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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546602/the-many-faces-of-apomorphine-lessons-from-the-past-and-challenges-for-the-future
#1
REVIEW
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525297/hysteria-in-ancient-civilisations-a-neurological-review-possible-significance-for-the-modern-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516691/-on-the-considerations-about-heating-materials-and-temperature-of-moxibustion-in-clinical-practice
#3
Bing Zhu
Moxibustion, one of the traditional Chinese medicine therapy, plays an important role in the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, particularly the chronic and deficiency problems. In the present paper, the author reviewed the history of development of moxibustion therapy, and the related materials and heating temperature in ancient China, and also reviewed the history of heating therapy (similar to moxibustion) appearing in ancient Egypt, Greek, Libya, India, Europe, etc. The author thinks that the efficacy of moxibustion intervention mainly depends on the heating temperature and the heated area of the skin (not the heating materials) according to his own research group's experimental outcomes...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512816/the-practical-use-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-in-the-era-of-the-aspre-trial-update-and-literature-review
#4
Przemyslaw Kosinski, Urszula Sarzynska-Nowacka, Magdalena Fiolna, Miroslaw Wielgos
It is now well established that acetylsalicylic acid - one of the most widely prescribed drugs today - has brought a new era in maternal-fetal medicine. The History of medicine mentions several antecedents. Extracts made from willow contained in clay tablets are reported in both ancient Sumer and Egypt. In 400 BC, Hippocrates referred to the use of salicylic tea to reduce fevers. In the 1950s, acetylsalicylic acid entered the Guinness Book of Records as the highest selling painkiller. There is little doubt that acetylsalicylic acid - one of the first drugs to enter common usage - remains one of the most researched drugs in the world...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499961/paleo-oncology-in-the-dakhleh-oasis-egypt-case-studies-and-a-paleoepidemiological-perspective
#5
El Molto, Peter Sheldrick
This article describes six cases of cancer from the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. A mummy had a confirmed 'primary' diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. The remaining diagnoses were based on the distribution and types of skeletal lesions in conjunction with age, sex, and/or the molecular phylogeny of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a confirmed cause of cancer of the uterine cervix (UC) and testes (TC) and it evolved in Africa long before Homo sapiens emerged. Today these cancers are common in young adult females and males, a fact which was pivotal in respectively including them in the differential diagnosis of UC and TC...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388340/early-history-of-the-different-forms-of-neurofibromatosis-from-ancient-egypt-to-the-british-empire-and-beyond-first-descriptions-medical-curiosities-misconceptions-landmarks-and-the-persons-behind-the-syndromes
#6
REVIEW
Martino Ruggieri, Andrea D Praticò, Rosario Caltabiano, Agata Polizzi
The earliest examples of neurofibromatosis (in this case type 1, NF1) can be traced in the Ebers Papyrus (Ancient Egypt, 1.500 B.C.), in a Hellenistic statuette (Smyrna, 323 B.C.), in the coinage of the Parthians kings (247 B.C.) and in some 13th century monks' drawings. These earlier examples are somewhat less well defined as compared to the most recent better defined reports credited as having NF1 including an Inca child mummy (1480-1650 AD), Ulisse Aldrovandi's homuncio ("Monstrorum Historia", 1592 A.D.) with mosaic NF1 or the illustrations seen in the 18th century "Buffon's Histoire Naturelle" and "Cruveilhier's Anatomie Pathologique du Corps Human"...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343189/translating-ancient-alchemy-fragments-of-graeco-egyptian-alchemy-in-arabic-compendia
#7
Matteo Martelli
Translation played a vital role in the development and transfer of alchemy in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Since its origins in Graeco-Roman Egypt, alchemy was encapsulated in Greek texts which allegedly relied on Persian or Egyptian sources. Later, a variety of Greek and Byzantine writings were translated into Syriac and Arabic, and these translations were in turn fragmented and disseminated in later Arabic compendia. This paper will first review the main phases of this historical process of transmission of alchemy from one language and culture to another...
