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Hung-Chuan Chiu, Wei-Ru Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Pei-I Chi, Brent L Nielsen, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Hung-Jen Liu
The avian reovirus (ARV) p17 protein is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Although we have demonstrated that p17 causes cell growth retardation via activation of p53, the precise mechanisms remains unclear. This is the first report that ARV p17 possesses broad inhibitory effects on cell-cycle CDKs, cyclins, CDK/cyclin complexes, and CDK activating kinase (CAK) activity in various mammalian, avian, and cancer cell lines. Suppression of CDK activity by p17 occurs by direct binding to CDKs, cyclins, and CDK/cyclin complexes, transcriptional downregulation of CDKs, cytoplasmic retention of CDKs and cyclins, and inhibition of CAK activity by promoting p53/cyclin H interaction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kaelo K Seatla, Ava Avalos, Sikhulile Moyo, Madisa Mine, Thabo Diphoko, Mosepele Mosepele, Tendani Gaolatlhe, Christopher F Rowley, Dinah Ramaabya, Joseph N Jarvis, Ishmael Kasvosve, Simani Gaseitsiwe
There is limited data on the effectiveness of Dolutegravir (DTG) based combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in real life settings in southern Africa where HIV-1C predominates. We report here a patient infected with HIV-1C on DTG based ART previously exposed to raltegravir who developed multidrug resistance mutations to four ARV classes. There is need for drug resistance monitoring and clinical vigilance to ensure effectiveness of HIV treatment programmes even in the era of DTG based ART.
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Subhra Mandal, Guobin Kang, Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li, Christopher J Destache
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients are often diagnosed in the chronic stage of HIV/AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved quality of life for HIV-infected patients. Present study describes a novel long-acting parenteral formulation of combination antiretroviral (cARV) loaded nano-drugs for treating chronic HIV-1 (cHIV) in a humanized-BLT (hu-BLT) mice model. The cARV (elvitegravir+tenofovir alafenamide+emtricitabine; EVG+TAF+FTC) drugs (mimicking marketed Genvoya® one-pill for HIV-treatment) were encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NPs)...
June 6, 2018: Antiviral Research
Keith Dunn, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Xiaolong Jiao, Hela Romdhani, Bruno Emond, Kimberly Woodruff, Jacqueline Pesa, Neeta Tandon, Patrick Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is critical to achieving durable virologic suppression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors of poor adherence and the effect of suboptimal adherence on health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs in Medicaid patients. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using Medicaid data. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 initiating selected ARVs (index date) were identified...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Susan Kamal, Paul Nulty, Olivier Bugnon, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with low or high antiretroviral (ARV) adherence through computational text analysis of an adherence enhancing programme interview reports. METHODS: Using text from 8428 interviews with 522 patients, we constructed a term-frequency matrix for each patient, retaining words that occurred at least ten times overall and used in at least six interviews with six different patients. The text included both the pharmacist's and the patient's verbalizations...
May 17, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme, Getu Bayisa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million lives so far. Sub Saharan Africa constitutes about 70% of people living with HIV among the 37 million on the globe. This region, accounted for more than two third of the global new HIV infections and about 15 million (40%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2014 throught the world...
June 5, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
HariOm Singh, R R Gangakhedkar
The genetic variations in APOBEC3G gene are correlated with HIV disease progression. These variations differ in different ethnic groups. The prevalence of APOBEC3G (-90C/G, -571G/C) variations have not been studied in Indian population. Hence, we assessed the occurrence of APOBEC3G polymorphisms in HIV patients and its association with acquisition of HIV and disease progression. Polymorphisms in APOBEC3G were genotyped in a total of 153 HIV patients, naïve to ARV and 156 healthy controls by PCR-RFLP method...
