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Ancient egypt

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902731/queen-nefertari-the-royal-spouse-of-pharaoh-ramses-ii-a-multidisciplinary-investigation-of-the-mummified-remains-found-in-her-tomb-qv66
#1
Michael E Habicht, Raffaella Bianucci, Stephen A Buckley, Joann Fletcher, Abigail S Bouwman, Lena M Öhrström, Roger Seiler, Francesco M Galassi, Irka Hajdas, Eleni Vassilika, Thomas Böni, Maciej Henneberg, Frank J Rühli
Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869738/plants-producing-ribosome-inactivating-proteins-in-traditional-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Letizia Polito, Massimo Bortolotti, Stefania Maiello, Maria Giulia Battelli, Andrea Bolognesi
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes that deadenylate nucleic acids and are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Many plants that contain RIPs are listed in the pharmacopoeias of folk medicine all over the world, mostly because of their toxicity. This review analyses the position occupied in traditional medicine by plants from which RIPs have been isolated. The overview starts from the antique age of the Mediterranean area with ancient Egypt, followed by the Greek and Roman classic period...
November 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748638/the-history-of-therapeutic-aerosols-a-chronological-review
#3
Stephen W Stein, Charles G Thiel
In 1956, Riker Laboratories, Inc., (now 3 M Drug Delivery Systems) introduced the first pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI). In many respects, the introduction of the MDI marked the beginning of the modern pharmaceutical aerosol industry. The MDI was the first truly portable and convenient inhaler that effectively delivered drug to the lung and quickly gained widespread acceptance. Since 1956, the pharmaceutical aerosol industry has experienced dramatic growth. The signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 led to a surge in innovation that resulted in the diversification of inhaler technologies with significantly enhanced delivery efficiency, including modern MDIs, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizer systems...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726782/paleomicrobiology-of-human-tuberculosis
#4
Helen D Donoghue
Tuberculosis is a significant global disease today, so understanding its origins and history is important. It is primarily a lung infection and is transmitted by infectious aerosols from person to person, so a high population density encourages its spread. The causative organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen in the M. tuberculosis complex that also contains closely related species, such as Mycobacterium bovis, that primarily infect animals. Typical bone lesions occur in about 5% of untreated infections...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652337/early-pre-hispanic-use-of-indigo-blue-in-peru
#5
Jeffrey C Splitstoser, Tom D Dillehay, Jan Wouters, Ana Claro
Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America...
September 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644983/the-significance-of-petroleum-bitumen-in-ancient-egyptian-mummies
#6
K A Clark, S Ikram, R P Evershed
Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395...
October 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504475/from-first-to-latest-imaging-technology-revisiting-the-first-mummy-investigated-with-x-ray-in-1896-by-using-dual-source-computed-tomography
#7
REVIEW
Stephanie Zesch, Stephanie Panzer, Wilfried Rosendahl, John W Nance, Stefan O Schönberg, Thomas Henzler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically reinvestigate the first human mummy that was ever analyzed with X-ray imaging in 1896, using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in order to compare the earliest and latest imaging technologies, to estimate preservation, age at death, sex, anatomical variants, paleopathological findings, mummification, embalming and wrapping of the child mummy from ancient Egypt. Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the mummy's age and to specify the child's living period in the Egyptian chronology...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489728/deeper-insight-into-maternal-genetic-assessments-and-demographic-history-for-egyptian-indigenous-chicken-populations-using-mtdna-analysis
#8
Marwa A Eltanany, Shabaan A Hemeda
This study principally sought to reveal the demographic expansion of Egyptian indigenous chickens (EIC) using representative breeds: Sinai (North), Fayoumi (Middle) and Dandarawi (South) of Egypt as well as to deeply clarify their genetic diversity, possible matrilineal origin and dispersal routes. A total of 33 partial mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated from EIC and compared with a worldwide reference dataset of 1290 wild and domestic chicken sequences. Study populations had 12 polymorphic variable sites and 7 haplotypes...
