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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723871/optimal-anti-retroviral-prophylaxis-in-infants-at-high-risk-of-acquiring-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-systematic-review
#1
Sara Beste, Shaffiq Essajee, George Siberry, Alisse Hannaford, Jasmeen Dara, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
INTRODUCTION: The risk of perinatal HIV infection can be dramatically reduced through maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant antiretroviral (ARV) postnatal prophylaxis. The 2013 WHO guidelines recommended four to six weeks of nevirapine or zidovudine as post-natal prophylaxis, with possible extension to 12 weeks for high-risk breastfed infants. A systematic review was undertaken to determine if there is evidence for the WHO to recommend enhanced or extended prophylaxis for high-risk infants...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719660/factors-associated-with-life-sustaining-treatment-restriction-in-a-general-intensive-care-unit
#2
Stein Arve Skjaker, Henrik Hoel, Vegard Dahl, Knut Stavem
PURPOSE: Few previous studies have investigated associations between clinical variables available after 24 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU), including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and decisions to restrict life-sustaining treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the life-sustaining treatment restriction and to explore if CCI contributes to explaining decisions to restrict life-sustaining treatment in the ICU at a university hospital in Norway from 2007 to 2009...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718497/review-of-hiv-treatment-progress-gaps-and-challenges-in-the-caribbean-2005-2015
#3
Yitades Gebre, Nikkiah Meoshi Forbes, Abena Peters
Objective: To highlight the current context of the HIV response in the Caribbean and what remains to be addressed to close gaps in HIV treatment and care and end AIDS by 2030. Methods: We reviewed and analyzed reports from peer-reviewed and gray literature for the period of 2005-2015 on HIV treatment progress and gaps in the Caribbean, based on searches done in four bibliographic databases and three organizations' websites and/or libraries. Data were extracted using forms detailing study objectives, thematic areas for HIV care and treatment in the Caribbean, results, and other key information...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718493/the-hiv-continuum-of-care-in-the-bahamas-in-2014
#4
Nikkiah Forbes, Glenise Johnson, Arvis Mortimer, Indira Martin, Morton Frankson, Kathryn Johnston, Tamara Thompson, Sharon Weissman
Objective: The HIV cascade of care describes the spectrum of engagement in HIV care from diagnosis to viral suppression (VS). The study objective was to develop a baseline HIV cascade of care for new HIV diagnoses in the Bahamas in 2014. Methods: Individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV in 2014 and known to be alive within a year of that diagnosis were included in the cascade of care (n = 250). Individuals with one CD4 or HIV viral load (VL) measure in 2014 were considered linked to care...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717841/variation-in-care-for-surgical-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-protocol-adherence-in-12-european-hospitals
#5
Ruben van Zelm, Ellen Coeckelberghs, Walter Sermeus, Anthony De Buck van Overstraeten, Arved Weimann, Deborah Seys, Massimiliano Panella, Kris Vanhaecht
PURPOSE: Surgical care for patients with colorectal cancer has become increasingly standardized. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol is a widely accepted structured care method to improve postoperative outcomes of patients after surgery. Despite growing evidence of effectiveness, adherence to the protocol remains challenging in practice. This study was designed to assess the adherence rate in daily practice and examine the relationship between the importance of interventions and adherence rate...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710808/the-application-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-to-assess-the-impact-of-antiretroviral-mediated-drug-drug-interactions-on-piperaquine-antimalarial-therapy-during-pregnancy
#6
Olusola Olafuyi, Michael Coleman, Raj K S Badhan
Antimalarial therapy during pregnancy poses important safety concerns due to potential teratogenicity and maternal physiological and biochemical changes during gestation. Piperaquine (PQ) has gained interest for use in pregnancy in response to increasing resistance towards sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infection with HIV is common in many developing countries, however, little is known about the impact of anti-retroviral (ARV) mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) on PQ pharmacokinetics during pregnancy...
