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Haoyi Ji, Na Liu, Yingchun Yin, Xinmei Wang, Xiaoyang Chen, Jing Li, Jingxin Li
Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this apparent clinical benefit is unknown. Oxytocin (OXT), a hypothalamic nonapetide, plays a crucial role in many reproductive and behavioural functions. In recent year, OXT acts as a growth regulator in many kind of tumor tissues, through the activation of a specific G-coupled transmembrane receptor, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). OXT has been proved to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells in vitro...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Jin He, J Marieke Buil, Hans M Koot, Pol A C van Lier
The single nucleotide polymorphism rs53576 of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene is involved in forming and maintaining relationships in various social contexts. However, this has not been studied in the childhood peer context. The present study followed 359 children (51.6% girls) from age 9 to 12 to explore associations between OXTR rs53576 genotype (i.e., AA, AG or GG genotype) and three indicators of children's relationships with peers: likability and dis-likability among, and friendship with, classroom peers...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Henrik Dobewall, Christian Hakulinen, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Ilkka Seppälä, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T Raitakari, Mirka Hintsanen
BACKGROUND: Lack of social support is an established risk factor across health outcomes, making it important to examine its family environmental and genetic determinants. METHODS: In a 27-year follow-up of the Young Finns Study (N = 2341), we examined with a latent growth curve model whether genes involved in the oxytocin signaling pathway-namely, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variants rs1042778, rs2254298, and rs53576-moderate the effect of early-life social experiences on perceived social support across the life span...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Krisztina Kovács, Zsófia Virányi, Anna Kis, Borbála Turcsán, Ágnes Hudecz, Maria T Marmota, Dóra Koller, Zsolt Rónai, Márta Gácsi, József Topál
Variations in human infants' attachment behavior are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, suggesting a genetic component to infant-mother attachment. However, due to the genetic relatedness of infants and their mothers, it is difficult to separate the genetic effects of infants' OXTR genotype from the environmental effects of mothers' genotype possibly affecting their parental behavior. The apparent functional analogy between child-parent and dog-owner relationship, however, offers a way to disentangle the effects of these factors because pet dogs are not genetically related to their caregivers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jaclyn A Ludmer, Andrea Gonzalez, James Kennedy, Mario Masellis, Paul Meinz, Leslie Atkinson
This study examined maternal oxytocin receptor (OXTR, rs53576) genotype and cortisol secretion as moderators of the relation between maternal childhood maltreatment history and disorganized mother-infant attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads completed the SSP at infant age 17 months. Self-reported maltreatment history more strongly predicted mother-infant attachment disorganization score and disorganized classification for mothers with more plasticity alleles of OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer plasticity alleles...
April 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Bibiana S O Fam, Pamela Paré, Aline B Felkl, Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Domestication is of unquestionable importance to the technological revolution that has given rise to modern human societies. In this study, we analyzed the DNA and protein sequences of six genes of the oxytocin and arginine vasopressin systems (OXT-OXTR; AVP-AVPR1a, AVPR1b and AVPR2) in 40 placental mammals. These systems play an important role in the control of physiology and behavior. According to our analyses, neutrality does not explain the pattern of molecular evolution found in some of these genes. We observed specific sites under positive selection in AVPR1b (ω = 1...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Moji Aghajani, Eduard T Klapwijk, Olivier F Colins, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Nic J A van der Wee
BACKGROUND: The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., perturbed socioaffective reactivity and empathy, callousness) in youths with conduct disorder (CD). Whereas oxytocin receptor gene methylation (OXTRMeth ) and its downstream neuromodulatory effects are deemed relevant to CU traits, nothing is known of how OXTRMeth interacts with CU traits to impact socioaffective brain systems in youngsters with CD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Isao Kii, Shino Hirahara-Owada, Masataka Yamaguchi, Takashi Niwa, Yuka Koike, Rie Sonamoto, Harumi Ito, Kayo Takahashi, Chihiro Yokoyama, Takuya Hayashi, Takamitsu Hosoya, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are structurally similar neuropeptide hormones that function as neurotransmitters in the brain, and have opposite key roles in social behaviors. These peptides bind to their G protein-coupled receptors (OXTR and AVPRs), inducing calcium ion-dependent signaling pathways and endocytosis of these receptors. Because selective agonists and antagonists for these receptors have been developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for diseases such as psychiatric disorders, facile methods are in demand for the evaluation of selectivity between these receptors...
April 5, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Dimitrios Andreou, Erika Comasco, Cecilia Åslund, Kent W Nilsson, Sheilagh Hodgins
The oxytocin receptor gene ( OXTR ) influences human behavior. The G allele of OXTR rs53576 has been associated with both prosocial and maladaptive behaviors but few studies have taken account of environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of childhood maltreatment with conduct problems was modified by OXTR rs53576 genotypes. In a general population sample of 1591 teenagers, conduct problems as well as maltreatment were measured by self-report. DNA was extracted from saliva samples...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ming-Qiang Xu, Hao Jiang, Li-Qun Zhang, Xu-Lei Sun, Dan Luo, Yao Fu, Yan Gao, Bao Yuan, Jia-Bao Zhang
The regulatory role of miRNAs has been explored in ovarian cells, and their effects on gonadal development, apoptosis, ovulation, steroid production and corpus luteum (CL) development have been revealed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of miR-29b at different stages of bovine CL development and predicted the target genes of miR-29b. We confirmed that miR-29b reduces the expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), affects progesterone (PROG) secretion and regulates the function of the CL. RT-PCR showed that the expression of miR-29b was significantly higher in functional CL phases than in the regressed CL phase...
