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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810347/-history-of-world-neurosurgery
#1
X Wang
In 5000 BC, South American tribes digged the bones in the living head to seek ways to communicate with the gods, which was primitive trephination and may be the first neurosurgical behavior. In 2600 BC, Imhotep in ancient Egypt took the brain out of the head from the nose, for a better preserve of the mummy, which was a prototype of modern transsphenoidal surgery. And the development of anatomy in ancient Greek laid a solid foundation for neurosurgery. From 500 to 1500 AD, the rise of religion and the occurrence of war, prompted a large number of craniocerebral trauma, which contributed greatly to the early development of neurosurgery as a distinct specialty...
May 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699572/oriental-metrology-and-the-politics-of-antiquity-in-nineteenth-century-survey-sciences
#2
Simon Schaffer
Argument Metrological techniques to establish shared quantitative measures have often been seen as signs of rational modernization. The cases considered here show instead the close relation of such techniques with antiquarian and revivalist programs under imperial regimes. Enterprises in survey sciences in Egypt in the wake of the French invasion of 1798 and in India during the East India Company's revenue surveys involved the promotion of a new kind of oriental metrology designed to represent colonizers' measures as restorations of ancient values to be applied to current systems of survey and measurement...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690677/the-past-and-future-of-breast-cancer-treatment-from-the-papyrus-to-individualised-treatment-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Felipe Ades, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Dimitrios Zardavas
Cancer is one of the oldest diseases ever described, since ancient Egypt there have always been attempts to treat and cure this illness. The growing body of knowledge about breast cancer biology and improvements in surgical and medical treatments has been built over time with contributions from many talented and enthusiastic physicians and researchers. Medical advances have changed the approach from a previously incurable condition, into a surgical disease. Further improvements in cancer biology have allowed the development of systemic treatments, hormonal therapies, and targeted drugs...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650765/oldest-mummified-case-of-hallux-valgus-from-ancient-egypt
#4
Albert Isidro, Assumpció Malgosa
Hallux valgus is the most common orthopedic problem of the adult foot. The etiology can be congenital, associated with the occurrence of metatarsus primus varus, or acquired, which is closely related to wearing ill-fitting shoes. Hallux valgus occurs almost exclusively in shod societies and, therefore, is a very uncommon finding in archaeological remains. We present a partial first ray of the left foot belonging to a dismembered Egyptian mummy recovered in the necropolis of Sharuna (Middle Egypt) and dated to the end of the Old Kingdom (circa 2100 BC)...
May 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556824/ancient-egyptian-mummy-genomes-suggest-an-increase-of-sub-saharan-african-ancestry-in-post-roman-periods
#5
Verena J Schuenemann, Alexander Peltzer, Beatrix Welte, W Paul van Pelt, Martyna Molak, Chuan-Chao Wang, Anja Furtwängler, Christian Urban, Ella Reiter, Kay Nieselt, Barbara Teßmann, Michael Francken, Katerina Harvati, Wolfgang Haak, Stephan Schiffels, Johannes Krause
Egypt, located on the isthmus of Africa, is an ideal region to study historical population dynamics due to its geographic location and documented interactions with ancient civilizations in Africa, Asia and Europe. Particularly, in the first millennium BCE Egypt endured foreign domination leading to growing numbers of foreigners living within its borders possibly contributing genetically to the local population. Here we present 90 mitochondrial genomes as well as genome-wide data sets from three individuals obtained from Egyptian mummies...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439696/back-to-the-future-part-1-the-medico-legal-autopsy-from-ancient-civilization-to-the-post-genomic-era
#6
REVIEW
Giovanni Cecchetto, Thomas Bajanowski, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Santo Davide Ferrara
Part 1 of the review "Back to the Future" examines the historical evolution of the medico-legal autopsy and microscopy techniques, from Ancient Civilization to the Post-Genomic Era. In the section focusing on "The Past", the study of historical sources concerning the origins and development of the medico-legal autopsy, from the Bronze Age until the Middle Ages, shows how, as early as 2000 BC, the performance of autopsies for medico-legal purposes was a known and widespread practice in some ancient civilizations in Egypt, the Far East and later in Europe...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422967/craniodental-and-humeral-morphology-of-a-new-species-of-masrasector-teratodontinae-hyaenodonta-placentalia-from-the-late-eocene-of-egypt-and-locomotor-diversity-in-hyaenodonts
#7
Matthew R Borths, Erik R Seiffert
Hyaenodonta is a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals that were part of terrestrial faunas in the Paleogene of Eurasia and North America, but the oldest record for the group is Afro-Arabian, making the record there vital for understanding the evolution of this wide-spread group. Previous studies show an ancient split between two major clades of hyaenodonts that converged in hypercarnivory: Hyainailourinae and Hyaenodontinae. These clades are each supported by cranial characters. Phylogenetic analyses of hyaenodonts also support the monophyly of Teratodontinae, an Afro-Arabian clade of mesocarnivorous to hypercarnivorous hyaenodonts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411017/biological-properties-of-propolis-extracts-something-new-from-an-ancient-product