July 14, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708847/attitudes-and-perceptions-towards-novel-objective-measures-of-arv-based-vaginal-ring-use-results-from-a-global-stakeholder-survey
#7
Randy M Stalter, Jenae Tharaldson, Derek H Owen, Eunice Okumu, Thomas Moench, Natasha Mack, Elizabeth E Tolley, Kathleen M MacQueen
Results of recent microbicide and pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trials have shown adherence to be a significant challenge with new HIV prevention technologies. As the vaginal ring containing dapivirine moves into two open label follow-on studies (HOPE/MTN-025 and DREAM) and other antiretroviral-based and multi-purpose prevention technology ring products advance through the development pipeline, there is a need for more accurate and reliable measures of adherence to microbicide ring products. We previously conducted a comprehensive landscape analysis to identify new technologies that could be applied to adherence measurement of vaginal rings containing antiretrovirals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707025/interest-in-long-acting-injectable-prep-in-a-cohort-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#8
Kathrine Meyers, Yumeng Wu, Haoyu Qian, Theodorus Sandfort, Xiaojie Huang, Junjie Xu, Jing Zhang, Wei Xia, David Glidden, Hao Wu, Hong Shang
Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be an attractive alternative for men who have sex with men (MSM) who are interested in ARV-based biomedical prevention but will not use a daily pill. This study investigated interest in LAI-PrEP in a cohort of MSM in China and characterized how MSM willing to use only injectable PrEP differed from MSM who would use PrEP regardless of modality or not at all. Demographic, behavioral, and risk perception measures were collected and associations investigated...
July 13, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701787/avian-reovirus-p17-and-%C3%AF-a-act-cooperatively-to-downregulate-akt-by-suppressing-mtorc2-and-cdk2-cyclin-a2-and-upregulating-proteasome-psmb6
#9
Wei-Ru Huang, Pei-I Chi, Hung-Chuan Chiu, Jue-Liang Hsu, Brent L Nielsen, Tsai-Ling Liao, Hung-Jen Liu
Although we have shown that avian reovirus (ARV) p17-mediated inhibition of Akt leads to induction of autophagy, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study has identified a specific mechanism by which ARV coordinately regulates the degradation of ribosomal proteins by p17-mediated activation of E3 ligase MDM2 that targets ribosomal proteins and by σA-mediated upregulation of proteasome PSMB6. In addition to downregulating ribosomal proteins, p17 reduces mTORC2 assembly and disrupts mTORC2-robosome association, both of which inactivate mTORC2 leading to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation at S473...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701738/increased-nocturnal-blood-pressure-variability-is-associated-with-renal-arteriolar-hyalinosis-in-normotensive-patients-with-iga-nephropathy
#10
Shinsuke Isobe, Naro Ohashi, Sayaka Ishigaki, Naoko Tsuji, Takayuki Tsuji, Akihiko Kato, Hideo Yasuda
Abnormal blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV), occurring as beat-to-beat, 24 h, and day-to-day fluctuations, is related to target organ damage. However, the associations between abnormal BPV and renal structural changes have not been clearly investigated. We evaluated the day time and night time BP s.d. and average real variability (ARV), which reflected short-term BPV, the night time to day time (N/D) ratio of systolic BP (SBP), and the 7-day BPV, in 29 normotensive IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. We further compared the results with renal structural changes...
July 13, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689442/drug-interactions-in-hiv-infected-patients-treated-for-hepatitis-c
#11
Vicente Soriano, Pablo Labarga, José V Fernandez-Montero, Carmen de Mendoza, Laura Benítez-Gutiérrez, José M Peña, Pablo Barreiro
The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C field. Most hepatitis C patients can now be cured, including those coinfected with HIV. However, drug-drug interactions (DDI) between DAA and antiretrovirals (ARV) should be known to prevent either toxicity due to drug overexposure or treatment failures due to low drug concentrations. Areas covered: Clinically significant DDI may be classified as major (when co-administration should be contraindicated) or minor (when they require close monitoring, changes in drug dosage or in timing)...
