhc6-intermediate
#9
Gregory J Fredericks, FuKun W Hoffmann, Robert J Hondal, Sharon Rozovsky, Johann Urschitz, Peter R Hoffmann
Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) is a selenocysteine (Sec)-containing protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane where it interacts with the DHHC6 (where single letter symbols represent Asp-His-His-Cys amino acids) enzyme to promote protein acyl transferase (PAT) reactions. PAT reactions involve the DHHC enzymatic capture of palmitate via a thioester bond to cysteine (Cys) residues that form an unstable palmitoyl-DHHC intermediate, followed by transfer of palmitate to Cys residues of target proteins...
December 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278740/the-a-to-z-of-modulated-cell-patterning-by-mammalian-thioredoxin-reductases
#10
REVIEW
Markus Dagnell, Edward E Schmidt, Elias S J Arnér
Mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) that propel a large number of functions through reduction of several substrates including the active site disulfide of thioredoxins (Trxs). Well-known enzymatic systems that in turn are supported by Trxs and TrxRs include deoxyribonucleotide synthesis through ribonucleotide reductase, antioxidant defense through peroxiredoxins and methionine sulfoxide reductases, and redox modulation of a number of transcription factors...
December 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230506/the-isoprenoid-end-product-n6-isopentenyladenosine-reduces-inflammatory-response-through-the-inhibition-of-the-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-stat3-pathways-in-cystic-fibrosis-cells
#11
Antonietta Santoro, Elena Ciaglia, Vanessa Nicolin, Alessandra Pescatore, Lucia Prota, Mario Capunzo, Matilde V Ursini, Stefania L Nori, Maurizio Bifulco
OBJECTIVE: N6-isopentenyladenosine (iPA) is an intermediate of the mevalonate pathway that exhibits various anti-cancer effects. However, studies on its anti-inflammatory activity are scarce and underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the ability of iPA to exert anti-inflammatory effects in the human cystic fibrosis (CF) cell model of exacerbated inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TNFα-stimulated CF cells CuFi-1 and its normal counterpart NuLi-1 were pre-treated with increasing concentrations of iPA and cell viability and proliferation were assessed by MTT and BrdU assays...
December 11, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222842/kinetic-characterisation-of-wild-type-and-mutant-human-thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase-defines-its-reaction-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#12
Christina Brandstaedter, Karin Fritz-Wolf, Stine Weder, Marina Fischer, Beate Hecker, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker
In most cells the thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione systems are essentially involved in maintaining redox homeostasis. The selenoprotein thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is a hybrid enzyme in which a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain is linked to a thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Notably, the protein is also capable of reducing glutathione disulfide (GSSG) thus representing an important link between the two redox systems. In this study, we recombinantly produced human TGR (hTGR wild type) by fusing its open reading frame with a bacterial SECIS element and co-expressing the construct in E...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220580/the-influence-of-adiposity-and-acute-exercise-on-circulating-hepatokines-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-obese-men
#13
Jack A Sargeant, Guruprasad P Aithal, Toshinari Takamura, Hirofumi Misu, Hiroaki Takayama, Jessica A Douglas, Mark C Turner, David J Stensel, Myra A Nimmo, David R Webb, Thomas Yates, James A King
Hepatokines are liver-secreted proteins with potential to influence glucose regulation and other metabolic parameters. This study investigated differences in adiposity status on five novel hepatokines and characterised their response to acute moderate-intensity exercise in groups of normal weight and overweight/obese men. Twenty-two men were recruited into normal weight and overweight/obese groups (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 and 25.0 to 34.9 kg∙m<sup>-2</sup>). Each completed two experimental trials, exercise and control...
December 8, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204909/nano-se-assimilation-and-action-in-poultry-and-other-monogastric-animals-is-gut-microbiota-an-answer
#14
Peter F Surai, Ivan I Kochish, Oksana A Velichko
Recently, a comprehensive review paper devoted to roles of nano-Se in livestock and fish nutrition has been published in the Nanoscale Research Letters. The authors described in great details an issue related to nano-Se production and its possible applications in animal industry and medicine. However, molecular mechanisms of nano-Se action were not described and the question of how nano-Se is converted into active selenoproteins is not resolved. It seems likely that the gut microbiota can convert nano-Se into selenite, H2Se or Se-phosphate with the following synthesis of selenoproteins...
