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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737897/successful-treatment-of-intravenous-drug-use-related-pigmentation-with-q-switched-alexandrite-laser-a-case-report-of-two-patients
#1
Stephen Akihiro Wirya, Neelam A Vashi
Patients with a history of intravenous drug usage (IVDU) often develop pathognomonic linear hyperpigmented dermatoses near injection sites. This drug use-related pigmentation can be very distressing for patients as they persist for life, are very difficult to treat, and remain a constant reminder of prior drug usage. The difficulty of treatment is due to the location of the deposited material and its exogenous nature. This article reports two cases of linear hyperpigmentation due to IVDU successfully treated using the Q-switched Alexandrite laser...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553923/reemergence-of-intravenous-drug-use-as-risk-factor-for-candidemia-massachusetts-usa
#2
Nongnooch Poowanawittayakom, Anamika Dutta, Shannon Stock, Sunkaru Touray, Richard T Ellison, Stuart M Levitz
The epidemic of illicit intravenous drug use (IVDU) in the United States has been accompanied by a surge in drug overdose deaths and infectious sequelae. Candida albicans infections were associated with injection of contaminated impure brown heroin in the 1970s-1990s; however, candidiasis accompanying IVDU became considerably rarer as the purity of the heroin supply increased. We reviewed cases of candidemia occurring over a recent 7-year period in persons >14 years of age at a tertiary care hospital in central Massachusetts...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351694/treatment-outcomes-for-right-sided-endocarditis-in-intravenous-drug-users-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-outcomes-in-a-tertiary-centre
#3
Karen Magsino, Rohan Sanjanwala, Brett Hiebert, Janet Rothney, Rizwan Manji, Rakesh Arora, Pallav Shah
BACKGROUND:  The increasing prevalence of intravenous drug users (IVDU) has resulted in higher incidence of right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE). However, treatment guidelines for RSIE in IVDU are not well defined. The aim is to evaluate efficacy of different treatment strategies in reducing mortality and to describe treatment outcomes. METHODS:  We systematically reviewed the literature using PubMed, Cochrane, CENTRAL, OvidEMBASE, Web of Science, and Medline databases to include prospective studies that compare mortality rates among IVDU with RSIE receiving isolated medical treatment versus those receiving medical-surgical treatment...
January 19, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299700/emergent-spinal-mri-in-ivdu-patients-presenting-with-back-pain-do-we-need-an-mri-in-every-case
#4
Charles G Colip, Mina Lotfi, Karen Buch, Nagaraj Holalkere, Bindu N Setty
PURPOSE: Spinal MRI is the exam of choice for the workup of patients with suspected spinal infection. In this retrospective study, we assess the value of obtaining contrast-enhanced spinal MRI for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute back pain and a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU). METHODS: A retrospective IRB-approved, HIPAA compliant review of the imaging findings, reports and electronic charts of 167 consecutive IV drug-using patients (M/F = 96:71, mean age = 40 years) that presented to the ED with acute back pain over a 55-month period and underwent contrast-enhanced spinal MRI within 24 h...
June 2018: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288470/assessing-racial-disparities-in-hcv-infection-and-care-outcomes-in-a-southern-urban-population
#5
Keanan McGonigle, Tess Carley, Clarissa Hoff
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed racial disparities in access to healthcare services, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure, and retention in a treatment cascade in two indigent populations in an urban center in the Southern US. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Opt-in HCV antibody screening was offered at two large homeless centers and three residential substance abuse treatment centers (SATCs) in New Orleans, LA. Five hundred ninety-four participants experiencing homelessness and 342 residents of SATCs were assessed for previous access/perceived barriers to healthcare services and high-risk behaviors associated with HCV exposure...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706868/tricuspid-valve-endocarditis
#6
Syed T Hussain, James Witten, Nabin K Shrestha, Eugene H Blackstone, Gösta B Pettersson
Right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) is less common than left-sided infective endocarditis (IE), encompassing only 5-10% of cases of IE. Ninety percent of RSIE involves the tricuspid valve (TV). Given the relatively small numbers of TVIE cases operated on at most institutions, the purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss the current understanding of IE involving the TV. RSIE and TVIE are strongly associated with intravenous drug use (IVDU), although pacemaker leads, defibrillator leads and vascular access for dialysis are also major risk factors...