July 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685669/understanding-how-domestic-health-policy-is-integrated-into-foreign-policy-in-south-africa-a-case-for-accelerating-access-to-antiretroviral-medicines
#12
Simon Moeketsi Modisenyane, Stephen James Heinrich Hendricks, Harvey Fineberg
BACKGROUND: South Africa, as an emerging middle-income country, is becoming increasingly influential in global health diplomacy (GHD). However, little empirical research has been conducted to inform arguments for the integration of domestic health into foreign policy by state and non-state actors. This study seeks to address this knowledge gap. It takes the form of an empirical case study which analyses how South Africa integrates domestic health into its foreign policy, using the lens of access to antiretroviral (ARV) medicines...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670634/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-igg-and-igm-and-associated-risk-factors-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-patients-in-vhembe-district-of-south-africa
#13
Renay Ngobeni, Amidou Samie
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite that has arisen as an important opportunistic infection that causes morbidity and mortality especially in HIV positive patients. This study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii (IgG and IgM) and the associated risk factors among HIV positive and negative patients in Northern South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Vhembe District in Limpopo province from April 2012 to January 2013...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663582/bet-protein-proteolysis-targeting-chimera-protac-exerts-potent-lethal-activity-against-mantle-cell-lymphoma-cells
#14
B Sun, W Fiskus, Y Qian, K Rajapakshe, K Raina, K G Coleman, A P Crew, A Shen, D T Saenz, C P Mill, A J Nowak, N Jain, L Zhang, M Wang, J D Khoury, C Coarfa, C M Crews, K N Bhalla
Bromodomain extraterminal protein (BETP) inhibitors transcriptionally repress oncoproteins and NFkB target genes, which undermines the growth and survival of MCL cells. However, BETi treatment causes accumulation of BETPs, associated with reversible binding and incomplete inhibition of BRD4, which potentially compromises the activity of BETi in MCL cells. Unlike BETi, BET-PROTACs (proteolysis-targeting chimera) ARV-825 and ARV-771 (Arvinas, Inc.) recruit and utilize an E3-ubiquitin ligase to effectively degrade BETPs in MCL cells...
June 30, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655306/multi-state-models-for-the-analysis-of-time-to-treatment-modification-among-hiv-patients-under-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-southwest-ethiopia
#15
Belay Birlie, Roel Braekers, Tadesse Awoke, Adetayo Kasim, Ziv Shkedy
BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has shown a dramatic change in controlling the burden of HIV/AIDS. However, the new challenge of HAART is to allow long-term sustainability. Toxicities, comorbidity, pregnancy, and treatment failure, among others, would result in frequent initial HAART regimen change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the durability of first line antiretroviral therapy and to assess the causes of initial highly active antiretroviral therapeutic regimen changes among patients on HAART...
June 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652813/charlson-comorbidity-index-derived-from-chart-review-or-administrative-data-agreement-and-prediction-of-mortality-in-intensive-care-patients
#16
Knut Stavem, Henrik Hoel, Stein Arve Skjaker, Rolf Haagensen
PURPOSE: This study compared the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) information derived from chart review and administrative systems to assess the completeness and agreement between scores, evaluate the capacity to predict 30-day and 1-year mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and compare the predictive capacity with that of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II model. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data from 959 patients admitted to a general ICU in a Norwegian university hospital from 2007 to 2009, we compared the CCI score derived from chart review and administrative systems...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649869/hivr4p-2016-partnering-for-prevention-conference-summary-and-highlights
#17
Barbara L Shacklett, Cynthia A Derdeyn, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Raphael Landovitz, Colin Anthony, Anna-Janina Behrens, Thomas Hope, Elise Landais, Lorna Leal, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Lynn Morris, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Veronica Noseda, Srinika Ranasinghe, Damien C Tully, Yegor Voronin, Mitchell Warren, Constantinos Kurt Wibmer, Irene Y Xie, Gabriella Scarlatti, Bargavi Thyagarajan
HIV Research for Prevention: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIVR4P) was built upon a growing consensus that effective HIV prevention requires a combination of approaches and that understanding, analyzing and debating the cross-cutting issues that impact prevention research are all essential to combat the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. To that end, the biennial HIVR4P conference is dedicated to all biomedical HIV prevention research approaches, including HIV vaccines, microbicides, PrEP and treatment as prevention...
June 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#18
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633455/fetal-metabolic-stress-disrupts-immune-homeostasis-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-hiv-1-and-cart-exposed-infants
#19
Johannes C Schoeman, Gontse P Moutloatse, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Henriette J Scherpbier, Liesbeth Van Leeuwen, Taco W Kuijpers, Carools J Reinecke, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Madeleine J Bunders
Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART)-exposure on the infants' immune-metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632475/generic-substitution-of-antiretrovirals-patients-and-health-care-providers-opinions
#20
Jennifer A Kieran, Eimear O'Reilly, Siobhan O'Dea, Colm Bergin, Aisling O'Leary
There is interest in introducing generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into high-income countries in order to maximise efficiency in health care budgets. Studies examining patients' and providers' knowledge and attitudes to generic substitution in HIV are few. This was a cross-sectional, observational study with a convenience sample of adult HIV-infected patients and health care providers (HCPs). Data on demographics, knowledge of generic medicine and facilitators of generic substitution were collected. Descriptive and univariate analysis was performed using SPSS V...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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