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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045947/prediction-of-the-future-need-for-institutional-care-in-finnish-older-people-a-comparison-of-two-birth-cohorts
#1
Marika Salminen, Sini Eloranta, Jenni Vire, Paula Viikari, Laura Viikari, Tero Vahlberg, Aapo Lehtonen, Seija Arve, Maarit Wuorela, Matti Viitanen
BACKGROUND: More recent birth cohorts of older people have better physical and cognitive status than earlier cohorts. As such, this could be expected to diminish the need for institutional care. The prediction of the future need for institutional care provides essential information for the planning and delivery of future care and social services as well as the resources needed. OBJECTIVE: To predict the future need for institutional care among older Finnish people born in 1940...
October 19, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045339/blood-pressure-response-to-renal-denervation-is-correlated-with-baseline-blood-pressure-variability-a-patient-level-meta-analysis
#2
Alexandre Persu, Daniel Gordin, Lotte Jacobs, Lutgarde Thijs, Michiel L Bots, Wilko Spiering, Atena Miroslawska, Jonas Spaak, Ján Rosa, Mark R de Jong, Elena Berra, Fadl Elmula M Fadl Elmula, Grégoire Wuerzner, Alison H M Taylor, Agnieszka Olszanecka, Danuta Czarnecka, Patrick B Mark, Michel Burnier, Jean Renkin, Sverre E Kjeldsen, Jiří Widimský, Arif Elvan, Thomas Kahan, Terje K Steigen, Peter J Blankestijn, Ilkka Tikkanen, Jan A Staessen
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic tone is one of the main determinants of blood pressure (BP) variability and treatment-resistant hypertension. The aim of our study was to assess changes in BP variability after renal denervation (RDN). In addition, on an exploratory basis, we investigated whether baseline BP variability predicted the BP changes after RDN. METHODS: We analyzed 24-h BP recordings obtained at baseline and 6 months after RDN in 167 treatment-resistant hypertension patients (40% women; age, 56...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040633/prevalence-of-pre-antiretroviral-treatment-drug-resistance-by-gender-age-and-other-factors-in-hiv-infected-individuals-initiating-therapy-in-kenya-2013-2014
#3
Rachel A Silverman, Ingrid A Beck, Catherine Kiptinness, Molly Levine, Ross Milne, Christine J McGrath, Steve Bii, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Bhavna Chohan, Samah R Sakr, James N Kiarie, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung
Background: Pre-antiretroviral-treatment drug resistance (PDR) is a predictor of HIV treatment failure. We determined PDR-prevalence and correlates in a Kenyan cohort. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-eligible HIV-infected participants in 2013-2014 at three clinics. PDR was defined as ≥2% mutant-frequency in a participant's HIV-quasispecies at pol codons K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184 V, or K65R by oligonucleotide ligation assay...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040073/removal-of-model-viruses-e-coli-and-cryptosporidium-oocysts-from-surface-water-by-zirconium-and-chitosan-coagulants
#4
Ekaterina Christensen, Vegard Nilsen, Tor Håkonsen, Arve Heistad, Christophe Gantzer, Lucy J Robertson, Mette Myrmel
The present work evaluates the effect of contact filtration, preceded by coagulation with zirconium (Zr) and chitosan coagulants, on model microorganisms and waterborne pathogens. River water intended for potable water production was spiked with MS2 and Salmonella Typhimurium 28B bacteriophages, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts prior to coagulation. The hygienic performance demonstrated by Zr comprised 3.0-4.0 log10 removal of viruses and 5.0-6.0 log10 removal of E. coli and C. parvum oocysts...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039984/financial-barriers-and-lapses-in-treatment-and-care-of-hiv-infected-adults-in-a-southern-state-in-the-united-states
#5
David A Wohl, Rita K Kuwahara, Kamran Javadi, Christine Kirby, David L Rosen, Sonia Napravnik, Claire Farel
Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence has largely been considered from the perspective of an individual's behavior with less attention given to potential structural causes for lapses in treatment, such as the cost of medications and care. HIV medication expense is typically covered by third party payers. However, private insurance premiums and deductibles may rise, or policies terminated such as with a change in employment. Likewise, a patient's eligibility for publicly funded coverage like state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) or Medicaid can also be lost...
October 17, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035759/the-beliefs-about-voices-questionnaire-revised-a-factor-structure-from-450-participants
#6
Clara Strauss, Kenneth Hugdahl, Flavie Waters, Mark Hayward, Josef J Bless, Liv E Falkenberg, Bodil Kråkvik, Arve Egil Asbjørnsen, Erik Johnsen, Igne Sinkeviciute, Rune A Kroken, Else-Marie Løberg, Neil Thomas
Hallucinated voices are common across psychiatric and non-clinical groups. The predominant cognitive theory about the impact of voices posits that beliefs about voice power ('Omnipotence') and voice intent ('Malevolence'/'Benevolence') play a key role in determining emotional and behavioral reactions. The revised Beliefs about Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ-R) was designed to assess these constructs, together with two styles of responding (Engagement and Resistance). The BAVQ-R is widely used in clinical and research settings, yet it has not received validation of its constructs and factor structure...
