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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767802/sitting-together-and-reaching-to-play-start-play-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-efficacy-trial-on-intervention-for-infants-with-neuromotor-disorders
#1
Regina T Harbourne, Stacey C Dusing, Michele A Lobo, Sarah Westcott-McCoy, James Bovaird, Susan Sheridan, James C Galloway, Hui-Ju Chang, Lin-Ya Hsu, Natalie Koziol, Emily C Marcinowski, Iryna Babik
Background: There is limited research examining the efficacy of early physical therapy on infants with neuromotor dysfunction. In addition, most early motor interventions have not been directly linked to learning, despite the clear association between motor activity and cognition during infancy. Objective: The aim of this project is to evaluate the efficacy of Sitting Together And Reaching To Play (START-Play), an intervention designed to target sitting, reaching, and motor-based problem solving to advance global development in infants with motor delays or neuromotor dysfunction...
June 1, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708221/relationships-between-full-day-arm-movement-characteristics-and-developmental-status-in-infants-with-typical-development-as-they-learn-to-reach-an-observational-study
#2
Joanne Shida-Tokeshi, Christianne J Lane, Ivan A Trujillo-Priego, Weiyang Deng, Douglas L Vanderbilt, Gerald E Loeb, Beth A Smith
Background: Advances in wearable sensor technology now allow us to quantify the number, type and kinematic characteristics of bouts of infant arm movement made across a full day in the natural environment. Our aim here was to determine whether the amount and kinematic characteristics of arm movements made across the day in the natural environment were related to developmental status in infants with typical development as they learned to reach for objects using their arms. Methods: We used wearable sensors to measure arm movement across days and months as infants developed arm reaching skills...
April 5, 2018: Gates open research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649977/development-of-fine-motor-skills-is-associated-with-expressive-language-outcomes-in-infants-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Boin Choi, Kathryn A Leech, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests that fine motor abilities are associated with skills in a variety of domains in both typical and atypical development. In this study, we investigated developmental trajectories of fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months in relation to expressive language outcomes at 36 months in infants at high and low familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants included 71 high-risk infants without ASD diagnoses, 30 high-risk infants later diagnosed with ASD, and 69 low-risk infants without ASD diagnoses...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621826/cognitive-functions-of-the-fetus
#4
Aida Salihagic Kadic, Asim Kurjak
The human brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, action, memory and learning. The complete nervous system is active during prenatal development and the aim of this review is to present data on fetal cognitive functions. The fetus processes sensory stimuli at a cortical level, including painful stimulus, from about 25 weeks of gestation onwards. At gestational week 34, the fetus is able not only to perceive complex acoustic external sounds but also to discriminate between different sounds...
April 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609836/prematurity-may-negatively-impact-means-end-problem-solving-across-the-first-two-years-of-life
#5
Andrea Baraldi Cunha, Iryna Babik, Samantha M Ross, Samuel W Logan, James C Galloway, Erika Clary, Michele A Lobo
Preterm infants are at risk for delays in motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. While research has shown preterm infants may exhibit learning delays in the first months of life, these delays are commonly under-diagnosed. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate behavioral performance and learning in two means-end problem-solving tasks for 30 infants born preterm (PT) and 23 born full-term (FT). Infants were assessed at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months-old in tasks that required towel pulling or turntable rotation to obtain a distant object...
March 31, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603689/cim-journal-club-gene-therapy-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy-comment-on-mendell-et-al-n-engl-j-med-2017-377-1713-22
#6
Raphael Schneider
In their landmark paper, Mendell et al. show that infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) reached important motor milestones and survived longer when treated with AVXS-101 (AveXis), a viral vector containing DNA encoding the survival of motor neuron protein (SMN). Patients not only crawled, stood and walked independently, but learned to speak. These results are very encouraging for patients with SMA and offer hope for pediatric and adult patients with other types of motor neuron diseases.
March 27, 2018: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576227/effects-of-early-comprehensive-interventions-on-child-neurodevelopment-in-poor-rural-areas-of-china-a-moderated-mediation-analysis
#7
S Liu, Z Wang, C Zhao, X Huang, X Liang, X Wang, S Lu, R W Scherpbier
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of early comprehensive interventions on home environment and child neurodevelopment among children younger than 3 years in poor rural areas of China, as well as the underlying mediating and moderating mechanisms. STUDY DESIGN: Non-randomized intervention study was conducted among 216 children aged 0-3 years in Shanxi province of China. Based on a 2 × 2 factor design, children in Lin and Fenxi County were assigned to an intervention group with duration less than 1 year (n = 26) or an intervention group with duration longer than 1 year (n = 82), while children in Fangshan County served as a control group with duration less than 1 year (n = 30) or a control group with duration longer than 1 year (n = 78)...
