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Motor control infant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637335/astrocyte-produced-mir-146a-as-a-mediator-of-motor-neuron-loss-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#1
Samantha L Sison, Teresa N Patitucci, Emily R Seminary, Eric Villalon, Christian L Lorson, Allison D Ebert
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene, which leads to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, respiratory distress, and death. Motor neurons exhibit the most profound loss, but the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron extrinsic influences, such as those arising from astrocytes, contribute to motor neuron malfunction and loss. Here we investigated both loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function astrocyte mechanisms that could play a role in SMA pathology...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626334/effect-of-neuro-development-treatment-on-motor-development-in-preterm-infants
#2
Eun-Ju Lee
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of Neuro-Development Treatment on development in the preterm infants. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 96 premature infants were recruited for this study; 62 low birth weight preterm infants (<2.5 kg, high risk infants for developmental delay) and 34 premature infants (>2.5 kg, low risk infants for developmental delay). High risk infants were divided into intervention group (32 infants) and control group (30 infants) at time of admission. Low risk infants were into comparative group (34 infants)...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625014/comparison-in-executive-function-in-chinese-preterm-and-full-term-infants-at-eight-months
#3
Yao Feng, Hong Zhou, Yan Zhang, Anthony Perkins, Yan Wang, Jing Sun
Executive function (EF) is increasingly recognized as being responsible for adverse developmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. Several perinatal factors may lead to poor EF development in infancy, and the deficits in EF can be identified in infants as young as eight months. A prospective cohort study was designed to study the EF in Chinese preterm infants and examine the relationship between EF in preterm infants and maternal factors during perinatal period. A total of 88 preterm infants and 88 full-term infants were followed from birth to eight months (corrected age)...
June 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615372/preconception-micronutrient-supplementation-with-iron-and-folic-acid-compared-with-folic-acid-alone-affects-linear-growth-and-fine-motor-development-at-2-years-of-age-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-vietnam
#4
Phuong H Nguyen, Ines Gonzalez-Casanova, Melissa F Young, Truong Viet Truong, Hue Hoang, Huong Nguyen, Son Nguyen, Ann M DiGirolamo, Reynaldo Martorell, Usha Ramakrishnan
Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects.Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone.Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606238/-efficacy-of-sleep-position-correction-for-treating-infants-with-positional-plagiocephaly
#5
Yan Wu, Zhi-Feng Wu, Yu-Ping Zhang, Cong-Min Zhao, Xiu-Mei Yu, Wang Yang, Zai-Xin Chen, Qiu-Ming Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of 2-month course of sleeping position correction in the treatment of positional plagiocephaly in infants aged <8 months. METHODS: A total of 73 infants with positional plagiocephaly between January 2015 and June 2016 were divided into treatment group (n=46) and control group (n=27) according to parents' wishes. The treatment group received sleeping position correction, while the control group received sleep curve mattress...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605484/infants-born-preterm-demonstrate-impaired-exploration-of-their-bodies-and-surfaces-throughout-the-first-two-years-of-life
#6
Iryna Babik, James Cole Galloway, Michele A Lobo
Background.: Non-object-oriented exploratory behaviors infants perform with their bodies and surfaces have been proposed to be key precursors of infants' object exploration, early learning, and future cognitive development. Little is known about the developmental trajectories of these behaviors, especially for infants born preterm. Objective.: The purpose of the study was to longitudinally compare non-object-oriented exploratory behaviors performed by full-term and preterm infants...
June 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603509/emerging-trends-in-the-multimodal-nature-of-cognition-touch-and-handedness
#7
REVIEW
Miriam Ittyerah
Advances in tactile cognition and haptics have increased our understanding of the multimodal nature of touch. Haptic data is mostly confined to human performance arising from the flexibility and dexterity of the fingers used to discriminate shapes and objects. Studies with infants indicate that recognition of objects either seen or held in the hand is possible during early periods of infancy. Evidence indicates performance differences between the hands decrease over periods of development, reflecting maturation of the cortical brain system supporting motor skills...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585371/influences-of-early-child-nutritional-status-and-home-learning-environment-on-child-development-in-vietnam
#8
Phuong H Nguyen, Ann M DiGirolamo, Ines Gonzalez-Casanova, Melissa Young, Nicole Kim, Son Nguyen, Reynaldo Martorell, Usha Ramakrishnan
Early childhood development plays a key role in a child's future health, educational success, and economic status. However, suboptimal early development remains a global challenge. This study examines the influences of quality of the home learning environment (HOME) and child stunting in the first year of life on child development. We used data collected from a randomized controlled trial of preconceptional micronutrient supplementation in Vietnam (n = 1,458). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were used to assess cognition, language, and motor development domains at 2 years...
