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George Ongete, Francis John Raymond Duffy
BACKGROUND: Infection as a consequence of splash sharps and needlestick injuries (SSNIs) is a hazard faced by healthcare workers. Little is known about the impact this has on quality of life particularly in countries where the risk of infection is high. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the impact SSNIs have on the quality of life of healthcare workers in Kenya, where blood borne illness prevalence is high. METHODS: A hospital-wide survey of a facility in Nairobi was conducted...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
John C Kraft, Lisa A McConnachie, Josefin Koehn, Loren Kinman, Jianguo Sun, Ann C Collier, Carol Collins, Danny D Shen, Rodney J Y Ho
Existing oral antiretroviral (ARV) agents have been shown in human studies to exhibit limited lymph node penetration and lymphatic drug insufficiency. As lymph nodes are a reservoir of HIV, it is critical to deliver and sustain effective levels of ARV combinations in these tissues. To overcome lymph node drug insufficiency of oral combination ARV therapy (cART), we developed and reported a long-acting and lymphocyte-targeting injectable that contains three ARVs-hydrophobic lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV), and hydrophilic tenofovir (TFV)-stabilized by lipid excipients in a nanosuspension...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Emma C Hobbs, Kabemba E Mwape, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Sarah Gabriël, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Moses Mambwe, Isaac K Phiri, Maxwell Masuku, Gideon Zulu, Angela Colston, Arve Lee Willingham, Dirk Berkvens, Pierre Dorny, Emmanuel Bottieau, Niko Speybroeck
The tapeworm Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, however its socioeconomic cost is unknown. During a large-scale interventional study conducted in Zambia, baseline economic costs of human and porcine T. solium infections were measured. Questionnaire surveys were conducted within three neighbourhoods in Zambia's Eastern province in 2015 and 2016. A human health questionnaire, capturing costs of clinical symptoms commonly attributable to human cysticercosis and taeniasis, was conducted in randomly selected households (n = 267)...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Holly Swan, Joel I Reisman, Sarah E McDannold, Mark E Glickman, D Keith McInnes, Allen L Gifford
Patients who attribute their symptoms to HIV medications, rather than disease, may be prone to switching antiretrovirals (ARVs) and experience poor retention/adherence to care. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (e.g., nausea/vomiting) are often experienced as a side effect of ARVs, but little is known about the relationship of symptom attribution and bothersomeness to adherence. We hypothesized that attribution of a GI symptom to ARVs is associated with a reduction in adherence, and that this relationship is moderated by the bothersomeness of the symptom...
February 7, 2018: AIDS Care
Ibrahim Abdulqadir, Sagir Gumel Ahmed, Aisha Gwarzo Kuliya, Jamilu Tukur, Aminu Abba Yusuf, Abubakar Umar Musa
CONTEXT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) scourge continues to affect young women within the reproductive age group and pregnancy is a recognized indication for the use antiretroviral (ARV) drugs among HIV-positive women. AIMS: The aim is to determine the combined effect of pregnancy, HIV and ARV drugs on the hematological parameters of the pregnant women. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted among 70 each of HIV-positive and negative pregnant women...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Monika H E Christensen, Dag J Fadnes, Therese H Røst, Eva R Pedersen, John R Andersen, Villy Våge, Arve Ulvik, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård, Gunnar Mellgren
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with increased inflammation and insulin resistance. In conditions with chronic immune activation, low plasma vitamin B6-levels are described, as well as an increased kynurenine:tryptophan-ratio (KTR). We investigated circulating tryptophan, kynurenine and its metabolites, neopterin, B-vitamins, CRP, and HbA1c in individuals with obesity before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 37 patients with severe obesity, scheduled for bariatric surgery...
2018: PloS One
Joseph Rwagitinywa, Agnès Sommet, Aurore Palmaro, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
INTRODUCTION: Simulation studies showed that generic antiretroviral (ARV) drug utilization could lead to significant cost reduction of HIV treatment in developed world. This study aimed to quantify ARV utilization and costs in European countries between 2006 and 2015. We also assessed the impact of generic ARV drug utilization on cost reduction in real-life. METHODS: ARV drug utilization in 14 European countries (France, Italy, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) were analysed using defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/year...