#8
REVIEW
Nada Zabaiou, Allan Fouache, Amalia Trousson, Silvère Baron, Amar Zellagui, Mesbah Lahouel, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Natural products are an interesting source of new therapeutics, especially for cancer therapy as 70% of them have botany origin. Propolis, a resinous mixture that honey bees collect and transform from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources, has been used by ethnobotany and traditional practitioners as early in Egypt as 3000 BCE. Enriched in flavonoids, phenol acids and terpene derivatives, propolis has been widely used for its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Even though it is a challenge to standardize propolis composition, chemical analyses have pointed out interesting molecules that also present anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties that are of interest in the field of anti-cancer therapy...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386123/eastern-mediterranean-mobility-in-the-bronze-and-early-iron-ages-inferences-from-ancient-dna-of-pigs-and-cattle
#9
Meirav Meiri, Philipp W Stockhammer, Nimrod Marom, Guy Bar-Oz, Lidar Sapir-Hen, Peggy Morgenstern, Stella Macheridis, Baruch Rosen, Dorothée Huchon, Joseph Maran, Israel Finkelstein
The Late Bronze of the Eastern Mediterranean (1550-1150 BCE) was a period of strong commercial relations and great prosperity, which ended in collapse and migration of groups to the Levant. Here we aim at studying the translocation of cattle and pigs during this period. We sequenced the first ancient mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA of cattle from Greece and Israel and compared the results with morphometric analysis of the metacarpal in cattle. We also increased previous ancient pig DNA datasets from Israel and extracted the first mitochondrial DNA for samples from Greece...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382971/recognizing-ancient-papyri-by-a-combination-of-spectroscopic-diffractional-and-chromatographic-analytical-tools
#10
J Łojewska, I Rabin, D Pawcenis, J Bagniuk, M A Aksamit-Koperska, M Sitarz, M Missori, M Krutzsch
Ancient papyri are a written heritage of culture that flourished more than 3000 years ago in Egypt. One of the most significant collections in the world is housed in the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection in Berlin, from where the samples for our investigation come. The papyrologists, curators and conservators of such collections search intensely for the analytical detail that would allow ancient papyri to be distinguished from modern fabrications, in order to detect possible forgeries, assess papyrus deterioration state, and improve the design of storage conditions and conservation methods...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221153/ultra-mini-pnl-ump-material-indications-technique-advantages-and-results
#11
Janak D Desai
Stone disease has afflicted mankind since centuries; records from ancient civilisations of India and Egypt have shown stones in human bodies. The scientific mind of humans has always made smart endeavours to remove the kidney stones. From large instruments made like the beaks of different animals and birds in 600 BC (Indian civilisation) to extremely sophisticated and miniaturised endoscopic intruments of today the human race has travelled a long way. The theme has always been to remove the stones with minimal morbidity and mortality and with minimum pain to the patient...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152079/wadi-el-sheikh-a-new-archaeological-investigation-of-ancient-egyptian-chert-mines
#12
E Christiana Köhler, Elizabeth Hart, Michael Klaunzer
This article provides an overview of the first results from archaeological investigations at Wadi el-Sheikh in Egypt by the University of Vienna Middle Egypt Project. Chert was an important raw material used to produce tools, implements and jewelry in ancient times. Wadi el-Sheikh was exploited over thousands of years as it was probably the most important source of chert in Pharaonic civilization. The results of our new investigations that involved surveys and test excavations indicate the presence of large scale mining activities in the first half of the 3rd Millennium B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146194/-a-critical-regard-over-the-medicine-in-the-ancient-egypt
#13
Walter Ledermann
Generally, writing about the medicine in the Ancient Egypt, historians adopt an approach rather benevolent than critical, giving to its practice merits that never had. Reading without prejudice the famous twelve papyri -and now one more- we can't less to pronounce a condemnatory sentence, because at the end this medicine looks like a patchwork of ignorance, superstition, magic believes and a pair of grains of knowledge. However, we can rescue its surgical practice, very useful, sometimes efficient, and quite necessary in those centuries of war, slavery and permanent abuse of the weak and the poor people by the high political rulers and priests...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132921/meningeal-preservation-in-a-child-mummy-from-ancient-egypt
#14
REVIEW
Albert Isidro, Jesús Herrerin
Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, and it evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some 3000 years, lasting until the end of the Christian era. In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt), 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011975/dental-worm-disease
#15
Sergio Sabbatani, Sirio Fiorino
During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1...
