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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076335/infrequent-development-of-drug-resistance-in-hiv-1-infected-treatment-naive-subjects-after-96-weeks-of-treatment-with-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-or-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#1
Nicolas Margot, Stephanie Cox, Moupali Das, Scott McCallister, Michael D Miller, Christian Callebaut
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the nucleotide RT inhibitor (NtRTI) tenofovir (TFV) that loads lymphocytes with TFV-diphosphate more efficiently than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The single-tablet regimen (STR) composed of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF (E/C/F/TAF) has demonstrated non-inferiority to the STR of E/C/F/TDF in clinical studies, with high proportions of subjects achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 48, and maintained through week 96...
January 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073073/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-tenofovir-and-efavirenz-in-biological-tissues-and-fluids
#2
Luisa Barreiros, Cassilda Cunha-Reis, Eduarda M P Silva, Joana R B Carvalho, José das Neves, Bruno Sarmento, Marcela A Segundo
Millions of people worldwide live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection thus justifying the continuous search for new prevention and treatment strategies, including topical microbicide products combining antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) such as tenofovir (TFV) and efavirenz (EFV). Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a high performance liquid chromatography method coupled to triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of TFV and EFV in biological matrices (mouse vaginal tissue, vaginal lavage and blood plasma)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065965/lessons-from-a-seven-year-experience-of-paediatric-hiv-in-pakistan-a-single-centre-experience
#3
Ejaz Ahmed Khan
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, clinical and immunologic features of children with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2005 to 2011, and comprised children with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients with detailed physical examination and appropriate investigations and those eligible for therapy were included. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063074/prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-paediatric-hiv-care-and-treatment-monitoring-from-measuring-process-to-impact-and-elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv
#4
Priscilla Idele, Chika Hayashi, Tyler Porth, Awandha Mamahit, Mary Mahy
Progress towards achievement of global targets for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV care and treatment is an integral part of global and national HIV and AIDS responses. This paper documents the development of the global and national monitoring and reporting systems for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes, achievements and remaining challenges. A review of the development of the monitoring and reporting process since 2002-2016 was conducted using existing published literature and taking into account changes in WHO HIV treatment guidelines, global HIV goals and targets, programmatic and methodological developments, and increased need for interagency partnerships, coordination and harmonization of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms...
January 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060013/behavioral-economic-incentives-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretrovirals-early-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-uganda
#5
Sebastian Linnemayr, Chad Stecher, Barbara Mukasa
OBJECTIVE: Fixed incentives have been largely unsuccessful in improving adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medication. Therefore we evaluate whether small incentives based on behavioral economic theory can increase adherence to ARV medication among treatment-mature adults in Kampala, Uganda. DESIGN: A randomized control trial design tests whether providing small incentives based on either attending timely clinic visits (intervention group 1) or achieving high medication adherence (intervention group 2) can increase ARV adherence...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052986/can-voluntary-pooled-procurement-reduce-the-price-of-antiretroviral-drugs-a-case-study-of-efavirenz
#6
Sung Wook Kim, Jolene Skordis-Worrall
PURPOSE: A number of strategies have aimed to assist countries in procuring antiretroviral therapy (ARV) at lower prices. In 2009, as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) commenced a voluntary pooled procurement scheme, however, the impact of the scheme on ARV prices remains uncertain. This study aims to estimate the effect of VPP on drug prices using Efavirenz as a case study. METHODS: This analysis uses WHO Global price report mechanism (GPRM) data from 2004 to 2013...
January 4, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042144/novel-bet-protein-proteolysis-targeting-chimera-bet-protac-exerts-superior-lethal-activity-than-bromodomain-inhibitor-beti-against-post-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-mpn-secondary-s-aml-cells
#7
D T Saenz, W Fiskus, Y Qian, T Manshouri, K Rajapakshe, K Raina, K G Coleman, A P Crew, A Shen, C P Mill, B Sun, P Qiu, T M Kadia, N Pemmaraju, C DiNardo, M-S Kim, A J Nowak, C Coarfa, C M Crews, S Verstovsek, K N Bhalla
The PROTAC (proteolysis-targeting chimera) ARV-825 recruits bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins to the E3 ubiquitin ligase cereblon, leading to degradation of BET proteins, including BRD4. Whereas the BET-protein inhibitor (BETi) OTX015 caused accumulation of BRD4, treatment with equimolar concentrations of ARV-825 caused sustained and profound depletion (>90%) of BRD4 and induced significantly more apoptosis in cultured and patient-derived (PD) CD34+ post-MPN sAML cells, while relatively sparing the CD34+ normal hematopoietic progenitor cells...
