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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215288/applications-of-dynamic-systems-theory-to-cognition-and-development-new-frontiers
#1
S Perone, V R Simmering
A central goal in developmental science is to explain the emergence of new behavioral forms. Researchers consider potential sources of behavioral change depending partly on their theoretical perspective. This chapter reviews one perspective, dynamic systems theory, which emphasizes the interactions among multiple components to drive behavior and developmental change. To illustrate the central concepts of dynamic systems theory, we describe empirical and computational studies from a range of domains, including motor development, the Piagetian A-not-B task, infant visual recognition, visual working memory capacity, and language learning...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#2
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196356/therapeutic-hypothermia-provides-variable-protection-against-behavioral-deficits-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-a-potential-role-for-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#3
Johana Diaz, Suleiman Abiola, Nancy Kim, Oliver Avaritt, Debra Flock, Jenny Yu, Frances J Northington, Raul Chavez-Valdez
BACKGROUND: Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), infants who survive hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) have persistent neurological abnormalities at school age. Protection by TH against HI brain injury is variable in both humans and animal models. Our current preclinical model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and TH displays this variability of outcomes in neuropathological and neuroimaging end points with some sexual dimorphism. The detailed behavioral phenotype of this model is unknown...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152334/a-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-weight-shift-vs-joystick-control-of-a-robotic-mobility-device-by-infants-ages-5-to-10-months
#4
Sharon Stansfield, Carole Dennis, Rachel Altman, Janelle Smith, Hélène Larin
The onset of crawling in infants contributes to cognitive, perceptual, social, and emotional development. Conversely, infants with motor impairment that delays or prevents autonomous mobility often have associated developmental delays. Evidence suggests that providing mobility may have positive developmental outcomes, however powered wheelchairs may not be recommended for very young children, due to safety concerns and the child's level of cognitive maturity. The WeeBot is a mobility device controlled by infant weight shifting while seated; infants as young as 5 months have learned to use it...
February 2, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119171/let-s-play-an-observational-study-of-primary-care-physical-therapy-with-preterm-infants-aged-3-14-months
#5
Ragnhild B Håkstad, Aud Obstfelder, Gunn Kristin Øberg
INTRODUCTION: Sensory-motor play is at the core of child development and an important element in physical therapist(PT)s' work to improve infants' motor skills. In this study, we investigate how PTs scaffold and use play in physical therapy intervention with preterm infants at corrected age (CA) 3-14 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data by observing 20 physical therapy sessions. In the analysis, we connected to enactive theory on cooperation. RESULTS: Successful use of sensory-motor play in physical therapy requires cooperation toward common goals...
January 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940685/prenatal-iron-deficiency-neonatal-ferritin-and-infant-cognitive-function
#6
Michael O Mireku, Leslie L Davidson, Michael J Boivin, Romeo Zoumenou, Achille Massougbodji, Michel Cot, Florence Bodeau-Livinec
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of prenatal maternal iron deficiency (ID) on cord blood serum ferritin (CBSF) concentration and infant cognitive and motor development. METHODS: Our prospective cohort study included 636 mother-singleton child pairs from 828 eligible pregnant women who were enrolled during their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Allada, Benin, into a clinical trial comparing the efficacy of mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Venous blood samples of women were assessed for ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations at the first and second ANC visits (occurring at least 1-month apart) and at delivery...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811953/spatiotemporal-neurodynamics-of-automatic-temporal-expectancy-in-9-month-old-infants
#7
Giovanni Mento, Eloisa Valenza
Anticipating events occurrence (Temporal Expectancy) is a crucial capacity for survival. Yet, there is little evidence about the presence of cortical anticipatory activity from infancy. In this study we recorded the High-density electrophysiological activity in 9 month-old infants and adults undergoing an audio-visual S1-S2 paradigm simulating a lifelike "Peekaboo" game inducing automatic temporal expectancy of smiling faces. The results indicate in the S2-preceding Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) an early electrophysiological signature of expectancy-based anticipatory cortical activity...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809886/efficacy-of-the-small-step-program-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-for-infants-below-age-12%C3%A2-months-with-clinical-signs-of-cp-a-study-protocol
#8
Ann-Christin Eliasson, Linda Holmström, Päivikki Aarne, Cecilia Nakeva von Mentzer, Ann-Louise Weiland, Lena Sjöstrand, Hans Forssberg, Kristina Tedroff, Kristina Löwing
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have life-long motor disorders, and they are typically subjected to extensive treatment throughout their childhood. Despite this, there is a lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of early interventions aiming at improving motor function, activity, and participation in daily life. The study will evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed Small Step Program, which is introduced to children at risk of developing CP during their first year of life...