June 1, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Harinder Singh Chahal, Peter Capella, Ryan Presto, Jeffrey S Murray, Martin Shimer, Mary Lou Valdez, Peter G Lurie
Background: Since 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) dedicated drug review process in support of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made safe, effective and quality antiretrovirals (ARVs) available for millions of patients. Furthermore, the WHO and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) can add the USFDA-reviewed products to their respective formularies, through a novel process of 'one-way reliance'. We assessed the number of ARVs made available through WHO and Global Fund based on the USFDA review...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Cheewanan Lertpiriyasuwat, Achara Teeraratkul, Yolsilp Suchonwanich, Nartlada Chatharojwong, Kunjanakorn Phokasawad, Porntip Yuktanon, Naparat Pattarapayoon, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Silvia Bertagnolio, Thierry H Roels, Sombat Thanprasertsuk
Objective: To describe trends in Thailand's antiretroviral treatment (ART) program performance assessed by HIV drug resistance early warning indicators (EWIs), as recommended by WHO, between 2009 and 2013. Material and Method: Seven EWIs were monitored, viral load (VL) testing coverage, VL suppression, retention in ART, lost to follow-up (LTFU), antiretrovirals (ARVs) dispensing practices, on-time pill pick-up, and pharmacy stock-outs. Data from ART adult patients in National Health Security Office Scheme were analyzed except for pharmacy stock-outs, which were reported from hospitals...
September 2017: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Martine Enger, Stein Arve Skjaker, Knut Melhuus, Lars Nordsletten, Are Hugo Pripp, Stefan Moosmayer, Jens Ivar Brox
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder injuries are commonly encountered in emergency departments. In spite of this, the epidemiology is only partly known, and soft tissue injuries in particular remain unclear. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of shoulder injuries in a general population cohort, and to estimate the relative proportion of the main injury categories soft tissue injuries, fractures and dislocations, as well as their variation with age and gender. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We registered prospectively all patients admitted with a suspected shoulder injury at a combined casualty and primary health care facility during one year...
May 22, 2018: Injury
Gülsüm Özkan, Sonat Pınar Kara, Çiğdem Fidan, Savaş Güzel, Şükrü Ulusoy
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a widespread disease involving frequent thrombotic complications. Blood pressure variability (BPV) has recently been shown to be associated with end-organ damage and cardiovascular events. However, the pathogenesis of the relation between BPV and cardiovascular events has not yet been explained. Soluble endothelial protein C (sEPCR) exhibits a procoagulant effect by reducing the anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of protein C and activated protein C...
May 31, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
HariOm Singh, Dharmesh Samani, Vijay Nema, Manisha V Ghate, R R Gangakhedkar
The severity of hepatic injury depends upon cytokines. Previous studies associated IL-1RN allele 2 with IL-1β production. Hence, we examined the association of IL-1 RN and IL-1β polymorphisms with ARV-associated hepatotoxicity. Genotyping of IL-1RN (VNTR), IL-1β (-511C/T) polymorphisms was done in 162 HIV-infected patients, 34 with ARV hepatotoxicity, 128 without hepatotoxicity, and 152 healthy controls using PCR and PCR-RFLP method. The haplotypes 1T and 2C enhanced the risk for severe hepatotoxicity (OR = 1...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
John Kinuthia, Benson Singa, Christine J McGrath, Beryne Odeny, Agnes Langat, Abraham Katana, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Jillian Pintye, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs usually test pregnant women for HIV without involving their partners. Non-disclosure of maternal HIV status to male partners may deter utilization of PMTCT interventions since partners play a pivotal role in decision-making within the home including access to and utilization of health services. METHODS: Mothers attending routine 6-week and 9-month infant immunizations were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health (MCH) clinics across Kenya from June-December 2013...
May 30, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Anastasia Suci Sukmawati, Pius Almindu Leki Berek, Ernawati, Elisabeth Kristanti, Sri Sunaringsih Ika Wardojo, Isaias Budi Cahaya, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Frequent engagement of men in sexual encounters with female sex workers (FSWs) without using condoms places them at a high risk for HIV infection. HIV testing has been noted to be among important strategies to prevent HIV transmission and acquisition. However, it is known that not all men willingly undertake an HIV test as a way to prevent HIV transmission and/or acquisition. This study aimed to identify barriers to accessing HIV testing services among men who are clients of FSWs (clients) in Belu and Malaka districts, Indonesia...