January 2, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038501/the-impact-of-physical-growth-and-relative-age-effect-on-assessment-in%C3%A2-physical-education
#8
Terje Dalen, Rolf Petter Ingvaldsen, Truls Valland Roaas, Arve Vorland Pedersen, Ingebrigt Steen, Tore Kristian Aune
Physical education (PE) is perhaps the school subject most likely to produce relative age effects (RAE). Like in sports, physical maturity gives students an advantage in PE, which might well be mistaken for superior ability. The aim of the present study is to investigate the extent to which physical growth, measured as height, and RAE reflect the assessment in Norwegian PE. Furthermore, we wanted to examine whether there is any gender differences in the assessment in PE as a function of physical growth and RAE...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013385/a-double-stranded-probe-coupled-with-isothermal-amplification-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-detection-of-avian-reovirus
#9
D Kumar, T K S Chauhan, R K Agarwal, K Dhama, P P Goswami, A K Mariappan, A K Tiwari, B P Mishra
We applied a probe-based real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Cy5-RTqLAMP) technique targeting the avian reovirus (ARV) S3 gene to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for virus detection and quantification. This test specifically detected the presence of ARV, but not other viruses or bacteria present in clinical or artificially spiked samples, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, fowl adenovirus, Marek's disease virus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp...
December 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010168/bayesian-analysis-of-piecewise-growth-mixture-models-with-skew-t-distributions-application-to-aids-studies
#10
Getachew A Dagne, Boubakari Ibrahimou
A major problem in HIV/AIDS studies is the development of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or therapy. Estimating the time at which such drug resistance would develop is usually sought. The goal of this article is to perform this estimation by developing growth mixture models with change-points and skew-t distributions based on longitudinal data. For such data, following ARV treatment, the profile of each subject's viral load tends to follow a 'broken stick' like growth trajectory, indicating multiple phases of decline and increase in viral loads...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006001/detectable-viral-load-in-late-pregnancy-among-women-in-the-rwanda-option-b-pmtct-program-enrollment-results-from-the-kabeho-study
#11
Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Emily A Bobrow, Placidie Mugwaneza, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Cyprien Baribwira, Laura Guay, Anita Asiimwe
There are limited viral load (VL) data available from programs implementing "Option B+," lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women, in resource-limited settings. Extent of viral suppression from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in Rwanda was assessed among women enrolled in the Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) Study. ARV drug resistance testing was conducted on women with VL>2000 copies/ml...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005700/morning-pressor-surge-blood-pressure-variability-and-arterial-stiffness-in-essential-hypertension
#12
Giacomo Pucci, Francesca Battista, Fabio Anastasio, Giuseppe Schillaci
OBJECTIVE: An excess morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) may portend an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms thereof have been little investigated. The link between MBPS, short-term blood pressure (BP) variability, and arterial stiffness has not been entirely defined. METHODS: In 602 consecutive untreated hypertensive patients (48 ± 12 years, 61% men, office BP 149/93 ± 17/10 mmHg), we measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, SphygmoCor) and 24-h ambulatory BP...
February 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004200/hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemia-decreases-glucose-variability-during-cardiac-surgery
#13
Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Edward J Mascha, Dongsheng Yang, Daniel I Sessler, Andra Duncan
PURPOSE: Increased glucose variability may be associated with worse outcomes in critically ill patients. Hyperinsulinemic normoglycemia provides intensive glucose control during surgery and may reduce glucose variability. Our objective was to compare glycemic variability between two methods of glucose control in cardiac surgical patients: hyperinsulinemic normoglycemia vs standard insulin infusion. We also assessed whether the effect differed between patients with and without diabetes mellitus...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993242/hiv-protease-inhibitors-alter-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-via-%C3%AE-site-amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving-enzyme-1-translational-up-regulation
#14
Patrick J Gannon, Cagla Akay-Espinoza, Alan C Yee, Lisa A Briand, Michelle A Erickson, Benjamin B Gelman, Yan Gao, Norman J Haughey, M Christine Zink, Janice E Clements, Nicholas S Kim, Gabriel Van De Walle, Brigid K Jensen, Robert Vassar, R Christopher Pierce, Alexander J Gill, Dennis L Kolson, J Alan Diehl, Joseph L Mankowski, Kelly L Jordan-Sciutto
Mounting evidence implicates antiretroviral (ARV) drugs as potential contributors to the persistence and evolution of clinical and pathological presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the post-ARV era. Based on their ability to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types, we hypothesized that ARV-mediated ER stress in the central nervous system resulted in chronic dysregulation of the unfolded protein response and altered amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. We used in vitro and in vivo models to show that HIV protease inhibitor (PI) class ARVs induced neuronal damage and ER stress, leading to PKR-like ER kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and enhanced translation of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1)...