November 3, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753456/the-impact-of-memory-load-and-perceptual-cues-on-puzzle-learning-by-24-month-olds
#9
Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693612/brainnetcnn-convolutional-neural-networks-for-brain-networks-towards-predicting-neurodevelopment
#10
Jeremy Kawahara, Colin J Brown, Steven P Miller, Brian G Booth, Vann Chau, Ruth E Grunau, Jill G Zwicker, Ghassan Hamarneh
We propose BrainNetCNN, a convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to predict clinical neurodevelopmental outcomes from brain networks. In contrast to the spatially local convolutions done in traditional image-based CNNs, our BrainNetCNN is composed of novel edge-to-edge, edge-to-node and node-to-graph convolutional filters that leverage the topological locality of structural brain networks. We apply the BrainNetCNN framework to predict cognitive and motor developmental outcome scores from structural brain networks of infants born preterm...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661249/technology-for-children-with-brain-injury-and-motor-disability-executive-summary-from-research-summit-iv
#11
Jennifer B Christy, Michele A Lobo, Kristie Bjornson, Stacey C Dusing, Edelle Field-Fote, Mary Gannotti, Jill C Heathcock, Margaret E OʼNeil, James H Rimmer
Advances in technology show promise as tools to optimize functional mobility, independence, and participation in infants and children with motor disability due to brain injury. Although technologies are often used in adult rehabilitation, these have not been widely applied to rehabilitation of infants and children. In October 2015, the Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy sponsored Research Summit IV, "Innovations in Technology for Children With Brain Insults: Maximizing Outcomes." The summit included pediatric physical therapist researchers, experts from other scientific fields, funding agencies, and consumers...
December 0: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627892/cajal-bodies-in-neurons
#12
Miguel Lafarga, Olga Tapia, Ana M Romero, Maria T Berciano
Cajal is commonly regarded as the father of modern neuroscience in recognition of his fundamental work on the structure of the nervous system. But Cajal also made seminal contributions to the knowledge of nuclear structure in the early 1900s, including the discovery of the "accessory body" later renamed "Cajal body" (CB). This important nuclear structure has emerged as a center for the assembly of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) required for splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance. The modern era of CB research started in the 1990s with the discovery of coilin, now known as a scaffold protein of CBs, and specific probes for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)...
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539004/exposure-to-pm2-5-causes-genetic-changes-in-fetal-rat-cerebral-cortex-and-hippocampus
#13
Ming-Wei Chao, Chin-Hua Yang, Po-Ting Lin, Yu-Hsiu Yang, Yu-Chen Chuang, Meng-Chi Chung, Chia-Yi Tseng
PM2.5 travels along the respiratory tract and enters systemic blood circulation. Studies have shown that PM2.5 increases the incidence of various diseases not only in adults but also in newborn infants. It causes chronic inflammation in pregnant women and retards fetal development. In this study, pregnant rats were exposed to PM2.5 for extended periods of time and it was found that PM2.5 exposure increased immune cells in mother rats. In addition, cytokines and free radicals rapidly accumulated in the amniotic fluid and indirectly affected the fetuses...
April 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538528/effectiveness-of-a-comprehensive-integrated-module-using-interactive-lectures-and-workshops-in-understanding-and-knowledge-retention-about-infant-feeding-practice-in-fifth-year-medical-students-a-quasi-experimental-study
#14
Damayanti Rusli Sjarif, Klara Yuliarti, Luh Karunia Wahyuni, Tjhin Wiguna, Titis Prawitasari, Yoga Devaera, Henni Wahyu Triyuniati, Andika Afriansyah
BACKGROUND: Sixty percent of the 10.9 million under-5 deaths every year are related to malnutrition. More than two thirds of malnutrition is caused by inappropriate infant feeding practice. Only 35 % of mothers worldwide provide 4 months of exclusive breast-feeding, while complementary feeding is often untimely, nutritionally inadequate, hygienically poor, and improperly delivered. The existing pediatric nutrition module in our institution does not include proper delivery of food that involves oral-motor skills and feeding behavior...