December 4, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190764/selenium-requirements-based-on-muscle-and-kidney-selenoprotein-enzyme-activity-and-transcript-expression-in-the-turkey-poult-meleagris-gallopavo
#15
Rachel M Taylor, Roger A Sunde
The current NRC selenium (Se) requirement for turkeys is 0.2 μg Se/g diet. We previously fed turkey poults a Se-deficient diet (0.005 μg Se/g) supplemented with 10 graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 μg Se/g as Na2SeO3, 5/treatment) for 4 wk, and found that the minimum dietary Se requirement was 0.3 μg Se/g based on selenoprotein enzyme activity in blood, liver, gizzard and pancreas. Because the turkey is primarily a production animal, we expanded this analysis to kidney, heart, breast and thigh...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190468/selenoprotein-l-inspired-nano-vesicular-peroxidase-mimics-based-on-amphiphilic-diselenides
#16
Wataru Uehara, Sakura Yoshida, Yui Emaya, Takeshi Fuchigami, Mamoru Haratake, Morio Nakayama
In this study, we developed selenoprotein L-inspired nano-vesicular peroxidase mimics based on amphiphilic diselenides. Selenocystine (SeCyst) was used as the starting material for the synthesis of four liposomal membrane-compatible diselenide derivatives (R-Se-Se-R') with two hydrophobic tails and a polar part. The diselenide derivatives were successfully incorporated into the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based nano-vesicular scaffold. The results of the particle diameter and zeta-potential measurements suggested that the functional diselenide moiety was placed around the outer surface, not in the hydrophobic interior, of the liposomal membrane structures...
November 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187424/optimising-selenium-for-modulation-of-cancer-treatments
#17
REVIEW
Stephen Owen Evans, Puteri Farisa Khairuddin, Michael B Jameson
Selenium is an essential trace element involved in many biological processes that are mediated through, at least, 25 selenoproteins expressed in humans. Extensive study of selenium compounds has demonstrated growth inhibition of malignant cells in a vast array of experimental models. Moreover combining selenium with conventional cancer therapy has yielded promising results in both preclinical studies and a cohort of human trials. The aim of this review is to highlight the current research evaluating the role of selenium compounds in combination with chemotherapy and radiation...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177465/aminoglycoside-mediated-promotion-of-translation-readthrough-occurs-through-a-non-stochastic-mechanism-that-competes-with-translation-termination
#18
H M Chowdhury, M A Siddiqui, S Kanneganti, N Sharmin, M W Chowdhury, Talat Nasim
Attempts have been made to treat nonsense-associated genetic disorders by chemical agents and hence an improved mechanistic insight into the decoding of readthrough signals is essential for the identification and characterisation of factors for the treatment of these disorders. To identify either novel compounds or genes that modulate translation readthrough, we have employed dual reporter-based high-throughput screens that use enzymatic and fluorescence activities and screened bio-active NINDS compounds (n = 1000) and siRNA (n = 288) libraries...
November 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176034/selenium-preserves-keratinocyte-stemness-and-delays-senescence-by-maintaining-epidermal-adhesion
#19
Lara Jobeili, Patricia Rousselle, David Béal, Eric Blouin, Anne-Marie Roussel, Odile Damour, Walid Rachidi
Skin is constantly exposed to environmental factors such as pollutants, chemicals and ultra violet radiation (UV), which can induce premature skin aging and increase the risk of skin cancer. One strategy to reduce the effect of oxidative stress produced by environmental exposure is the application of antioxidant molecules. Among the endogenous antioxidants, selenoproteins play a key role in antioxidant defense and in maintaining a reduced cellular environment. Selenium, essential for the activity of selenoproteins, is a trace element that is not synthesized by organisms and must be supplied by diet or supplementation...
November 25, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168872/organoselenium-compounds-as-mimics-of-selenoproteins-and-thiol-modifier-agents
#20
REVIEW
Nilda V Barbosa, Cristina W Nogueira, Pablo A Nogara, Andreza F de Bem, Michael Aschner, João B T Rocha
Selenium is an essential trace element for animals and its role in the chemistry of life relies on a unique functional group: the selenol (-SeH) group. The selenol group participates in critical redox reactions. The antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) exemplify important selenoproteins. The selenol group shares several chemical properties with the thiol group (-SH), but it is much more reactive than the sulfur analogue. The substitution of S by Se has been exploited in organic synthesis for a long time, but in the last 4 decades the re-discovery of ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) and the demonstration that it has antioxidant and therapeutic properties has renovated interest in the field...
November 23, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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