May 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680904/risk-factors-associated-with-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-program-failure-among-intravenous-drug-users
#7
Deanna J Buehrle, Ryan K Shields, Neel Shah, Christopher Shoff, Kathleen Sheridan
Sixty-one percent of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) who received outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) failed treatment. Hospital readmission and adverse drug reactions occurred in 25%. By multivariate analysis, time since last IVDU was associated with failure ( P = .04). Intravenous drug users requiring OPAT are at high risk for failure; additional studies are needed to explore alternatives.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656020/group-a-streptococcal-bacteremia-following-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-an-older-patient-with-diabetes-a-case-report
#8
Mehida Alexandre, Ruth Wang'ondu, Leo M Cooney
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for a wide range of both invasive and noninvasive infections. Severe invasive group A streptococcal infection is associated with morbidity and mortality and has been linked to chronic medical conditions with skin and soft tissues involvement, and intravenous drug use (IVDU). Invasive diseases are, however, rare and have been recognized to affect the extremes of age (younger than 10 years of age and older than 74). We report a case of Group A streptococcus bacteremia following pharyngitis in a 76-year-old diabetic male with no history of IVDU...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579342/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-and-subtypes-in-lebanese-population-and-major-high-risk-groups
#9
Antoine Abou Rached, Cesar Yaghi, Leda Khalil, Jowana Saba, Walid Ammar
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The prevalence of hepatitis C in Lebanon is low. It is estimated at 0.2% of the total population. The aim of our study is to evaluate the exact prevalence of each genotype on a large scale population and in each potential source of infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed all the data in the Ministry of Public Health related to patients who have submitted their file for treatment during a period of 9years ranging from January 2005 till December 2013...
June 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572838/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-against-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-among-hiv-negative-people-in-china
#10
Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi
BACKGROUND: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia. METHODS: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535991/predictors-and-delays-associated-with-the-need-for-advanced-techniques-for-intravenous-access
#11
Michael D Witting, Siamak Moayedi, Latoya A Brown, Ammar Ismail
BACKGROUND: The need for advanced techniques for intravenous access (ATIVA) can lead to delays in care and contribute to emergency department (ED) crowding. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we estimate the delay and predictors associated with the need for ATIVA. METHODS: In this case-control study, we collected data from ED cases requiring ATIVA and control patients in whom i.v. access was gained by traditional inspection and palpation. We included two control groups-a random retrospective sample and a prospective limited convenience sample...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475637/assessment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-two-adjacent-thai-provinces-with-drastically-different-seroprevalence
#12
Rujipat Wasitthankasem, Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana, Nipaporn Siripon, Nawarat Posuwan, Chompoonut Auphimai, Sirapa Klinfueng, Napha Thaneskongtong, Viboonsak Vuthitanachot, Supapith Saiyatha, Chaiwat Thongmai, Sarawut Suwanpatoomlerd, Saowakon Sochoo, Natnada Pongsuwan, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Improved awareness of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission has contributed to the overall decline in the HCV infection rate in some developing countries including Thailand. Chronic HCV infection in some rural Thai communities, however, presents a challenge in the efforts to treat and manage HCV-related diseases. Published and unpublished studies have suggested an unusually high incidence of HCV infection in a Thai province of Phetchabun compared to elsewhere in Thailand. To determine the magnitude of HCV infection and identify potential factors contributing to the higher rate of HCV infection in this province, we performed a population-based study in Phetchabun (n = 1667) and the neighboring Khon Kaen province (n = 1410) where HCV prevalence is much lower...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291157/deceased-organ-donors-with-a-history-of-increased-risk-behavior-for-the-transmission-of-blood-borne-viral-infection-the-uk-experience
#13
Patrick B Trotter, Dominic M Summers, Matthew Robb, William Hulme, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Christopher J E Watson, James Neuberger, J Andrew Bradley
BACKGROUND: Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. METHODS: We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior...
July 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290773/the-hiv-care-cascade-and-sub-analysis-of-those-linked-to-but-not-retained-in-care-the-experience-from-a-tertiary-hiv-referral-service-in-dublin-ireland
#14
P McGettrick, B Ghavami-Kia, W Tinago, A Macken, J O'Halloran, J S Lambert, G Sheehan, P W G Mallon
BACKGROUND: The HIV Care Cascade model can be used to measure how clinical services align with United Nations' (UN) HIV treatment targets. Previous models have highlighted sequential losses at each step of the Cascade with a significant proportion being not retained in care (NRIC). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the feasibility of meeting the UN targets and assess factors associated with, and calculate the true proportion of those, NRIC. METHODS: All people living with HIV who were linked to our service, one of three specialist HIV care providers in Dublin Ireland, from its establishment in 1993 to 1 December 2014, were included in the cohort and were categorized as linked to care, retained in care (RIC), on antiretroviral therapy (on ART), virally suppressed (HIV RNA <40copies/ml), and NRIC...
