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Motor control infant

Carolina Souza Neves da Costa, Sandra L Saavedra, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Marjorie H Woollacott
BACKGROUND: External support has been viewed as an important biomechanical constraint for children with deficits in postural control. Nonlinear analysis of head stability is necessary to confirm benefits of interaction between external trunk support and level of trunk control. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of biomechanical constraints (trunk support) on neural control of head stability during development of trunk control. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental repeated measure study...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Lisa M Barnett, Jo Salmon, Kylie D Hesketh
BACKGROUND: Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. METHODS: Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3...
October 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
Ying-Dong Lian, Zong-Xiang Chen, Kang-Ru Zhu, Shu-Yin Sun, Li-Ping Zhu
OBJECTIVES: The increase in the prevalence of obesity presents a significant health and economic problem. Obesity has been reported to be a major contributor to variety of chronic diseases. Childhood obesity has been rising over the past decades leading to various complications in health. Millions of infants and children undergo surgery every year on various health grounds. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spinal anesthesia of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine on over-weight neonatal rats...
September 26, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Christiane Al-Haddad, Maamoun Abdul Fattah, Larissa Smeets, Hani Tamim, Leila Dirani, Layal Safadieh, Durriyah Sinno, Lama Charafeddine
PURPOSE: To study ophthalmological outcomes of premature children with no retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: A total of 69 former preterm infants were evaluated at 2 to 7 years of age. Detailed ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Another 69 healthy children served as controls...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Rui V Simões, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Mónica Cruz-Lemini, Elisenda Eixarch, Núria Bargalló, Magdalena Sanz-Cortes, Eduard Gratacós
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and premature birth represent two independent problems that may occur simultaneously, and contribute to impaired neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in frontal lobe metabolic profiles of one-year-old IUGR infants born prematurely (P-IUGR) and adequate for gestational age controls, both premature (P-AGA) and born at term (T-AGA), and their association with brain structural and biophysical parameters, and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Heidi Mäenpää, Arja Häkkinen, Anne Sarajuuri
PURPOSE: To compare changes in motor development from 1 to 5 years of age among 18 children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and 12 with univentricular heart to 42 children without heart defect. METHODS: Motor development was assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). RESULTS: Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome or univentricular heart had significantly lower scores on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale test at the age of 1 and on the Movement ABC test at the age of 5 years compared with controls...
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Anita J Hughes, Sarah A Redsell, Cris Glazebrook
CONTEXTS: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Some studies report positive intervention effects on motor outcomes, but it is currently unclear which motor activities are most effective in the short and longer term. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify interventions that improve the motor development of preterm infants. DATA SOURCES: An a priori protocol was agreed upon. Seventeen electronic databases from 1980 to April 2015 and gray literature sources were searched...
September 16, 2016: Pediatrics
Jane E Roberts, Bridgette L Tonnsen, Lindsay M McCary, Kelly E Caravella, Svetlana V Shinkareva
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although 50-75 % of children with FXS meet ASD criteria, no studies have compared ASD symptoms in infants with FXS versus other high risk groups, such as siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs). Using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants, our findings indicate that 53 % of 12-month infants with FXS fall in the "at risk" category compared to 17 and 6 % for age-matched ASIBs and controls, respectively. Elevated atypical motor behaviors were associated with elevated risk for FXS...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Y Wang, J-P Shi, Y-H Li, W-H Yang, Y-J Tian, J Gao, S-J Li
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the application of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) in screening motor development delay in the follow-up of high-risk infants who were discharged from NICU, to explain the state of infants' motor development and propose early individualized intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study design was a randomized, single-blind trial by selecting patients between April 2015 and November 2015 in our hospital, children nerve recovery branch clinics and 77 cases of high-risk infants...