January 17, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245697/rediscovery-of-the-type-series-of-the-sacred-shrew-i-sorex-i-i-religiosus-i-i-geoffroy-saint-hilaire-1826-with-additional-notes-on-mummified-shrews-of-ancient-egypt-mammalia-soricidae
#8
Neal Woodman, Claudia Koch, Rainer Hutterer
In 1826, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire described the Sacred Shrew, Sorex religiosus [= Crocidura religiosa] from a series of 22 embalmed individuals that comprised a portion of the Italian archeologist Joseph Passalacqua's collection of Egyptian antiquities from an ancient necropolis near Thebes, central Egypt. Living members of the species were not discovered until the beginning of the 20th century and are currently restricted to the Nile Delta region, well north of the type locality. In 1968, the type series of S...
October 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138483/macroscale-multimodal-imaging-reveals-ancient-painting-production-technology-and-the-vogue-in-greco-roman-egypt
#9
John K Delaney, Kathryn A Dooley, Roxanne Radpour, Ioanna Kakoulli
Macroscale multimodal chemical imaging combining hyperspectral diffuse reflectance (400-2500 nm), luminescence (400-1000 nm), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF, 2 to 25 keV) data, is uniquely equipped for noninvasive characterization of heterogeneous complex systems such as paintings. Here we present the first application of multimodal chemical imaging to analyze the production technology of an 1,800-year-old painting and one of the oldest surviving encaustic ("burned in") paintings in the world. Co-registration of the data cubes from these three hyperspectral imaging modalities enabled the comparison of reflectance, luminescence, and XRF spectra at each pixel in the image for the entire painting...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127402/the-nature-of-ancient-egyptian-copper-containing-carbon-inks-is-revealed-by-synchrotron-radiation-based-x-ray-microscopy
#10
Thomas Christiansen, Marine Cotte, René Loredo-Portales, Poul Erik Lindelof, Kell Mortensen, Kim Ryholt, Sine Larsen
For the first time it is shown that carbon black inks on ancient Egyptian papyri from different time periods and geographical regions contain copper. The inks have been investigated using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The composition of the copper-containing carbon inks showed no significant differences that could be related to time periods or the geographical locations...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042538/volcanic-suppression-of-nile-summer-flooding-triggers-revolt-and-constrains-interstate-conflict-in-ancient-egypt
#11
Joseph G Manning, Francis Ludlow, Alexander R Stine, William R Boos, Michael Sigl, Jennifer R Marlon
Volcanic eruptions provide tests of human and natural system sensitivity to abrupt shocks because their repeated occurrence allows the identification of systematic relationships in the presence of random variability. Here we show a suppression of Nile summer flooding via the radiative and dynamical impacts of explosive volcanism on the African monsoon, using climate model output, ice-core-based volcanic forcing data, Nilometer measurements, and ancient Egyptian writings. We then examine the response of Ptolemaic Egypt (305-30 BCE), one of the best-documented ancient superpowers, to volcanically induced Nile suppression...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984839/complete-mitochondrial-genome-sequencing-of-a-burial-from-a-romano-christian-cemetery-in-the-dakhleh-oasis-egypt-preliminary-indications
#12
J Eldon Molto, Odile Loreille, Elizabeth K Mallott, Ripan S Malhi, Spence Fast, Jennifer Daniels-Higginbotham, Charla Marshall, Ryan Parr
The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome) of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano-Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2)...
October 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936030/from-royal-wet-nurses-to-facebook-the-evolution-of-breastmilk-sharing
#13
Kelley L Baumgartel, Larissa Sneeringer, Susan M Cohen
Wet-nursing was an essential practice that allowed for infant survival after many mothers died in childbirth. The story of wet-nursing is complicated by both religious pressures and cultural expectations of women. It is likely that these historical practices have shaped our current social, political and legislative environments regarding breastfeeding. The aim of this article is to provide a historical perspective on the practice of wet-nursing, with a focus on: 1) social views of wet nurses, 2) breastmilk evaluation and 3) the ideal wet nurse...