May 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289605/a-wolf-in-another-wolf-s-clothing
#15
Amrit Lamba, Meghan Kapp, Paisit Paueksakon, Parth J Parekh
This case of infective endocarditis masquerading as mixed cryoglobulinemia in a man with a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential and continually re-evaluating the working diagnosis as new information presents itself. The patient presented to an outside hospital and was treated for presumptive mixed cryoglobulinemia with corticosteroid therapy. When the patient did not improve, he was transferred to a tertiary care center for possible Rituximab and/or plasmapheresis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239556/the-cost-of-a-recalcitrant-intravenous-drug-user-with-serial-cases-of-endocarditis-need-for-guidelines-to-improve-the-continuum-of-care
#16
Claudia R Libertin, Ulas M Camsari, Walter C Hellinger, Terry D Schneekloth, Teresa A Rummans
We report a case of an intravenous drug user (IVDU) patient who had 4 episodes of endocarditis within a 2-year time period in rural Georgia. The institutional cost was approximately $380,000. The lack of an established transitional care plan for IVDUs to outpatient care is a common phenomenon at institutions. Guidelines are essential to optimize the quality of care rendered to IVDUs with such infections, to assist providers in utilizing limited resources, and to limit the cost to the institutions.
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178393/a-model-to-estimate-the-probability-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-infection-despite-negative-nucleic-acid-testing-among-increased-risk-organ-donors
#17
Pallavi D Annambhotla, Brian M Gurbaxani, Matthew J Kuehnert, Sridhar V Basavaraju
BACKGROUND: In 2013, guidelines were released for reducing the risk of viral bloodborne pathogen transmission through organ transplantation. Eleven criteria were described that result in a donor being designated at increased infectious risk. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk from an increased-risk donor (IRD), despite negative nucleic acid testing (NAT), likely varies based on behavior type and timing. METHODS: We developed a Monte Carlo risk model to quantify probability of HIV among IRDs...
April 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812403/the-impact-of-il-6-and-il-28b-gene-polymorphisms-on-treatment-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-among-intravenous-drug-users-in-croatia
#18
Zoran Bogdanović, Ivana Marinović-Terzić, Sendi Kuret, Ana Jerončić, Nikola Bradarić, Gea Forempoher, Ozren Polašek, Šimun Anđelinović, Janoš Terzić
BACKGROUND: Several genes and their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with either spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C infection or better treatment-induced viral clearance. We tested a cohort of intravenous drug users (IVDU) diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) for treatment response and its association with the SNPs in the interleukin-6 (rs1800795-IL6) and the interleukin-28B (rs12979860-IL28B) genes. METHODS: The study included 110 Croatian IVDU positive for anti-HCV antibody...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387326/navigating-hiv-prevention-policy-and-islam-in-malaysia-contention-compatibility-or-reconciliation-findings-from-in-depth-interviews-among-key-stakeholders
#19
Sima Barmania, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
BACKGROUND: Malaysia is a multicultural society, predominantly composed of a Muslim majority population, where Islam is influential. Malaysia has a concentrated HIV epidemic amongst high risk groups, such as, Intravenous Drug Users (IVDU), sex workers, transgender women and Men who have sex with Men (MSM). The objective of this study is to understand how Islam shapes HIV prevention strategies in Malaysia by interviewing the three key stakeholder groups identified as being influential, namely the Ministry of Health, Religious leaders and People living with HIV...
July 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239001/rhizobium-radiobacter-endocarditis-in-an-intravenous-drug-user-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
Bilal A Zahoor
Rhizobium radiobacter, a soil-based organism, is not, usually, pathogenic unless in the immunecompromised. Endocarditis, in the immunocompromised, is a typical presentation generally as a result of catheter-based infections. We describe the presentation of R. radiobacter prosthetic valve endocarditis and the inherent challenges in its presentation and diagnosis. A patient presented with acute limb ischemia secondary to R. radiobacter-mediated endocarditis and subsequent thromboembolization of the distal superior femoral and proximal popliteal arteries in the left lower limb...
August 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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