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public toilet

Fiona Zakaria, Bertin Harelimana, Josip Ćurko, Jack van de Vossenberg, Hector A Garcia, Christine Maria Hooijmans, Damir Brdjanovic
Ultraviolet germicidal (short wavelength UV-C) light was studied as surface disinfectant in an Emergency Sanitation Operation System(®) smart toilet to aid to the work of manual cleaning. The UV-C light was installed and regulated as a self-cleaning feature of the toilet, which automatically irradiate after each toilet use. Two experimental phases were conducted i.e. preparatory phase consists of tests under laboratory conditions and field testing phase. The laboratory UV test indicated that irradiation for 10 min with medium-low intensity of 0...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Sebastián Eduardo Espinoza Espinoza, Anibal Enrique Vivaceta De la Fuente, Constanza Andrea Machuca Contreras
OBJECTIVE: To describe and relate the main environmental risk factors in the emergency process after a large urban fire in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 2014. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. All 243 reports from an ad hoc web/mobile website created on the Ushahidi/Crowdmap platform were reviewed. Reports were recorded in a new database with dichotomist variables based on either the presence or absence of the relevant category in each report...
September 13, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Leila Dadashi, Reza Dehghanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Rich texture of cosmetics can provide a suitable medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, skin microflora of anyone is unique which might be harmful to another person. Skin and eye pathogenicity could be communicated by sharing cosmetics in beauty saloons. The main objective of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of in-use skin and eye cosmetics which are available as public make-up kits for women in the beauty salons. METHODS: Fifty-two in-use skin and eye cosmetics were included in this cross sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
J Mwai, S Njenga, M Barasa
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in Kenya. Inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on causative factors are some of the critical factors for the increased prevalence. The study assessed KAP on the control and prevention of schistosomiasis infection in Mwea division, Kirinyaga County-Kenya. Four hundred and sixty five house-hold heads were enrolled in this study by use of simple random sampling technique. METHODS: The study employed an analytical descriptive cross sectional design utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods...
2016: BMC Public Health
Catherine Bridge, Oya Demirbilek, Alicia Mintzes
Universal Design seeks to contribute to the sustainability and inclusivity of communities and co-design and participatory methods are a critical tool in this evolution. The fact that technology permeates our society is undeniable and the form and materials that technology takes in turn shape the basics of human life such as being able to shower and toilet oneself. In contrast, the various existing approaches to co-design have very different sorts of metaphysical, epistemological and normative assumptions behind them...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Assumpta Mukabutera, Dana Thomson, Megan Murray, Paulin Basinga, Laetitia Nyirazinyoye, Sidney Atwood, Kevin P Savage, Aimable Ngirimana, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea among children under 5 years of age has long been a major public health concern. Previous studies have suggested an association between rainfall and diarrhea. Here, we examined the association between Rwandan rainfall patterns and childhood diarrhea and the impact of household sanitation variables on this relationship. METHODS: We derived a series of rain-related variables in Rwanda based on daily rainfall measurements and hydrological models built from daily precipitation measurements collected between 2009 and 2011...
2016: BMC Public Health
Marita G Titler, Paul Conlon, Margaret A Reynolds, Robert Ripley, Alex Tsodikov, Deleise S Wilson, Mary Montie
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health problem internationally. Many hospitals have implemented fall risk assessment tools, but few have implemented interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Little research has been done to examine the effect of implementing evidence-based fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors in hospitalized adults. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of implementing, in 3 U.S. hospitals, evidence-based fall prevention interventions targeted to patient-specific fall risk factors (Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle)...
August 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Salwa Dawaki, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Init Ithoi, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Wahib M Atroosh, Awatif M Abdulsalam, Hany Sady, Fatin Nur Elyana, Ado U Adamu, Saadatu I Yelwa, Abdulhamid Ahmed, Mona A Al-Areeqi, Lahvanya R Subramaniam, Nabil A Nasr, Yee-Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most severe global public health problems worldwide, particularly in Africa, where Nigeria has the greatest number of malaria cases. This community-based study was designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of malaria and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding malaria among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted on 551 participants from five local government areas in Kano State...
2016: Malaria Journal
Tefera Darge Delbiso, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Chiara Altare, Bruno Masquelier, Debarati Guha-Sapir
BACKGROUND: Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates...