October 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034725/polypharmacy-and-risk-of-falls-and-fractures-for-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-substance-dependence
#7
Theresa W Kim, Alexander Y Walley, Alicia S Ventura, Gregory J Patts, Timothy C Heeren, Gabriel B Lerner, Nicholas Mauricio, Richard Saitz
Although people with HIV infection (PLWH) are at higher risk of polypharmacy and substance use, there is limited knowledge about potential harms associated with polypharmacy such as falls and fractures in this population. The study objective was to determine whether polypharmacy, as measured by the number and type of medication, is associated with falls and fractures among PLWH and DSM-IV substance dependence in the past year or ever injection drug use (IDU). We identified the number of medications by electronic medical record review in the following categories: (i) systemically active, (ii) non-antiretroviral (non-ARV), (iii) sedating, (iv) non-sedating as well as any opioid medication and any non-opioid sedating medication...
October 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028667/impact-of-antiretroviral-drugs-on-the-microbiome-unknown-answers-to-important-questions
#8
Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nichole R Klatt, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known on how different antiretroviral (ARV) drugs affect the gut microbiome in HIV infection; and conflicting data exists on the effect of ARV drugs on residual inflammation/immune activation and microbial translocation. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut microbiome involvement in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV infection is increasingly being recognized. Various studies have shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to restore gut health despite effective suppression of plasma HIV viremia...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992470/the-potential-effects-of-efavirenz-on-oreochromis-mossambicus-after-acute-exposure
#9
L Robson, I E J Barnhoorn, G M Wagenaar
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are hazardous therapeutic pharmaceuticals present in South African surface water. Efavirenz is an ARV commonly used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment in South Africa. Although little is known about the toxic effects of efavirenz on fish health, threats of toxicity to the aquatic environment have been reported. Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed under controlled conditions to environmentally-relevant efavirenz concentrations (10.3ng/l) as measured in rivers that flow into the Nandoni Dam in the Vhembe District, South Africa...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984429/incidence-of-cancer-and-overall-risk-of-mortality-in-individuals-treated-with-raltegravir-based-and-non-raltegravir-based-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens
#10
A Cozzi-Lepri, R Zangerle, L Machala, K Zilmer, M Ristola, C Pradier, O Kirk, H Sambatakou, G Fätkenheuer, I Yust, P Schmid, M Gottfredsson, I Khromova, D Jilich, R Flisiak, J Smidt, B Rozentale, R Radoi, M H Losso, J D Lundgren, A Mocroft
OBJECTIVES: There are currently few data on the long-term risk of cancer and death in individuals taking raltegravir (RAL). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether there is evidence for an association. METHODS: The EuroSIDA cohort was divided into three groups: those starting RAL-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on or after 21 December 2007 (RAL); a historical cohort (HIST) of individuals adding a new antiretroviral (ARV) drug (not RAL) to their cART between 1 January 2005 and 20 December 2007, and a concurrent cohort (CONC) of individuals adding a new ARV drug (not RAL) to their cART on or after 21 December 2007...
October 6, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983848/prevalence-of-hiv-1-pre-treatment-drug-resistance-in-a-southern-province-of-iran-2016-2017
#11
Arash Memarnejadian, Hamed Gouklani, Samira Mohammadi, Masoomeh Moosazadeh, Joshua Choi
HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) occurs when primary viruses bear drug resistance mutations (DRMs). TDR causes first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) failure and is becoming more pronounced due to the widespread use of ART. With the absence of routine individual-level drug resistance testing, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the tracking of TDR mutations and optimizing the first-line ART following pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) surveys. Here, we report the PDR frequency for the first time in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981535/predictors-of-transitions-in-frailty-severity-and-mortality-among-people-aging-with-hiv
#12
Thomas D Brothers, Susan Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Andrea Malagoli, Lindsay M K Wallace, Chiara Stentarelli, Cristina Mussini, Julian Falutz, Giovanni Guaraldi, Kenneth Rockwood
BACKGROUND: People aging with HIV show variable health trajectories. Our objective was to identify longitudinal predictors of frailty severity and mortality among a group aging with HIV. METHODS: Exploratory analyses employing a multistate transition model, with data from the prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort Study, based in Northern Italy, begun in 2004. Participants were followed over four years from their first available visit. We included all 963 participants (mean age 46...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978293/hiv-antiretroviral-medication-stock-outs-in-ghana-contributors-and-consequences
#13
Rebecca A Poku, Adobea Yaa Owusu, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Christine Markham, Sheryl A McCurdy
Drug stock-outs are an unfortunate yet common reality for patients living in low and middle income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where trouble with consistent stock of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) continues. Our study takes a snapshot of this problem in Ghana. Although the country launched its antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in 2003, progress toward realising the full benefit of ART for treated individuals has been limited, in part, because of stock-outs. In Ghana's Greater Accra region, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women living with HIV (WLHIV) and 15 individuals with a history of HIV-related work in government or non-governmental organisations, or healthcare facilities...