March 22, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572283/cerebellar-volume-as-an-imaging-marker-of-development-in-infants-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#8
Siddharth Srivastava, Anna K Prohl, Benoit Scherrer, Kush Kapur, Darcy A Krueger, Simon K Warfield, Mustafa Sahin
OBJECTIVE: In this cohort analysis, we studied 1-year-old infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), correlating volumes of cerebellar structures with neurodevelopmental measures. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective biomarker study in infants with TSC (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01780441). We included participants aged 12 months with an identified mutation of TSC1 or TSC2 . Using MRI segmentation performed with the PSTAPLE algorithm, we measured relative volumes (structure volume divided by intracranial contents volume) of the following structures: right/left cerebellar white matter, right/left cerebellar exterior, vermal lobules I-V, vermal lobules VI-VII, and vermal lobules VIII-X...
March 23, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571028/automatic-imitation-effects-are-influenced-by-experience-of-synchronous-action-in-children
#9
Eoin P O'Sullivan, Simone Bijvoet-van den Berg, Christine A Caldwell
By their fourth year of life, children are expert imitators, but it is unclear how this ability develops. One approach suggests that certain types of experience might forge associations between the sensory and motor representations of an action that may facilitate imitation at a later time. Sensorimotor experience of this sort may occur when an infant's action is imitated by a caregiver or when socially synchronous action occurs. This learning approach, therefore, predicts that the strength of sensory-motor associations should depend on the frequency and quality of previous experience...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487797/disruption-to-functional-networks-in-neonates-with-perinatal-brain-injury-predicts-motor-skills-at-8-months
#10
Annika C Linke, Conor Wild, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Charlotte Herzmann, Hester Duffy, Victor K Han, David S C Lee, Rhodri Cusack
Objective: Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) of neonates with perinatal brain injury could improve prediction of motor impairment before symptoms manifest, and establish how early brain organization relates to subsequent development. This cohort study is the first to describe and quantitatively assess functional brain networks and their relation to later motor skills in neonates with a diverse range of perinatal brain injuries. Methods: Infants ( n  = 65, included in final analyses: n  = 53) were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and were stratified based on their age at birth (premature vs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476789/behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-preterm-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-effects-of-caffeine-and-hypothermia
#11
Molly Potter, Ted Rosenkrantz, R Holly Fitch
The current study investigated behavioral and post mortem neuroanatomical outcomes in Wistar rats with a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury induced on postnatal day 6 (P6; Rice-Vannucci HI method; Rice et al., 1981). This preparation models brain injury seen in premature infants (gestational age (GA) 32-35 weeks) based on shared neurodevelopmental markers at time of insult, coupled with similar neuropathologic sequelae (Rice et al., 1981; Workman et al., 2013). Clinically, HI insult during this window is associated with poor outcomes that include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), motor coordination deficits, spatial memory deficits, and language/learning disabilities...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457647/learning-of-hierarchical-serial-patterns-emerges-in-infancy
#12
David J Lewkowicz, Mark A Schmuckler, Diane M J Mangalindan
Recursive, hierarchically organized serial patterns provide the underlying structure in many cognitive and motor domains including speech, language, music, social interaction, and motor action. We investigated whether learning of hierarchical patterns emerges in infancy by habituating 204 infants to different hierarchical serial patterns and then testing for discrimination and generalization of such patterns. Results indicated that 8- to 10-month-old and 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited sensitivity to the difference between hierarchical and non-hierarchical structure but that 4- to 6-month-old infants did not...
