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Life events and difficulties schedule

Jan Mehrholz, Simone Thomas, Bernhard Elsner
BACKGROUND: Treadmill training, with or without body weight support using a harness, is used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine if treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, improve walking ability, quality of life, activities of daily living, dependency or death, and institutionalisation or death, compared with other physiotherapy gait-training interventions after stroke...
August 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Véronique Dupéré, Eric Dion, Kate Harkness, Julie McCabe, Éliane Thouin, Sophie Parent
The Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) is considered the standard for measuring psychosocial stressor exposure, but it has not been used with academically at-risk adolescents, including high school dropouts. The goal of this study was to (1) adapt the LEDS for use with this population, and (2) examine the reliability (interrater) and validity (concurrent and predictive) of this adaptation among a sample of vulnerable adolescents (N = 545). Good reliability coefficients (.79-.90) were obtained, and stressor exposure was associated with concurrent criteria indexing mental health outcomes (depression) and major risk factors for dropout (administratively recorded and self-reported)...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
S A Stansfeld, C Clark, M Smuk, C Power, T Davidson, B Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. METHOD: At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey...
January 2017: Psychological Medicine
David J Owen, Lorna Wood, Barbara Tomenson, Francis Creed, James P Neilson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether stress, anxiety and depression predict preterm birth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a convenience sample of women pregnant with dichorionic, diamniotic twins. They were interviewed at 24-28 weeks using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone, ACTH and cortisol levels were assessed at 28 weeks. The main outcome was premature delivery; there were 42 preterm and 73 term births...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Terhi Hermanson, Charles L Bennett, Iain C Macdougall
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin revolutionized the management of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In order to circumvent costly recombinant DNA technology, synthetic chemistry techniques were used to manufacture peginesatide, a synthetic peptide that bore no resemblance to previous erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), and yet was capable of stimulating erythropoiesis. Compared with other ESAs, peginesatide was deemed to have advantages related to immunogenicity, administration schedule, and cost...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
T R Nicholson, S Aybek, T Craig, T Harris, W Wojcik, A S David, R A Kanaan
BACKGROUND: Psychological models of conversion disorder (CD) traditionally assume that psychosocial stressors are identifiable around symptom onset. In the face of limited supportive evidence such models are being challenged. METHOD: Forty-three motor CD patients, 28 depression patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule in the year before symptom onset. A novel 'escape' rating for events was developed to test the Freudian theory that physical symptoms of CD could provide escape from stressors, a form of 'secondary gain'...
September 2016: Psychological Medicine
Nick Midgley, Sally Parkinson, Joshua Holmes, Emily Stapley, Virginia Eatough, Mary Target
The causal beliefs which adults have regarding their mental health difficulties have been linked to help-seeking behaviour, treatment preferences, and the outcome of therapy; yet, the topic remains a relatively unexplored one in the adolescent literature. This exploratory study aims to explore the causal beliefs regarding depression among a sample of clinically referred adolescents. Seventy seven adolescents, aged between 11 and 17, all diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule, at the beginning of their participation in a randomised controlled trial...
January 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Florian Bootsman, Sanne M Kemner, Manon H J Hillegers, Rachel M Brouwer, Ronald Vonk, Astrid C van der Schot, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Willem A Nolen, René S Kahn, Neeltje E M van Haren
Hippocampal volume deficits have been linked to life stress. However, the degree to which genes and environment influence the association between hippocampal volume and life events is largely unknown. In total, 123 healthy twins from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 57 healthy twins were interviewed with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), with an overlap of 54 twins undergoing both MRI and the life events interview. Hippocampal volumes were segmented with Freesurfer software...
August 2016: Hippocampus
Jessica C Levenson, Meredith L Wallace, Barbara P Anderson, David J Kupfer, Ellen Frank
OBJECTIVES: As outlined in the social zeitgeber hypothesis, social rhythm disrupting (SRD) life events begin a cascade of social and biological rhythm disruption that may lead to the onset of affective episodes in those vulnerable to bipolar disorder. Thus, the study of SRD events is particularly important in individuals with this chronic condition. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate (i) the extent to which SRD life events increased the risk of recurrence of a bipolar mood episode, and (ii) whether the social rhythm disruption associated with the event conferred an increased risk of recurrence, after accounting for the level of threat associated with the life event...
December 2015: Bipolar Disorders
Ruth Spence, Amanda Bunn, Stephen Nunn, Georgina M Hosang, Lisa Kagan, Helen L Fisher, Matthew Taylor, Antonia Bifulco
BACKGROUND: Severe life events are acknowledged as important etiological factors in the development of clinical disorders, including major depression. Interview methods capable of assessing context and meaning of events have demonstrated superior validity compared with checklist questionnaire methods and arguments for interview approaches have resurfaced because choosing the appropriate assessment tool provides clarity of information about gene-environment interactions in depression. Such approaches also have greater potential for understanding and treating clinical cases or for use in interventions...
