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Mohammedaman Mama, Getaneh Alemu
BACKGROUND: The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Aditya Singh
INTRODUCTION: There exist several barriers to maternal health service utilization in developing countries. Most of the previous studies conducted in India have focused on demand-side barriers, while only a few have touched upon supply-side barriers. None of the previous studies in India have investigated the factors that affect maternal health care utilization at health sub-centers (HSCs) in India, despite the fact that these institutions, which are the geographically closest available public health care facilities in rural areas, play a significant role in providing affordable maternal health care...
2016: PeerJ
Megan Ottomeyer, Charles D Graham, Avery D Legg, Elizabeth S Cooper, Chad D Law, Mariam Molani, Karine Matevossian, Jerry Marlin, Charlott Williams, Ramon Newman, Jason A Wasserman, Larry W Segars, Tracey A H Taylor
Nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) plays an important role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of disease. Situations of close-quarter contact in groups are generally regarded as a risk factor for community-acquired MRSA strains due to transmission via fomites and person-to-person contact. With these criteria for risk, homeless individuals using shelter facilities, including showers and toilets, should be considered high risk for colonization and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal colonization of MRSA in a homeless population compared to established rates of colonization within the public and a control group of subjects from a neighboring medical school campus, and to analyze phylogenetic diversity among the MRSA strains...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
David Z Munisi, Joram Buza, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Safari M Kinung'hi
In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
Emily Kumpel, Alicea Cock-Esteb, Michel Duret, Dominick de Waal, Ranjiv Khush
We compared dry and rainy season water sources and their quality in the urban region of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Representative sampling indicated that municipal water supplies represent < 1% of the water sources. Residents rely on privately constructed and maintained boreholes that are supplemented by commercially packaged bottled and sachet drinking water. Contamination by thermotolerant coliforms increased from 21% of drinking water sources in the dry season to 42% of drinking water sources in the rainy season (N = 356 and N = 397)...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq
Although Canada has abundant freshwater resources, many cities still experience seasonal water shortage. Supply-side and demand-side management is a core strategy to address this water shortage. Under this strategy, reclaimed water, which the Canadian public is willing to use for non-potable purposes, is an option. However, no universal guidelines exist for reclaimed water use. Despite the federal government's long-term goal to develop guidelines for many water reuse applications, guidelines have only been prescribed for reclaimed water use in toilet and urinal flushing in Canada...
October 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Tamar Berman, Itamar Grotto, Eyal Schwartzberg
BACKGROUND: Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Fiona Zakaria, Bertin Harelimana, Josip Ćurko, Jack van de Vossenberg, Hector A Garcia, Christine Maria Hooijmans, Damir Brdjanovic
Ultraviolet germicidal (short wavelength UV-C) light was studied as surface disinfectant in an Emergency Sanitation Operation System(®) smart toilet to aid to the work of manual cleaning. The UV-C light was installed and regulated as a self-cleaning feature of the toilet, which automatically irradiate after each toilet use. Two experimental phases were conducted i.e. preparatory phase consists of tests under laboratory conditions and field testing phase. The laboratory UV test indicated that irradiation for 10 min with medium-low intensity of 0...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Sebastián Eduardo Espinoza Espinoza, Anibal Enrique Vivaceta De la Fuente, Constanza Andrea Machuca Contreras
OBJECTIVE: To describe and relate the main environmental risk factors in the emergency process after a large urban fire in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 2014. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. All 243 reports from an ad hoc web/mobile website created on the Ushahidi/Crowdmap platform were reviewed. Reports were recorded in a new database with dichotomist variables based on either the presence or absence of the relevant category in each report...