September 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428749/genomic-analysis-of-6-000-year-old-cultivated-grain-illuminates-the-domestication-history-of-barley
#9
Martin Mascher, Verena J Schuenemann, Uri Davidovich, Nimrod Marom, Axel Himmelbach, Sariel Hübner, Abraham Korol, Michal David, Ella Reiter, Simone Riehl, Mona Schreiber, Samuel H Vohr, Richard E Green, Ian K Dawson, Joanne Russell, Benjamin Kilian, Gary J Muehlbauer, Robbie Waugh, Tzion Fahima, Johannes Krause, Ehud Weiss, Nils Stein
The cereal grass barley was domesticated about 10,000 years before the present in the Fertile Crescent and became a founder crop of Neolithic agriculture. Here we report the genome sequences of five 6,000-year-old barley grains excavated at a cave in the Judean Desert close to the Dead Sea. Comparison to whole-exome sequence data from a diversity panel of present-day barley accessions showed the close affinity of ancient samples to extant landraces from the Southern Levant and Egypt, consistent with a proposed origin of domesticated barley in the Upper Jordan Valley...
September 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404632/homicidal-snake-bite-in-children
#10
Melad G Paulis, Ayman L Faheem
Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349124/-not-available
#11
Sophie Jacqueline, Jean Bleton, Isabelle Huynh-Charlier, Sébastien Minchin, Anne-Laure Muller, Joël Poupon, Philippe Charlier
Today, the development of analytic methods brings new scientific insights into the research on the mummification process used by embalmers in ancient Egypt. The application of these techniques of molecular analysis, elementary analysis, botanical analysis and bibliographic analysis of ancient texts allows us to know the composition of mummification balms and material involved in the conservation of the body. Such substances, which are mineral, animal or plant material, played a practical and a symbolic part in the composition of balms used for the preservation of mummified bodies and therefore in the passage to the eternal life after the death...
January 2016: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203493/designs-upon-death-in-ancient-egypt
#12
Andrew Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169174/phenolic-compounds-from-the-fruits-of-medemia-argun-a-food-and-medicinal-plant-of-ancient-egypt
#13
Milena Masullo, Arafa I Hamed, Usama A Mahalel, Cosimo Pizza, Sonia Piacente
Medemia argun is a mysterious and little known monotypic fan palm from the Nubian Desert Oases of southern Egypt and northern Sudan. Its fruits have been found in the tombs from the 5th Dynasty (ca. 2500 BC) to Roman times (6-7th century AD), including the celebrated tomb of Tutankhamun. In ancient Egypt, the fruits of this palm were widely distributed and were highly valued, as confirmed by their frequent occurrence in offerings in the tombs. In order to elucidate the chemical composition of the phenolic fraction, phytochemical investigation of the BuOH extract of fruits was carried out to afford eight compounds (1-8), among which was the new 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylacetophenone 2-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (1)...
March 2016: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151189/hammurabi-s-code-a-primary-datum-in-the-conjoined-professions-of-medicine-and-law
#14
John Pearn
The history of our current law dates from Palaeolithic times. The first written laws were codified by the rulers of Mesopotamian kingdoms, from the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E. This history, and those of the medico-legal specialties in particular, trace their origins to Hammurabi's Code. Hammurabi (ruled 1792-1750 B.C.E.) was the sixth King of the First Dynasty of ancient Babylon, today an archaeological site in modern-day Iraq. Hammurabi's Laws (c.1760 B.C.E.), inscribed on at least one diorite stele, were set up in public places in Babylon, towards the end of the King's 43-year reign...