June 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582882/pediatric-feeding-and-swallowing-rehabilitation-an-overview
#9
Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Celia Harding, Marjo van Gerven, Helen Cockerill
Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557747/supplemental-iodide-for-preterm-infants-and-developmental-outcomes-at-2-years-an-rct
#10
Fiona L R Williams, Simon Ogston, Robert Hume, Jennifer Watson, Kayleigh Stanbury, Peter Willatts, Anita Boelen, Edmund Juszczak, Peter Brocklehurst
BACKGROUND: The recommendation for enteral iodide intake for preterm infants is 30 to 40 μg/kg per day and 1 μg/kg per day for parenteral intake. Preterm infants are vulnerable to iodide insufficiency and thyroid dysfunction. The hypothesis tested whether, compared with placebo, iodide supplementation of preterm infants improves neurodevelopment. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of iodide supplementation versus placebo in infants <31 weeks' gestation...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506665/motor-development-of-preterm-infants-assessed-by-the-alberta-infant-motor-scale-systematic-review-article
#11
REVIEW
Rubia do N Fuentefria, Rita C Silveira, Renato S Procianoy
OBJECTIVE: Premature newborns are considered at risk for motor development deficits, leading to the need for monitoring in early life. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature about gross motor development of preterm infants, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to identify the main outcomes in development. DATA SOURCE: Systematic review of studies published from 2006 to 2015, indexed in Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, and Medline databases in English and Portuguese...
May 12, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471442/an-antenatal-marker-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease
#12
S Siddiqui, W P Fifer, M Ordonez-Retamar, J D Nugent, I A Williams
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposures are known to alter fetal neurodevelopment and autonomic control. We aimed to explore the correlation between fetal autonomic activity, measured by fetal heart rate variability, and 18-month developmental outcome in subjects with congenital heart disease. STUDY DESIGN: From 2010 to 2013, 5 fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, 9 with transposition of the great arteries and 9 with tetralogy of Fallot were included in this prospective cohort study...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458148/postural-control-strategies-differ-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-infants
#13
Danae Dinkel, Kailey Snyder, Victoria Molfese, Anastasia Kyvelidou
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests obesity can have a negative influence on a child's motor development and postural control behavior. Little research has examined the impact of infant weight on gross motor behavior, particularly postural control at the onset of sitting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal weight and overweight infants differed in their postural control strategies at the onset of sitting and one-month post onset of sitting...
April 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452420/neurobehavioural-and-cognitive-development-in-infants-born-to-mothers-with-eating-disorders
#14
M Barona, E Taborelli, F Corfield, S Pawlby, A Easter, U Schmidt, J Treasure, N Micali
INTRODUCTION: Although recent research has focused on the effects of maternal eating disorders (EDs) on children, little is known about the effect of maternal EDs on neurobiological outcomes in newborns and infants. This study is the first to investigate neurobehavioural regulation and cognitive development in newborns and infants of mothers with EDs. METHODS: Women with an active and past ED and healthy controls were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study during their first trimester or second trimester of pregnancy...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437326/favorable-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-with-parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-treated-with-intravenous-fish-oil-based-lipid-emulsion
#15
Michael Sorrell, Alvaro Moreira, Kay Green, Rachel Jacob, Robin Tragus, Laura Keller, Amy Quinn, Donald McCurnin, Alice Gong, Abeer El Sakka, Naveen Mittal, Cynthia Blanco
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the acute and long-term outcomes of preterm infants treated with an intravenous fish oil-based lipid emulsion (FishLE) for parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). METHODS: Preterm infants 14 days to 24 months of age with anatomic short gut or severe intestinal dysmotility, serum direct bilirubin ≥4 mg/dL, and requiring >60% calories from parenteral nutrition were eligible. Enrolled infants received 1 g · kg · day of FishLE until resolution of direct hyperbilirubinemia or return of enteral nutrition...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395175/oxygen-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-perinatal-period
#17
REVIEW
Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Anna Parra-Llorca, Angel Sánchez-Illana, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Julia Kuligowski, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás, María Cernada, Justo Escobar, Máximo Vento
Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes. In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#18
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388290/the-role-of-postural-support-in-young-adults-control-of-stationary-kicking
#19
Ben Sidaway, Matthew Bouchard, Julie Chasse, Jonathan Dunn, Andrea Govoni, Breanne McPherson, Katherine Roy, David I Anderson
PURPOSE: The requirement for postural stability during the performance of motor skills has been clearly demonstrated in infants, but the necessity for such a postural substrate is not well documented in adults. The present study investigated the role of postural stability during a ballistic ball-kicking task in adults by providing varying degrees of external postural support. METHOD: In the 1st experiment, 30 participants performed 20 maximal-velocity kicks under each of 3 conditions: grasping a rigid stable handle, light fingertip touch, and grasping a suspended elastic tube...
June 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362900/the-davida-teller-award-lecture-2016-visual-brain-development-a-review-of-dorsal-stream-vulnerability-motion-mathematics-amblyopia-actions-and-attention
#20
Janette Atkinson
Research in the Visual Development Unit on "dorsal stream vulnerability' (DSV) arose from research in two somewhat different areas. In the first, using cortical milestones for local and global processing from our neurobiological model, we identified cerebral visual impairment in infants in the first year of life. In the second, using photo/videorefraction in population refractive screening programs, we showed that infant spectacle wear could reduce the incidence of strabismus and amblyopia, but many preschool children, who had been significantly hyperopic earlier, showed visuo-motor and attentional deficits...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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