May 30, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Iyiola Faturiyele, Dimitris Karletsos, Keletso Ntene-Sealiete, Alfred Musekiwa, Mantiti Khabo, Marethabile Mariti, Phetole Mahasha, Thembisile Xulu, Pedro T Pisa
BACKGROUND: HIV treatment and care for migrants is affected by their mobility and interaction with HIV treatment programs and health care systems in different countries. To assess healthcare needs, preferences and accessibility barriers of HIV-infected migrant populations in high HIV burden, borderland districts of Lesotho. METHODS: We selected 15 health facilities accessed by high patient volumes in three districts of Maseru, Leribe and Mafeteng. We used a mixed methods approach by administering a survey questionnaire to consenting HIV infected individuals on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and utilizing a purposive sampling procedure to recruit health care providers for qualitative in-depth interviews across facilities...
May 29, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sara Hope Browne, Kirsty Barford, Thato Ramela, Ros Dowse
BACKGROUND: Prompt management of side effects is critical to supporting adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medication. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of presenting side effect information using simple text combined with pictograms on sustained knowledge of ARV side effects over three months. METHOD: Previously designed side effect pictograms, combined with simple text, were incorporated into a side effects panel within an ARV information leaflet...
May 19, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Gabriel Dario Damilano, Omar Sued, Maria Julia Ruiz, Yanina Ghiglione, Flavia Canitano, Maria Pando, Gabriela Turk, Pedro Cahn, Horacio Salomón, Dario Dilernia
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that there is selection bias for transmission of viral polymorphisms associated with higher viral fitness. Furthermore, after transmission and before a specific immune response is mounted in the recipient, the virus undergoes a number of reversions which allow an increase in their replicative capacity. These aspects, and others, affect the viral population characteristic of early acute infection. METHODS: 160 singlegag-gene amplifications were obtained by limiting-dilution RT-PCR from plasma samples of 8 ARV-naïve patients with early acute infection (<30 days, 22 days average) and 8 ARV-naive patients with approximately a year of infection (10 amplicons per patient)...
May 22, 2018: Vaccine
Damian J Damian, Johnston M George, Erick Martin, Beatrice Temba, Sia E Msuya
Background: Mother-to-Child-Transmission (MTCT) of HIV is still a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The region has a high unmet need for family planning and high unplanned pregnancy rates among HIV-positive women. Most efforts to prevent MTCT of HIV have focused on the third prong, a strategy which offers antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to HIV-infected pregnant women and their exposed infants. However, the effective use of contraceptives to prevent unplanned pregnancies among women living with HIV is more effective in reducing HIV MTCT...
2018: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
Francesca Ferretti, Marta Boffito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rilpivirine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARV). The development of the long-acting formulation of rilpivirine (RPV-LA) and its use in clinical settings is the subject of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2017, the results of the phase IIb study LATTE2 have been published. This study demonstrated that the combination of RPV-LA with a second long-acting agent (cabotegravir) administered intramuscularly every 4--8 weeks was similar in virologic suppression rates to standard of care ARV treatment...
May 22, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Yinfeng Zhang, Jessica M Fogel, Xu Guo, William Clarke, Autumn Breaud, Vanessa Cummings, Erica L Hamilton, Arthur Ogendo, Noel Kayange, Ravindre Panchia, Karen Dominguez, Ying Q Chen, Theodorus Sandfort, Susan H Eshleman
OBJECTIVE: To analyze antiretroviral drug use and HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected MSM and transgender women who were screened for participation in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 075 study. METHODS: A qualitative assay was used to detect 20 antiretroviral drugs in five drug classes; this assay is based on liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution accurate-mass mass spectrometry. HIV viral load testing was performed using the RealTime HIV-1 Viral Load Assay...
June 19, 2018: AIDS
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