2016: Global Health Action
Zemichael Gizaw, Mulat Gebrehiwot, Chalachew Yenew
BACKGROUND: The air inhaled by people is abundantly populated with microorganisms which also are called bioaerosols. Bioaerosols is a colloidal suspension, formed by liquid droplets and particles of solid matter in the air, whose components contain or have attached to them viruses, fungal spores and conidia, bacterial endospores, plant pollen and fragments of plant tissues. They account for 5-34 % of indoor air pollution. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the bacteriological concentration and to identify specific species of bacteria in the indoor air of Gondar University teaching hospital...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Mark A Schuster, Sari L Reisner, Sarah E Onorato
One might have to go back to the era of racial desegregation of U.S. bathrooms to find a time when toilets received so much attention. Recently, several states have debated or passed legislation requiring people to use the public bathroom corresponding to their sex as "identified at birth" or..
July 14, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Xinshu She, Deqing Zhao, Jenna Scholnick
China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
Agersew Alemu, Yalewayker Tegegne, Demekech Damte, Mulugeta Melku
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Public Health
Stephanie K L Ishii, Treavor H Boyer
Urine source separation, i.e., the collection and treatment of human urine as a separate waste stream, has the potential to improve many aspects of water resource management and wastewater treatment. However, social considerations must be taken into consideration for successful implementation of this alternative wastewater system. This work evaluated the perceptions of urine source separation held by students living on-campus at a major university in the Southeastern region of the United States. Perceptions were evaluated in the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior...
September 1, 2016: Water Research
Yindong Tong, Ruihua Yao, Wei He, Feng Zhou, Cen Chen, Xianhua Liu, Yiren Lu, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang, Yan Lin, Min Zhou
Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases...
August 2016: Environmental Research
D Xu, L Chen, X Wan, Y Zhang, N Liu, K Wang
AIMS: To investigate the toileting behaviours that female nurses used to empty their bladders, health beliefs related to toileting behaviour and the relationships between the health beliefs and toileting behaviour based on the Health Belief Model. METHODS: A stratified cluster sampling strategy was used to recruit 636 female nurses from three tertiary hospitals in China. Reliable and valid questionnaires were used to assess female nurses' toileting behaviour and health beliefs related to toileting behaviour...
May 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Dvora Frankenthal, Gisele Zandman-Goddard, Yael Ben-Muvhar, Bat Sheva Porat-Katz
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medications (APMs) are commonly prescribed in nursing homes (NHs) and their excessive use raises concerns about the quality of care. They are often seen as "chemical restraints", and were shown to increase morbidity and mortality risks in NH residents. The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in prevalence in APM use in a sample of Israeli NHs and to examine the effect of facility characteristics on the use of APMs. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 using data which were collected in a sample of NHs in the Tel Aviv district during the annual certification process...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Cynthia Winkworth-Lawrence, Katharina Lange
Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern with growing evidence of environmental gene reservoirs, especially in freshwater. However, the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in freshwater, in addition to the wide spectrum of land use contaminants like nitrogen and phosphate, that waterways are subjected to is inconclusive. Using molecular analyses, freshwater benthic rock biofilms were screened for genes conferring resistance to antibiotics used in both humans and farmed animals (aacA-aphD to aminoglycosides; mecA to ß-lactams; ermA and ermB to macrolides; tetA, tetB, tetK, and tetM to tetracyclines; vanA and vanB to glycopeptides)...
March 1, 2016: Microbial Ecology
M S Fountoulakis, N Markakis, I Petousi, T Manios
Wastewater recycling has been and continues to be practiced all over the world for a variety of reasons including: increasing water availability, combating water shortages and drought, and supporting environmental and public health protection. Nowadays, one of the most interesting issues for wastewater recycling is the on-site treatment and reuse of grey water. During this study the efficiency of a compact Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SMBR) system to treat real grey water in a single house in Crete, Greece, was examined...
May 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
S Hendrix, N Ellison, S Stanworth, L Tierney, F Mattner, W Schmidt, B Dubois, A Schneeberger
BACKGROUND: Optimized scales and composite outcomes have been proposed as a way to more accurately measure Alzheimer's disease related decline. AFFITOPE® AD02, is an amyloid-beta (Aβ)-targeting vaccine to elicit anti-Aβ antibodies. IMM-AD04, commonly known as Alum, originally designated as a control agent, appeared to have disease-modifying activity in a multicenter, parallel group phase II study in early AD patients. OBJECTIVES: To develop adapted outcomes for cognition, function and a composite scale with improved sensitivity to decline and treatment effects in early AD (mild plus prodromal AD) based on historical data and to assess these adapted outcomes in this phase II study...
June 2015: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
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