January 11, 2018: Health Policy
Sybil G Hosek, Gary W Harper, Diana Lemos, Jane Burke-Miller, Sonia Lee, Lawrence Friedman, Jaime Martinez
ACCEPT is a gender-specific, group-based intervention aimed at addressing factors that impact engagement in care for youth newly diagnosed with HIV, including stigma, disclosure, healthy relationships, substance use, and future life planning. To test the efficacy of ACCEPT, we enrolled 103 youth and randomly assigned 57 to the ACCEPT condition and 46 to a health education control condition (HEALTH). Acceptability ratings were very high for both conditions. Over the 12 months post-intervention, the ACCEPT group was associated with an odds ratio of 2...
February 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Pascal Madeleine, Ernst A Hansen, Rasmus E Andersen, Martyna Kumorek, Dariusz Mroczek, Afshin Samani, Adam Kawczynski
In this study, we hypothesized that the recordings of multi-channel mechanomyography (MMG) of the upper trapezius muscle would reveal spatially-dependent manifestations in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness occurring 24-h after eccentric exercise (ECC). Sixteen participants performed high intensity eccentric exercises (5 sets of 10 eccentric contractions at 100% of max elevation force) targeting the upper trapezius on their dominant side. Twelve accelerometers were attached to record MMG activity during submaximal exercise consisting of static and dynamic arm flexion and abduction...
February 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jin-Yong Noh, Dong-Hun Lee, Tae-Hyun Lim, Ji-Ho Lee, J Michael Day, Chang-Seon Song
In this study, we isolated a novel avian reovirus (ARV) strain, K738/14, from a broiler chicken with viral arthritis in South Korea. Genome sequence comparisons showed relatively low nucleotide identity with previously identified ARV strains. Phylogenetic analyses suggested multiple reassortment events between reovirus strain S1133 and reoviruses of Hungarian, Chinese, and US origin had occurred. In addition, recombination analyses showed evidence of intra-segmental recombination in the M2 and S2 genes. Based on our genetic analyses, multiple reassortment events, intra-segmental recombination, and accumulation of point mutations have possibly contributed to the emergence of this novel genotype of ARV, identified in Korea...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
Luis Enrique Tierrablanca, Jessica Ochalek, Deborah Ford, Ab Babiker, Diana Gibb, Karina Butler, Anna Turkova, Susan Griffin, Paul Revill
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the cost effectiveness of short-cycle therapy (SCT), where patients take antiretroviral (ARV) drugs 5 consecutive days a week and have 2 days off, as an alternative to continuous ARV therapy for young people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and taking efavirenz-based first-line ARV drugs. METHODS: We conduct a hierarchical cost-effectiveness analysis based on data on clinical outcomes and resource use from the BREATHER trial...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hui Zuo, Grethe S Tell, Per M Ueland, Ottar Nygård, Stein E Vollset, Øivind Midttun, Klaus Meyer, Arve Ulvik
Background: Vitamin B-6 homeostasis is altered during inflammation and immune activation. It is unknown whether altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis is associated with the risk of stroke. Objective: We investigated the relation between the ratio plasma 4-pyridoxic acid: (pyridoxal + pyridoxal-5'-phosphate) (PAr) as an indicator of altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis and the risk of stroke in the general population. Design: We conducted a prospective analysis of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in 6891 adults (born during 1925-1927 and 1950-1951) without known stroke at baseline (1998-1999)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Megan S McHenry, Carole I McAteer, Eren Oyungu, Brenna C McDonald, Chris B Bosma, Philani B Mpofu, Andrew R Deathe, Rachel C Vreeman
CONTEXT: HIV-infected (HIV+) children have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with HIV-uninfected children. However, little is known regarding the differences in neurodevelopment between young HIV+ children, HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, and HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyze data on neurodevelopmental performance between young HIV+, HEU, and HUU children. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched the following electronic bibliographic databases: Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
January 26, 2018: Pediatrics
Amy C Justice, Kirsha Gordon, Melissa Skanderson, E Jennifer Edelman, Kathleen M Akgun, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David Rimland, Julie A Womack, Christina M Wyatt, Janet P Tate
BACKGROUND: HIV positive individuals (HIV+) on antiretrovirals (ARV) commonly take enough other medications to cross a threshold for polypharmacy but little is known about associated outcomes. We asked whether non-ARV polypharmacy is associated with hospitalization and mortality and whether associations differ by HIV status. METHODS: Data on HIV+ and uninfected individuals in the US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System were analyzed. Eligible HIV+ were on ARVs with suppressed HIV-1 RNA and uninfected individuals received at least one medication...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
H B Krentz, S Campbell, V C Gill, M J Gill
OBJECTIVES: The incremental costs of expanding antiretroviral (ARV) drug treatment to all HIV-infected patients are substantial, so cost-saving initiatives are important. Our objectives were to determine the acceptability and financial impact of de-simplifying (i.e. switching) more expensive single-tablet formulations (STFs) to less expensive generic-based multi-tablet components. We determined physician and patient perceptions and acceptance of STF de-simplification within the context of a publicly funded ARV budget...