April 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455866/cognition-action-trade-offs-reflect-organization-of-attention-in-infancy
#13
Sarah E Berger, Regina T Harbourne, Melissa N Horger
This chapter discusses what cognition-action trade-offs in infancy reveal about the organization and developmental trajectory of attention. We focus on internal attention because this aspect is most relevant to the immediate concerns of infancy, such as fluctuating levels of expertise, balancing multiple taxing skills simultaneously, learning how to control attention under variable conditions, and coordinating distinct psychological domains. Cognition-action trade-offs observed across the life span include perseveration during skill emergence, errors and inefficient strategies during decision making, and the allocation of resources when attention is taxed...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409959/ahr-and-cyp1a2-genotypes-both-affect-susceptibility-to-motor-deficits-following-gestational-and-lactational-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#14
Breann T Colter, Helen Frances Garber, Sheila M Fleming, Jocelyn Phillips Fowler, Gregory D Harding, Molly Kromme Hooven, Amy Ashworth Howes, Smitha Krishnan Infante, Anna L Lang, Melinda Curran MacDougall, Melinda Stegman, Kelsey Rae Taylor, Christine Perdan Curran
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants known to cause adverse health effects and linked to neurological deficits in both human and animal studies. Children born to exposed mothers are at highest risk of learning and memory and motor deficits. We developed a mouse model that mimics human variation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) to determine if genetic variation increases susceptibility to developmental PCB exposure. In our previous studies, we found that high-affinity Ahrb Cyp1a2(-/-) and poor-affinity Ahrd Cyp1a2(-/-) knockout mice were most susceptible to learning and memory deficits following developmental PCB exposure compared with Ahrb Cyp1a2(+/+) wild type mice (C57BL/6J strain)...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388051/cognitive-development-of-toddlers-does-parental-stimulation-matter
#15
Prahbhjot Malhi, Jagadeesh Menon, Bhavneet Bharti, Manjit Sidhu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of quality of early stimulation on cognitive functioning of toddlers living in a developing country. METHODS: The developmental functioning of 150 toddlers in the age range of 12-30 mo (53% boys; Mean = 1.76 y, SD = 0.48) was assessed by the mental developmental index of the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). The StimQ questionnaire- toddler version was used to measure cognitive stimulation at home...
February 1, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357477/emergent-coordination-underlying-learning-to-reach-to-grasp-with-a-brain-machine-interface
#16
Mukta Vaidya, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Joshua Southerland, Islam Badreldin, Ahmed Eleryan, Kelsey Shattuck, Suchin Gururangan, Marc Slutzky, Leslie Osborne, Andrew Fagg, Karim Oweiss, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The development of coordinated reach-to-grasp movement has been well studied in infants and children. However, the role of motor cortex during this development is unclear because it is difficult to study in humans. We took the approach of using a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus macaques with prior therapeutic amputations to examine the emergence of novel, coordinated reach to grasp. Previous research has shown that after amputation, the cortical area previously involved in the control of the lost limb undergoes reorganization, but prior BMI work has largely relied on finding neurons that already encode specific movement-related information...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285864/proximodistal-exploration-in-motor-learning-as-an-emergent-property-of-optimization
#17
Freek Stulp, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
To harness the complexity of their high-dimensional bodies during sensorimotor development, infants are guided by patterns of freezing and freeing of degrees of freedom. For instance, when learning to reach, infants free the degrees of freedom in their arm proximodistally, that is, from joints that are closer to the body to those that are more distant. Here, we formulate and study computationally the hypothesis that such patterns can emerge spontaneously as the result of a family of stochastic optimization processes, without an innate encoding of a maturational schedule...
December 29, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226463/which-limb-is-it-responses-to-vibrotactile-stimulation-in-early-infancy
#18
Eszter Somogyi, Lisa Jacquey, Tobias Heed, Matej Hoffmann, Jeffrey J Lockman, Lionel Granjon, Jacqueline Fagard, J Kevin O'Regan
This study focuses on how the body schema develops during the first months of life, by investigating infants' motor responses to localized vibrotactile stimulation on their limbs. Vibrotactile stimulation was provided by small buzzers that were attached to the infants' four limbs one at a time. Four age groups were compared cross-sectionally (3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-month-olds). We show that before they actually reach for the buzzer, which, according to previous studies, occurs around 7-8 months of age, infants demonstrate emerging knowledge about their body's configuration by producing specific movement patterns associated with the stimulated body area...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225063/the-infant-motor-system-predicts-actions-based-on-visual-statistical-learning
#19
REVIEW
Claire D Monroy, Marlene Meyer, Lisanne Schröer, Sarah A Gerson, Sabine Hunnius
Motor theories of action prediction propose that our motor system combines prior knowledge with incoming sensory input to predict other people's actions. This prior knowledge can be acquired through observational experience, with statistical learning being one candidate mechanism. But can knowledge learned through observation alone transfer into predictions generated in the motor system? To examine this question, we first trained infants at home with videos of an unfamiliar action sequence featuring statistical regularities...
December 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210832/quality-of-caregiving-is-positively-associated-with-neurodevelopment-during-the-first-year-of-life-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-uganda
#20
Itziar Familiar, Shalean M Collins, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Barnabas Natamba, Paul Bangirana, Elizabeth M Widen, Daniel Achidri, Harriet Achola, Daniel Onen, Michael Boivin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether maternal characteristics and infant developmental milieu were predictive of early cognitive development in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HU) infants in Uganda. DESIGN: Longitudinal pregnancy study. METHODS: Ugandan women (n = 228) were enrolled into the Postnatal Nutrition and Psychosocial Health Outcomes study with a 2:1 HIV-uninfected: infected ratio. Maternal sociodemographic, perceived social support, and depressive symptomatology were assessed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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