December 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939314/17-th-century-variola-virus-reveals-the-recent-history-of-smallpox
#16
Ana T Duggan, Maria F Perdomo, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Stephanie Marciniak, Debi Poinar, Matthew V Emery, Jan P Buchmann, Sebastian Duchêne, Rimantas Jankauskas, Margaret Humphreys, G Brian Golding, John Southon, Alison Devault, Jean-Marie Rouillard, Jason W Sahl, Olivier Dutour, Klaus Hedman, Antti Sajantila, Geoffrey L Smith, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and how it evolved in the context of increasingly widespread immunization, have proven controversial [4-9]. In particular, some molecular-clock-based studies have suggested that key events in VARV evolution only occurred during the last two centuries [4-6] and hence in apparent conflict with anecdotal historical reports, although it is difficult to distinguish smallpox from other pustular rashes by description alone...
December 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902731/queen-nefertari-the-royal-spouse-of-pharaoh-ramses-ii-a-multidisciplinary-investigation-of-the-mummified-remains-found-in-her-tomb-qv66
#17
Michael E Habicht, Raffaella Bianucci, Stephen A Buckley, Joann Fletcher, Abigail S Bouwman, Lena M Öhrström, Roger Seiler, Francesco M Galassi, Irka Hajdas, Eleni Vassilika, Thomas Böni, Maciej Henneberg, Frank J Rühli
Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869738/plants-producing-ribosome-inactivating-proteins-in-traditional-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Letizia Polito, Massimo Bortolotti, Stefania Maiello, Maria Giulia Battelli, Andrea Bolognesi
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes that deadenylate nucleic acids and are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Many plants that contain RIPs are listed in the pharmacopoeias of folk medicine all over the world, mostly because of their toxicity. This review analyses the position occupied in traditional medicine by plants from which RIPs have been isolated. The overview starts from the antique age of the Mediterranean area with ancient Egypt, followed by the Greek and Roman classic period...
November 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748638/the-history-of-therapeutic-aerosols-a-chronological-review
#19
Stephen W Stein, Charles G Thiel
In 1956, Riker Laboratories, Inc., (now 3 M Drug Delivery Systems) introduced the first pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI). In many respects, the introduction of the MDI marked the beginning of the modern pharmaceutical aerosol industry. The MDI was the first truly portable and convenient inhaler that effectively delivered drug to the lung and quickly gained widespread acceptance. Since 1956, the pharmaceutical aerosol industry has experienced dramatic growth. The signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 led to a surge in innovation that resulted in the diversification of inhaler technologies with significantly enhanced delivery efficiency, including modern MDIs, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizer systems...
February 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726782/paleomicrobiology-of-human-tuberculosis
#20
REVIEW
Helen D Donoghue
Tuberculosis is a significant global disease today, so understanding its origins and history is important. It is primarily a lung infection and is transmitted by infectious aerosols from person to person, so a high population density encourages its spread. The causative organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen in the M. tuberculosis complex that also contains closely related species, such as Mycobacterium bovis, that primarily infect animals. Typical bone lesions occur in about 5% of untreated infections...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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