January 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990293/vitamin-levels-in-adults-with-adhd
#15
Elisabeth Toverud Landaas, Tore Ivar Malmei Aarsland, Arve Ulvik, Anne Halmøy, Per Magne Ueland, Jan Haavik
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients containing vitamins are reported to reduce symptom levels in persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on vitamin levels in ADHD are sparse. AIMS: To examine the relationship between vitamin concentrations, ADHD diagnosis and psychiatric symptoms in young adult ADHD patients and controls. METHOD: Eight vitamins and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were analysed in serum samples from 133 ADHD patients and 131 controls aged between 18 and 40, who also reported ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions...
November 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987296/intimate-partner-violence-and-challenges-facing-women-living-with-hiv-aids-in-accessing-antiretroviral-treatment-at-singida-regional-hospital-central-tanzania
#16
Agnes Kosia, Deodatus Kakoko, Ave Maria Emilius Semakafu, Tumaini Nyamhanga, Gasto Frumence
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health problem. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. Globally, and in Tanzania in particular, women are more affected by HIV/AIDS than men. Tanzania has been reported to be among the countries with the highest burden of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored the challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC) in Singida Regional Hospital in Tanzania...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976647/case-profile-volume-analysis-and-dropout-rate-of-antirabies-vaccination-regimens-among-animal-bite-victims-in-gujarat
#17
Kishor M Dhaduk, Sumit V Unadkat, Pooja R Katharotiya, Ankit R Mer, Monika C Chaudhary, Mrudul M Prajapati
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a preventable neglected public health problem and associated with multiple cultural, religious, and social practices, myths in our country. There is a lack of organized surveillance system to measure the incidence of animal bite and human rabies as well as to evaluate cost-saving of different routes, regimen, and types of antirabies vaccines (ARV)/immunoglobulin available in India. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to know dropout rate in intradermal (i...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974022/integrated-intervention-for-mental-health-co-morbidity-in-hiv-positive-individuals-a-public-health-assessment
#18
Monika Dos Santos, Gustaaf Wolvaardt
In South Africa, where it is estimated that more people have HIV than anywhere else in the world, HIV/AIDS and psychological disorder co-morbidity have been shown both to exacerbate the late diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and to affect adherence to ARVs. Targeted, affordable and evidence-based strategies to reach these populations are essential. Against this backdrop, a pilot project and situational assessment aimed at determining the context of psychological care and HIV treatment services in South Africa was undertaken...
December 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939465/antiretrovirals-causing-severe-pre-eclampsia
#19
Lloyd Tooke, Linda Riemer, Mushi Matjila, Michael Harrison
BACKGROUND: Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) (⩽1000g) at our tertiary hospital have a much higher HIV exposure rate than bigger babies and are mainly delivered due to complications of pre-eclampsia. Studies investigating the effect of HIV or antiretroviral therapy on pre-eclampsia, a partially immune-mediated disease have produced contradictory results. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there was an association between pre-eclampsia and HIV and/or antiretrovirals in the mothers of ELBW infants...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936098/analysis-of-hiv-diversity-in-hiv-infected-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-hptn-061
#20
Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Vanessa Cummings, Autumn Breaud, Oliver Laeyendecker, Sheldon D Fields, Sam Griffith, Hyman M Scott, Steven Shoptaw, Carlos Del Rio, Manya Magnus, Sharon Mannheimer, Hong-Van Tieu, Darrell P Wheeler, Kenneth H Mayer, Beryl A Koblin, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study. METHODS: A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and for 21 men who seroconverted during the study...
2016: PloS One
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