November 2016: Breastfeeding Review: Professional Publication of the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901179/visualizing-a-monumental-past-archeology-nasser-s-egypt-and-the-early-cold-war
#14
William Carruthers
This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878530/oldest-epiphyseal-osteochondroma-in-a-subadult-from-ancient-egypt
#15
Albert Isidro, Josep Maria Catalán, Carme Prat, Ferran Torner
Benign bone tumours are pathologies frequently encountered in archaeological human remains, with the most common being osteoma and osteochondroma. We present the case of a juvenile individual recovered from the Necropolis of Sharuna, Middle Egypt and dated to the end of Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (circa 2150 BC), showing an osteochondroma arising from the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia which, in all likelihood, affected the patellar tendon in life. Osteochondromas are usually discovered during childhood and adolescence...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810347/-history-of-world-neurosurgery
#16
X Wang
In 5000 BC, South American tribes digged the bones in the living head to seek ways to communicate with the gods, which was primitive trephination and may be the first neurosurgical behavior. In 2600 BC, Imhotep in ancient Egypt took the brain out of the head from the nose, for a better preserve of the mummy, which was a prototype of modern transsphenoidal surgery. And the development of anatomy in ancient Greek laid a solid foundation for neurosurgery. From 500 to 1500 AD, the rise of religion and the occurrence of war, prompted a large number of craniocerebral trauma, which contributed greatly to the early development of neurosurgery as a distinct specialty...
May 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699572/oriental-metrology-and-the-politics-of-antiquity-in-nineteenth-century-survey-sciences
#17
Simon Schaffer
Argument Metrological techniques to establish shared quantitative measures have often been seen as signs of rational modernization. The cases considered here show instead the close relation of such techniques with antiquarian and revivalist programs under imperial regimes. Enterprises in survey sciences in Egypt in the wake of the French invasion of 1798 and in India during the East India Company's revenue surveys involved the promotion of a new kind of oriental metrology designed to represent colonizers' measures as restorations of ancient values to be applied to current systems of survey and measurement...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690677/the-past-and-future-of-breast-cancer-treatment-from-the-papyrus-to-individualised-treatment-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Felipe Ades, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Dimitrios Zardavas
Cancer is one of the oldest diseases ever described, since ancient Egypt there have always been attempts to treat and cure this illness. The growing body of knowledge about breast cancer biology and improvements in surgical and medical treatments has been built over time with contributions from many talented and enthusiastic physicians and researchers. Medical advances have changed the approach from a previously incurable condition, into a surgical disease. Further improvements in cancer biology have allowed the development of systemic treatments, hormonal therapies, and targeted drugs...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650765/oldest-mummified-case-of-hallux-valgus-from-ancient-egypt
#19
Albert Isidro, Assumpció Malgosa
Hallux valgus is the most common orthopedic problem of the adult foot. The etiology can be congenital, associated with the occurrence of metatarsus primus varus, or acquired, which is closely related to wearing ill-fitting shoes. Hallux valgus occurs almost exclusively in shod societies and, therefore, is a very uncommon finding in archaeological remains. We present a partial first ray of the left foot belonging to a dismembered Egyptian mummy recovered in the necropolis of Sharuna (Middle Egypt) and dated to the end of the Old Kingdom (circa 2100 BC)...
May 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556824/ancient-egyptian-mummy-genomes-suggest-an-increase-of-sub-saharan-african-ancestry-in-post-roman-periods
#20
Verena J Schuenemann, Alexander Peltzer, Beatrix Welte, W Paul van Pelt, Martyna Molak, Chuan-Chao Wang, Anja Furtwängler, Christian Urban, Ella Reiter, Kay Nieselt, Barbara Teßmann, Michael Francken, Katerina Harvati, Wolfgang Haak, Stephan Schiffels, Johannes Krause
Egypt, located on the isthmus of Africa, is an ideal region to study historical population dynamics due to its geographic location and documented interactions with ancient civilizations in Africa, Asia and Europe. Particularly, in the first millennium BCE Egypt endured foreign domination leading to growing numbers of foreigners living within its borders possibly contributing genetically to the local population. Here we present 90 mitochondrial genomes as well as genome-wide data sets from three individuals obtained from Egyptian mummies...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
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