2018: PloS One
Alysson E Light, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, Chris L Porter, Kathleen C Light
BACKGROUND: In animals, adverse early experience alters oxytocinergic and glucocorticoid activity and maternal behavior in adulthood. This preliminary study explored associations among childhood trauma (loss of a parent or sexual abuse in childhood), maternal self-efficacy, and leukocyte gene expression (mRNA) of oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptors (OXTR and NR3C1) in mothers of infants. METHODS: 62 mothers (20 with early life trauma) with healthy 3-month old infants reported maternal self-efficacy, depression, infant temperament, and overall social support; the effects of early trauma on these measures were assessed...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
S Morley-Fletcher, A R Zuena, J Mairesse, E Gatta, G Van Camp, H Bouwalerh, B Riozzi, G Battaglia, A Pittaluga, G Olivero, E Mocaer, S Bretin, F Nicoletti, S Maccari
S 47445 is a positive modulator of glutamate AMPA-type receptors, possessing neurotrophic and enhancing synaptic plasticity effects as well as pro-cognitive and anti-stress properties. Here, the drug was assessed in the perinatal stress (PRS) rat model, known to have a high predictive validity with monoaminergic antidepressants. The effects of a chronic treatment (i.p.) with S 47445 were investigated on risk-taking, motivational and cognitive behavior. S 47445 (1 and 10 mg/kg) increased the exploration of the elevated-plus maze and light/dark box as well as the time spent grooming in the splash test, and improved social memory in PRS rats...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Rohit Menon, Thomas Grund, Iulia Zoicas, Ferdinand Althammer, Dominik Fiedler, Verena Biermeier, Oliver J Bosch, Yuichi Hiraoka, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Marina Eliava, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Oxytocin (OXT)-mediated behavioral responses to social and stressful cues have extensively been studied in male rodents. Here, we investigated the capacity of brain OXT receptor (OXTR) signaling in the lateral septum (LS) to prevent social fear expression in female mice using the social-fear-conditioning paradigm. Utilizing the activated OXT system during lactation, we show that lactating mice did not express fear 24 hr after social fear conditioning. Supporting the role of OXTR signaling in the LS in attenuation of social fear, synthetic OXT infusion or overexpression of OXTR in the LS diminished social fear expression, whereas constitutive OXTR knockout severely impaired social fear extinction in virgin mice...
March 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Akitsugu Konno, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Shinji Yabuta, Akiko Tonoike, Miho Nagasawa, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui
Drug detection dogs can be trained to locate various prohibited drugs with targeted odors, and they play an important role in the interdiction of drug smuggling in human society. Recent studies provide the interesting hypothesis that the oxytocin system serves as a biological basis for co-evolution between dogs and humans. Here, we offer the new possibility that genetic variation of the canine oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene may regulate the success of a dog's training to become a drug detection dog. A total of 340 Labrador Retriever dogs that were trained to be drug detection dogs in Japan were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Sabrina Krause, Christina Boeck, Anja M Gumpp, Edit Rottler, Katharina Schury, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Buchheim, Harald Gündel, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christiane Waller
Background: Child maltreatment (CM) and attachment experiences are closely linked to alterations in the human oxytocin (OXT) system. However, human data about oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels in circulating immune cells and related them to circulating levels of OXT in peripheral blood. We hypothesized reduced OXTR protein levels, associated with both, experiences of CM and an insecure attachment representation. Methods: OXTR protein expressions were analyzed by western blot analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma OXT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 49 mothers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Willem J M I Verbeke, Michal Mokry, Pascal Vrtička
Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited...
March 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Sanne Tops, Ute Habel, Sina Radke
Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a large variety of social behaviors. The oxytocinergic system interacts with environmental cues and is highly dependent on interindividual factors. Deficits in this system have been linked to mental disorders associated with social impairments, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review focuses on the modulation of social behavior by alterations in two domains of the oxytocinergic system. We discuss genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and alterations in these mechanisms that were found to have clinical implications for ASD...
March 12, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Ilaria Cataldo, Atiqah Azhari, Gianluca Esposito
Oxytocin ( OXT ) and arginine-vasopressin ( AVP ) play a key regulatory part in social and affiliative behaviors; two aspects highly compromised in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Furthermore, variants in the adjacent oxytocin-vasopressin gene regions have been found to be associated with ASD diagnosis and endophenotypes. This review focuses mainly on common OXTr single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AVPR1a microsatellites and AVPR1b polymorphisms in relation to the development of autism. Although these genes did not surface in genome-wide association studies, evidence supports the hypothesis that these receptors and their polymorphisms are widely involved in the regulation of social behavior, and in modulating neural and physiological pathways contributing to the etiology of ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Fevzi Tuna Ocakoğlu, Sezen Köse, Burcu Özbaran, Hüseyin Onay
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies showed the association of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We aimed to explore the OXTR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the ASD severity categories based on DSM-5. METHOD: The whole encoding regions of the human OXTR gene were sequenced to identify the SNPs in 100 Turkish children with ASD. Genotypes of detected SNPs were also compared with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
L Colodro-Conde, J F Sánchez-Romera, P A Lind, G Zhu, N G Martin, S E Medland, J R Ordoñana
Oxytocin has an important function in breastfeeding via its role in the milk ejection reflex and in attachment and bonding processes. Genetic factors account for a significant part of the individual differences in breastfeeding behavior. OXT and OXTR have been proposed as gene candidates for breastfeeding. Previous studies have focused on certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes, finding null or inconsistent results. The present study analyses the associations between a wide coverage of polymorphisms in OXT and OXTR and breastfeeding duration from 2 large and independent unselected samples comprising a total of 580 and 2112 female twin mothers from the Murcia Twin Registry (Spain) and QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute (Australia), respectively...
February 7, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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