January 25, 2018: HIV Medicine
Karin Alev, Arved Vain, Maire Aru, Ando Pehme, Priit Purge, Priit Kaasik, Teet Seene
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the state of tension (tone) and the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle in aging rats during the administration of different doses of dexamethasone and to find the relationships among the state of muscle atrophy, muscle strength, and the abovementioned muscle properties. METHODS: Muscle state of tension, biomechanical (elasticity, dynamic stiffness) and viscoelastic (mechanical stress relaxation time, Deborah number) properties (using MyotonPRO, Myoton Ltd, Tallinn, Estonia), lean body mass (BM), and hind limb grip strength were measured before and after the administration of a 10-day treatment with dexamethasone 100 μg/100 g BM (young and old group) and 50 μg/100 g BM (old group)...
January 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Shandir Ramlagan, Karl Peltzer, Robert A C Ruiter, Nicole A Barylski, Stephen M Weiss, Sibusiso Sifunda
The possibility for all babies to be born and remain HIV-negative for the first year of life is achievable in South Africa. HIV-positive mothers' adherence to their antiretroviral medication is one of the crucial factors to achieve this target. Cross-sectional data were collected at 12 community health centres, over 12 months (2014-2015), from 673 HIV-positive women, less than 6 months pregnant, attending antenatal care, and on Option B treatment. Adherence measures included the Adults AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG) four-day measure, as well as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) seven-day measure...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J Kalter, I M Verdonck-de Leeuw, M G Sweegers, N K Aaronson, P B Jacobsen, R U Newton, K S Courneya, J F Aitken, J Armes, C Arving, L J Boersma, A M Braamse, Y Brandberg, S K Chambers, J Dekker, K Ell, R J Ferguson, M F Gielissen, B Glimelius, M M Goedendorp, K D Graves, S P Heiney, R Horne, M S Hunter, B Johansson, M L Kimman, H Knoop, K Meneses, L L Northouse, H S Oldenburg, J B Prins, J Savard, M van Beurden, S W van den Berg, J Brug, L M Buffart
OBJECTIVE: This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of psychosocial interventions (PSI) on quality of life (QoL), emotional function (EF) and social function (SF) in patients with cancer, and to study moderator effects of demographic, clinical, personal, and intervention-related characteristics. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified via literature searches in four databases. We pooled IPD from 22 (n=4,217) of 61 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
January 23, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Otsetswe Musindo, Paul Bangirana, Pius Kigamwa, Roselyne Okoth, Manasi Kumar
Children and adolescents are affected in different ways by HIV/AIDS. Neurocognitive deficits are one of the most significant long term effects on HIV infected children and adolescents. Several factors are thought to influence cognitive outcomes and this include immune status, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), education and social support. The aim of the study was to assess the neurocognitive function of HIV infected children and adolescents and correlate it with psychosocial factors. A cross sectional study was carried out involving a sample of 90 children living with HIV between 8 and 15 years (M = 11...
January 22, 2018: AIDS Care
Rosa de Miguel Buckley, Rocio Montejano, Natalia Stella-Ascariz, Jose R Arribas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Simplification of antiretroviral therapy is a strategy aiming to reduce pill burden, drug interactions, and toxicity. This review focuses on the most recent and important studies evaluating a reduction on the number of drugs for HIV treatment, both in naive and virologically suppressed patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Interesting studies have been performed in the past years testing dual therapy and monotherapy, with variable rates of virological control...
January 20, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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