August 18, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462071/limited-effects-of-preterm-birth-and-the-first-enteral-nutrition-on-cerebellum-morphology-and-gene-expression-in-piglets
#15
Anders Bergström, Sanne S Kaalund, Kerstin Skovgaard, Anders D Andersen, Bente Pakkenberg, Ann Rosenørn, Ruurd M van Elburg, Thomas Thymann, Gorm O Greisen, Per T Sanglid
Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway)...
2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445923/infant-social-development-across-the-transition-from-crawling-to-walking
#16
Eric A Walle
The onset of walking is a developmental transition that sets in motion a cascade of change across a range of domains, including social interactions and language learning. However, research on the unfolding of such change in the infant across this transition is limited. This investigation utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effect of walking acquisition on infant social development and parent perceptions of the infant to explore how changes in these factors relate with infant language development. Parents reported on infant social behaviors and their perception of the infant, as well as motor and language development, in 2-week intervals from 10...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394169/early-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#17
Stephanie So, Catherine Patterson, Anna Gold, Alaine Rogers, Christina Kosar, Nicole de Silva, Karolina Maria Burghardt, Yaron Avitzur, Paul W Wales
BACKGROUND: The survival rate of infants and children with intestinal failure is increasing, necessitating a greater focus on their developmental trajectory. AIMS: To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with intestinal failure at 0-15months corrected age. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of clinical, demographic and developmental assessment results of 33 children followed in an intestinal rehabilitation program between 2011 and 2014. Outcome measures included: Prechtl's Assessment of General Movements, Movement Assessment of Infants, Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Mullen Scales of Early Learning...
October 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295410/prenatal-dioxin-exposure-and-neurocognitive-development-in-hong-kong-11-year-old-children
#18
Lai Ling Hui, Hugh Simon Lam, Esther Yuet Ying Lau, Edmund Anthony Severn Nelson, Tze Wai Wong, Richard Fielding
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In utero exposure to dioxins and related compounds have been associated with adverse neurocognitive development in infants. It is unclear whether neurodevelopmental deficits persist to childhood. We assessed the association of prenatal dioxin exposure with neurocognitive function in 11-year-old children, and to test whether the association is modified by duration of breastfeeding. METHODS: In this prospective study of 161 children born in Hong Kong in 2002, prenatal dioxin exposure was proxied by the dioxin toxicity equivalence (TEQ) in breast milk collected during the early postnatal period as determined by the Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) bioassay...
October 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252667/ready-set-go-low-anticipatory-response-during-a-dyadic-task-in-infants-at-high-familial-risk-for-autism
#19
Rebecca J Landa, Joshua L Haworth, Mary Beth Nebel
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate a host of motor impairments that may share a common developmental basis with ASD core symptoms. School-age children with ASD exhibit particular difficulty with hand-eye coordination and appear to be less sensitive to visual feedback during motor learning. Sensorimotor deficits are observable as early as 6 months of age in children who later develop ASD; yet the interplay of early motor, visual and social skill development in ASD is not well understood...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199822/assessing-the-impact-of-movement-consequences-on-the-development-of-early-reaching-in-infancy
#20
Joshua L Williams, Daniela Corbetta
Prior research on infant reaching has shown that providing infants with repeated opportunities to reach for objects aids the emergence and progression of reaching behavior. This study investigated the effect of movement consequences on the process of learning to reach in pre-reaching infants. Thirty-five infants aged 2.9 months at the onset of the study were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Two groups received a 14-day intervention to distinct reaching tasks: (1) in a contingent group, a toy target moved and sounded upon contact only, and (2) in a continuous group, the toy moved and sounded continuously, independent of hand-toy contact...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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