September 13, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Leila Dadashi, Reza Dehghanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Rich texture of cosmetics can provide a suitable medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, skin microflora of anyone is unique which might be harmful to another person. Skin and eye pathogenicity could be communicated by sharing cosmetics in beauty saloons. The main objective of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of in-use skin and eye cosmetics which are available as public make-up kits for women in the beauty salons. METHODS: Fifty-two in-use skin and eye cosmetics were included in this cross sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
J Mwai, S Njenga, M Barasa
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in Kenya. Inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on causative factors are some of the critical factors for the increased prevalence. The study assessed KAP on the control and prevention of schistosomiasis infection in Mwea division, Kirinyaga County-Kenya. Four hundred and sixty five house-hold heads were enrolled in this study by use of simple random sampling technique. METHODS: The study employed an analytical descriptive cross sectional design utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods...
2016: BMC Public Health
Catherine Bridge, Oya Demirbilek, Alicia Mintzes
Universal Design seeks to contribute to the sustainability and inclusivity of communities and co-design and participatory methods are a critical tool in this evolution. The fact that technology permeates our society is undeniable and the form and materials that technology takes in turn shape the basics of human life such as being able to shower and toilet oneself. In contrast, the various existing approaches to co-design have very different sorts of metaphysical, epistemological and normative assumptions behind them...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Assumpta Mukabutera, Dana Thomson, Megan Murray, Paulin Basinga, Laetitia Nyirazinyoye, Sidney Atwood, Kevin P Savage, Aimable Ngirimana, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea among children under 5 years of age has long been a major public health concern. Previous studies have suggested an association between rainfall and diarrhea. Here, we examined the association between Rwandan rainfall patterns and childhood diarrhea and the impact of household sanitation variables on this relationship. METHODS: We derived a series of rain-related variables in Rwanda based on daily rainfall measurements and hydrological models built from daily precipitation measurements collected between 2009 and 2011...
2016: BMC Public Health
Marita G Titler, Paul Conlon, Margaret A Reynolds, Robert Ripley, Alex Tsodikov, Deleise S Wilson, Mary Montie
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health problem internationally. Many hospitals have implemented fall risk assessment tools, but few have implemented interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Little research has been done to examine the effect of implementing evidence-based fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors in hospitalized adults. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of implementing, in 3 U.S. hospitals, evidence-based fall prevention interventions targeted to patient-specific fall risk factors (Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle)...
August 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Salwa Dawaki, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Init Ithoi, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Wahib M Atroosh, Awatif M Abdulsalam, Hany Sady, Fatin Nur Elyana, Ado U Adamu, Saadatu I Yelwa, Abdulhamid Ahmed, Mona A Al-Areeqi, Lahvanya R Subramaniam, Nabil A Nasr, Yee-Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most severe global public health problems worldwide, particularly in Africa, where Nigeria has the greatest number of malaria cases. This community-based study was designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of malaria and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding malaria among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted on 551 participants from five local government areas in Kano State...
2016: Malaria Journal
Tefera Darge Delbiso, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Chiara Altare, Bruno Masquelier, Debarati Guha-Sapir
BACKGROUND: Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates...
2016: Global Health Action
Zemichael Gizaw, Mulat Gebrehiwot, Chalachew Yenew
BACKGROUND: The air inhaled by people is abundantly populated with microorganisms which also are called bioaerosols. Bioaerosols is a colloidal suspension, formed by liquid droplets and particles of solid matter in the air, whose components contain or have attached to them viruses, fungal spores and conidia, bacterial endospores, plant pollen and fragments of plant tissues. They account for 5-34 % of indoor air pollution. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the bacteriological concentration and to identify specific species of bacteria in the indoor air of Gondar University teaching hospital...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Mark A Schuster, Sari L Reisner, Sarah E Onorato
One might have to go back to the era of racial desegregation of U.S. bathrooms to find a time when toilets received so much attention. Recently, several states have debated or passed legislation requiring people to use the public bathroom corresponding to their sex as "identified at birth" or..
July 14, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Xinshu She, Deqing Zhao, Jenna Scholnick
China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
Agersew Alemu, Yalewayker Tegegne, Demekech Damte, Mulugeta Melku
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Public Health
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