September 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975440/research-priorities-for-the-intersection-of-alcohol-and-hiv-aids-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-priority-setting-exercise
#14
Sara Gordon, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Sarah Skeen, Charles Perry, Kendall Bryant, Mark Tomlinson
The harmful use of alcohol is a component cause for more than 200 diseases. The association between alcohol consumption, risk taking behavior and a range of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS is well established. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS as well as harmful alcohol use in low and middle income countries is high. Alcohol has been identified as a modifiable risk factor in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to define research priorities for the interaction of alcohol and HIV/AIDS in low and middle income countries...
October 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970358/xenobiotic-nuclear-receptors-pxr-and-car-regulate-antiretroviral-drug-efflux-transporters-at-the-blood-testis-barrier
#15
Sana-Kay Whyte-Allman, Md Tozammel Hoque, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Reina Bendayan
Poor antiretroviral drug (ARV) penetration in the testes could, in part, be due to the presence of ATP-binding cassette membrane-associated drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) expressed at the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The functional expression of these transporters is known to be regulated by ligand-activated nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), in various tissues...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969607/a-comparison-of-self-report-and-antiretroviral-detection-to-inform-estimates-of-antiretroviral-therapy-coverage-viral-load-suppression-and-hiv-incidence-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#16
Helena Huerga, Fisseha Shiferie, Eduard Grebe, Ruggero Giuliani, Jihane Ben Farhat, Gilles Van-Cutsem, Karen Cohen
BACKGROUND: Accurately identifying individuals who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to determine ART coverage and proportion on ART who are virally suppressed. ART is also included in recent infection testing algorithms used to estimate incidence. We compared estimates of ART coverage, viral load suppression rates and HIV incidence using ART self-report and detection of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and we identified factors associated with discordance between the methods...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968669/human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-drug-resistance-mutations-update
#17
Robert W Shafer
As treatment options coalesce around a smaller number of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), data are emerging on the drug resistance mutations (DRMs) selected by the most widely used ARVs and on the impact of these DRMs on ARV susceptibility and virological response to first- and later-line treatment regimens. Recent studies have described the DRMs that emerge in patients receiving tenofovir prodrugs, the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors efavirenz and rilpivirine, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, and the integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968343/the-influence-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-val158met-on-fear-of-pain-and-placebo-analgesia
#18
June T Forsberg, Johannes Gjerstad, Magne Arve Flaten, Per M Aslaksen
Higher levels of fear have been shown to partly explain individual differences in placebo analgesic responding. The COMT rs4680 Val158Met polymorphism has been associated with both increased placebo analgesia and increased fear-related behavior, in what appears to be inconsistent findings in the literature. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate placebo analgesia and fear-related processes with regard to the COMT genotype, to sort out whether the Met-allele is associated with increased placebo analgesia or increased fear of pain...
September 29, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967450/blood-pressure-variability-as-an-indicator-of-sepsis-severity-in-adult-emergency-department-patients
#19
Jacob E Nouriel, Scott R Millis, Jonathon Ottolini, John M Wilburn, Robert L Sherwin, James H Paxton
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Quantify the correlation between blood pressure variability (BPV) and markers of illness severity: serum lactate (LAC) or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, observational study evaluating fluid resuscitation on adult, septic, ED patients. Vital signs and fluid infusion volumes were recorded every 15min during the 3h following ED arrival. BPV was assessed via average real variability (ARV): the average of the absolute differences between consecutive BP measurements...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956285/antiretroviral-therapy-and-alcohol-interactions-x-raying-testicular-and-seminal-parameters-under-the-haart-era
#20
Oluwatosin O Ogedengbe, Edwin C S Naidu, Onyemaechi O Azu
The prevalence of alcohol use among HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral (ARV) treatments has raised several concerns related to key therapeutic indices. These include drug interactions, compliance, efficacy and toxicity with the possibility of accelerated disease progression. Interaction of ARVs with alcohol can result in therapeutic failures or place patients at significant risk for toxicities. Research findings in this particular area are, however, limited and sometimes conflicting. This review focuses on alcohol and ARV interactions affecting testicular and spermatogenic indices...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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