2015: JMIR Research Protocols
Frank Peinemann, Doreen A Tushabe, Elvira C van Dalen, Frank Berthold
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is a rare malignant disease and mainly affects infants and very young children. The tumors mainly develop in the adrenal medullary tissue and an abdominal mass is the most common presentation. The high-risk group is characterized by metastasis and other characteristics that increase the risk for an adverse outcome. In the rapid COJEC induction schedule, higher single doses of selected drugs than standard induction schedules are administered over a substantially shorter treatment period, with shorter intervals between cycles...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
S M Kemner, E Mesman, W A Nolen, M J C Eijckemans, M H J Hillegers
BACKGROUND: Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated the impact of life events on the onset and recurrence of mood episodes in bipolar offspring, as well as the effects of temperament, coping and parenting style on this association. METHOD: Bipolar offspring (n = 108) were followed longitudinally from adolescence to adulthood...
2015: Psychological Medicine
Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Waralak Yamasmit, Sompop Limpongsanurak, Pisake Lumbiganon, Jorge E Tolosa
BACKGROUND: Approximately 450,000 children worldwide die of pneumococcal infections each year. The development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials adds to the difficulty of treatment of diseases and emphasizes the need for a preventive approach. Newborn vaccination schedules could substantially reduce the impact of pneumococcal disease in immunized children, but do not have an effect on the morbidity and mortality of infants less than three months of age. Pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy may be a way of preventing pneumococcal disease during the first months of life before the pneumococcal vaccine administered to the infant starts to produce protection...
January 23, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bertus F Jeronimus, Harriëtte Riese, Robbert Sanderman, Johan Ormel
High neuroticism predicts psychopathology and physical health problems. Nongenetic factors, including major life events and experiences, explain approximately half of the variance in neuroticism. Conversely, neuroticism also predicts these life experiences. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reciprocal causation between neuroticism and life experiences and to gauge the magnitude and persistence of these associations. This longitudinal cohort study included 5 assessment waves over 16 years in a random sample of 296 Dutch participants (47% women) with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 12, range 16-63 years)...
October 2014: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Gokçe N Say, Haydar A Tasdemir, Seher Akbas, Murat Yüce, Koray Karabekiroglu
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epilepsy are known to have psychosocial problems. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial difficulties, history of stressful life events/abuse, psychiatric diagnosis, and self-esteem of adolescents with PNES to the ones with epilepsy and healthy controls at a tertiary care center in Turkey. METHOD: Thirty-four adolescents with PNES diagnosed by video-EEG were compared with 23 adolescents that have epilepsy and 35 healthy volunteers...
2014: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Colin A Ross, Lynn Ferrell, Elizabeth Schroeder
The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder...
2014: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
George W Brown, Thomas K J Craig, Tirril O Harris, Joe Herbert, Karen Hodgson, Katherine E Tansey, Rudolf Uher
BACKGROUND: We test the hypothesis that the functional Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF interacts with recent life events to produce onset of new depressive episodes. We also explore the possibility that the Met allele of this polymorphism interacts with childhood maltreatment to increase the risk of chronic depression. METHODS: In a risk-enriched combined sample of unrelated women, childhood maltreatment and current life events were measured with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse, and Life Events and Difficulties Schedule interviews...
April 2014: Depression and Anxiety
Selma Aybek, Timothy R Nicholson, Fernando Zelaya, Owen G O'Daly, Tom J Craig, Anthony S David, Richard A Kanaan
IMPORTANCE: Freud argued that in conversion disorder (CD) the affect attached to stressful memories is "repressed" and "converted" into physical symptoms, although this has never been subject to scientific study to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To examine the neural correlates of recall of life events judged to be of causal significance in CD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study. Academic research setting among 12 patients with motor CD and 13 healthy control subjects...
January 2014: JAMA Psychiatry
Surendra Kumar Mattoo, Naresh Nebhinani, B N Anil Kumar, Debasish Basu, Parmanand Kulhara
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: A substance dependent person in the family affects almost all aspects of family life. This leads to problems, difficulties or adverse events which impact the lives of family members and causes enormous burden on family caregivers. The present study aimed to assess the pattern of burden borne by the family caregivers of men with alcohol and opioid dependence. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with ICD-10 diagnosed substance dependence subjects and their family caregivers attending a de-addiction centre at a multispecialty teaching hospital in north India...
April 2013: Indian Journal of Medical Research
N A Troop
BACKGROUND: Helplessness and mastery in childhood and in response to the events that trigger onset are implicated in the development of eating disorders. However, no studies have yet explored how these are linked and whether the effects are additive or mediated. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse; Life Events and Difficulties Schedule; Coping Strategies Interview) were used to assess helplessness and mastery in childhood and in response to a provoking agent in 15 eating disordered and 19 non-eating disordered women...
December 2012: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
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