May 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Parul Christian, Jeongyong Kim, Sucheta Mehra, Saijuddin Shaikh, Hasmot Ali, Abu Ahmed Shamim, Lee Wu, Rolf Klemm, Alain B Labrique, Keith P West
BACKGROUND: Childhood undernutrition may have prenatal origins, and the impact of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth is not well known. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on child growth and cognitive development. DESIGN: In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, prenatal MM supplementation compared with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation was examined for its impact on growth assessed longitudinally from birth up to 24 mo of age (n = 8529) and, in a subsample (n = 734), on cognitive function at 24 mo of age by use of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition test...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ann Hellström, David Ley, Ingrid Hansen-Pupp, Boubou Hallberg, Luca A Ramenghi, Chatarina Löfqvist, Lois E H Smith, Anna-Lena Hård
The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Michael Sorrell, Alvaro Moreira, Kay Green, Rachel Jacobs, Robin Tragus, Laura Keller, Amy Quinn, Donald McCurnin, Alice Gong, Abeer El Sakka, Naveen Mittal, Cynthia Blanco
OBJECTIVES: To study the acute and long-term outcomes of preterm infants treated with an intravenous (IV) fish oil-based lipid emulsion (FishLE) for parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). METHODS: Preterm infants 14 days to 24 months of age with anatomic short gut or severe intestinal dysmotility, serum direct bilirubin ≥4 mg/dL, and requiring >60% calories from PN were eligible. Enrolled infants received 1 g/kg/day of FishLE until resolution of direct hyperbilirubinemia or return of enteral nutrition...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jacqueline F Gould, Amanda J Anderson, Lisa N Yelland, Lisa G Smithers, C Murray Skeaff, Shao J Zhou, Robert A Gibson, Maria Makrides
AIM: The association between foetal vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] exposure and early child growth and neurodevelopment is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cord blood 25(OH)D and birth size, childhood growth and neurodevelopment. METHODS: Cord blood samples from 1040 Australian women enrolled in a randomised trial of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy were analysed for 25(OH)D using mass spectroscopy...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Ming-Wei Chao, Chin-Hua Yang, Po-Ting Lin, Yu-Hsiu Yang, Yu-Chen Chuang, Meng-Chi Chung, Chia-Yi Tseng
PM2.5 travels along the respiratory tract and enters systemic blood circulation. Studies have shown that PM2.5 increases the incidence of various diseases not only in adults but also in newborn infants. It causes chronic inflammation in pregnant women and retards fetal development. In this study, pregnant rats were exposed to PM2.5 for extended periods of time and it was found that PM2.5 exposure increased immune cells in mother rats. In addition, cytokines and free radicals rapidly accumulated in the amniotic fluid and indirectly affected the fetuses...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Damayanti Rusli Sjarif, Klara Yuliarti, Luh Karunia Wahyuni, Tjhin Wiguna, Titis Prawitasari, Yoga Devaera, Henni Wahyu Triyuniati, Andika Afriansyah
BACKGROUND: Sixty percent of the 10.9 million under-5 deaths every year are related to malnutrition. More than two thirds of malnutrition is caused by inappropriate infant feeding practice. Only 35 % of mothers worldwide provide 4 months of exclusive breast-feeding, while complementary feeding is often untimely, nutritionally inadequate, hygienically poor, and improperly delivered. The existing pediatric nutrition module in our institution does not include proper delivery of food that involves oral-motor skills and feeding behavior...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Leen Maes, Alexandra De Kegel, Hilde Van Waelvelde, Els De Leenheer, Helen Van Hoecke, Julie Goderis, Ingeborg Dhooge
OBJECTIVES: Hearing-impaired children are at risk for vestibular damage and delayed motor development. Two major causes of congenital hearing loss are cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and connexin (Cx) 26 mutations. Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function between these specific groups is still underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of congenital (c)CMV and Cx26 on the motor performance and vestibular function in 6 months old infants...
August 8, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Rosario Montirosso, Lorenzo Giusti, Alberto Del Prete, Rinaldo Zanini, Roberto Bellù, Renato Borgatti
BACKGROUNDPreterm birth and NICU stay are early adverse experiences, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) even in absence of prematurity-related morbidities. The aim of this multicenter longitudinal study was to examine the relation between quality levels of NICU Developmental Care (DC) and HRQoL at 60 months in children who were born preterm.METHODSHRQoL of 102 very preterm (VPT) children from 20 NICUs and 110 full-term controls was assessed using TNO-AZL Preschool Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire (TAPQOL)...
August 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
Genevieve Mary Dwyer, Karen Walker, Louise Baur, Nadia Badawi
BACKGROUND: Infants may be at neurodevelopmental risk from adverse events arising in the neonatal period. This study aimed to investigate the developmental outcomes and physical activity behaviours of term infants after neonatal major surgery, at age three years. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled infants who underwent major surgery in their first 90 days, between August 2006 and December 2008. Developmental status was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III)...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
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