September 2016: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150646/from-mystics-to-modern-times-a-history-of-craniotomy-religion
#15
REVIEW
W Christopher Newman, Srinivas Chivukula, Ramesh Grandhi
Neurosurgical treatment of diseases dates back to prehistoric times and the trephination of skulls for various maladies. Throughout the evolution of trephination, surgery and religion have been intertwined to varying degrees, a relationship that has caused both stagnation and progress. From its mystical origins in prehistoric times to its scientific progress in ancient Egypt and its resurgence as a well-validated surgical technique in modern times, trephination has been a reflection of the cultural and religious times...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120938/-not-available
#16
Ph Demaeyer
Medicine owes many to Hippocrate, but pneumology traces its origin back to antiquity, from Mesopotamia to ancient Rome. Regarding prehistory: if viscera of this period have not been kept, some bones were. Since Neanderthals, it is then possible to study osteoarticular pathologies (often chronic arthrosis). But no evidence of tuberculosis was found (all thoracic kyphosis are not tuberculosis). Tuberculosis probably appears during the Neolithic age, because of high concentration of population. In ancient times, pneumology was of course not a real medical specialty...
January 2016: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069527/water-supply-of-ancient-egyptian-settlements-the-role-of-the-state-overview-of-a-relatively-equitable-scheme-from-the-old-to-new-kingdom-ca-%C3%A2-2543-1077-bc
#17
Delphine Driaux
The study of the textual and archaeological evidence shows that the water supply of the settlements of ancient Egypt seems to have worked on a simple and a relatively equitable scheme, at least from the Old Kingdom until the New Kingdom (ca. 2543-1077). The water supply of the inhabitants was completely managed by the state, through the local administration which was charged to bring the water, in general from a rural area, into towns and cities and to redistribute it to the inhabitants. The method of supply is illustrated by several sources of evidence, in particular by the well known case of the "water-carriers" of the village of Deir el-Medina...
2016: Water history
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988604/radiological-safety-assessment-inside-ancient-egyptian-tombs-in-saqqara
#18
S U El-Kameesy, E Salama, S A El-Fiki, M Ehab, W Rühm
Many archaeological sites in Egypt are unique worldwide, such as ancient tombs and pyramids, because they document fundamental developments in human civilization that took place several thousands of years ago. For this reason, these sites are visited by numerous visitors every year. The present work is devoted to provide a pre-operational radiological baseline needed to quantify occupational radiation exposure at the famous Saqqara region in Cairo, Egypt. A hyperpure Ge detector has been used in the γ-ray spectrometric analysis while the (222)Rn concentration was measured using a portable radon monitor RTM 1688-2, SARAD...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969383/evaluating-ancient-egyptian-prescriptions-today-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ziziphus-spina-christi
#19
Onat Kadioglu, Stefan Jacob, Stefan Bohnert, Janine Naß, Mohamed E M Saeed, Hassan Khalid, Irmgard Merfort, Eckhard Thines, Tanja Pommerening, Thomas Efferth
BACKGROUND: Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. (Christ's Thorn Jujube) is a wild tree today found in Jordan, Israel, Egypt, and some parts of Africa, which was already in use as a medicinal plant in Ancient Egypt. In ancient Egyptian prescriptions, it was used in remedies against swellings, pain, and heat, and thus should have anti-inflammatory effects. Nowadays, Z. spina-christi, is used in Egypt (by Bedouins, and Nubians), the Arabian Peninsula, Jordan, Iraq, and Morocco against a wide range of illnesses, most of them associated with inflammation...
March 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963220/tutankhamun-s-dentition-the-pharaoh-and-his-teeth
#20
Niels Christian Pausch, Franziska Naether, Karl Friedrich Krey
Tutankhamun was a Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (New Kingdom) in ancient Egypt. Medical and radiological investigations of his skull revealed details about the jaw and teeth status of the mummy. Regarding the jaw relation, a maxillary prognathism, a mandibular retrognathism and micrognathism have been discussed previously. A cephalometric analysis was performed using a lateral skull X-ray and a review of the literature regarding King Tutankhamun´s mummy. The results imply diagnosis of mandibular retrognathism...
November 2015: Brazilian Dental Journal
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