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Motor control infant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910162/corpus-callosum-and-cerebellar-vermis-size-in-very-preterm-infants-relationship-to-long-term-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#1
Po-Ming Wu, Hsin-I Shih, Wen-Hao Yu, Li-Wen Chen, Lie-Chuan Wang, Chao-Ching Huang, Yi-Fang Tu
BACKGROUND: The neonatal changes of corpus callosum or cerebellar volume in preterm infants have been shown to link with abnormal mentality and motor disability in early childhood. This study aims to predict the long-term neurological outcomes by measuring these changes on neonatal brain ultrasound in preterm infants. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of infants aged below 32 weeks' gestation with very low birth body weights who completed neuro-assessments at 5 years of age...
June 1, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905916/epidemiological-trends-of-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-in-puerto-rico-from-november-10th-2006-through-may-24th-2011
#2
Ricardo H Brau, Yaritza Acevedo-Salas, Katya Giovannetti
OBJECTIVE: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), injury to the central nervous system (CNS) continues to be a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US today. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed to determine the incidence of all traumatic CNS injuries. Descriptive variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Quantitative variables were expressed as means and averages (plus/minus standard deviation); bivariate cross-tabulation and multiple regression analyses were employed to identify risk factors and compare epidemiological patterns of injury related variables...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904916/postural-control-during-reaching-while-sitting-and-general-motor-behaviour-when-learning-to-walk
#3
Anke G Boxum, Sacha La Bastide-Van Gemert, Linze-Jaap Dijkstra, Anna Furda, Heleen A Reinders-Messelink, Mijna Hadders-Algra
AIM: To study changes in muscular postural strategies and general motor behaviour during the transition to independent walking. Postural control was assessed at its two functional levels: (1) direction specificity, in which dorsal muscles are primarily activated when reaching forward; and (2) fine-tuning of direction specificity. METHOD: In an explorative longitudinal study, surface electromyograms of the arm, trunk, and neck muscles of 28 typically developing infants were recorded during reaching while sitting...
June 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901788/somatotopic-mapping-of-the-developing-sensorimotor-cortex-in-the-preterm-human-brain
#4
S Dall'Orso, J Steinweg, A G Allievi, A D Edwards, E Burdet, T Arichi
In the mature mammalian brain, the primary somatosensory and motor cortices are known to be spatially organized such that neural activity relating to specific body parts can be somatopically mapped onto an anatomical "homunculus". This organization creates an internal body representation which is fundamental for precise motor control, spatial awareness and social interaction. Although it is unknown when this organization develops in humans, animal studies suggest that it may emerge even before the time of normal birth...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887609/reduced-oxygen-concentration-for-the-resuscitation-of-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#5
John S Riley, Ryan M Antiel, Natalie E Rintoul, Anne M Ades, Lindsay N Waqar, Nan Lin, Lisa M Herkert, Jo Ann D'Agostino, Casey Hoffman, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake, N Scott Adzick, Holly L Hedrick
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can be safely resuscitated with a reduced starting fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) of 0.5. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study comparing 68 patients resuscitated with starting FiO2 0.5 to 45 historical controls resuscitated with starting FiO2 1.0. RESULTS: Reduced starting FiO2 had no adverse effect upon survival, duration of intubation, need for ECMO, duration of ECMO, or time to surgery...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876271/regional-microstructural-organization-of-the-cerebral-cortex-is-affected-by-preterm-birth
#6
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Marie Brossard-Racine, Marni Jacobs, Jonathan Murnick, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
Objectives: To compare regional cerebral cortical microstructural organization between preterm infants at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns, and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on cerebral cortical micro-organization in the preterm cohort. Study design: We prospectively enrolled very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) at birth<32 weeks; birthweight<1500 g) and healthy full-term controls. Using non-invasive 3T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, we quantified regional micro-organization in ten cerebral cortical areas: medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, motor/somatosensory/auditory/visual cortex...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875649/fetal-origin-of-sensorimotor-behavior
#7
Jaqueline Fagard, Rana Esseily, Lisa Jacquey, Kevin O'Regan, Eszter Somogyi
The aim of this article is to track the fetal origin of infants' sensorimotor behavior. We consider development as the self-organizing emergence of complex forms from spontaneously generated activity, governed by the innate capacity to detect and memorize the consequences of spontaneous activity (contingencies), and constrained by the sensory and motor maturation of the body. In support of this view, we show how observations on fetuses and also several fetal experiments suggest that the fetus's first motor activity allows it to feel the space around it and to feel its body and the consequences of its movements on its body...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843051/kangaroo-mother-care-and-infant-biopsychosocial-outcomes-in-the-first-year-a-meta-analysis
#8
Emis Akbari, Noam Binnoon-Erez, Michelle Rodrigues, Alessandro Ricci, Juliane Schneider, Sheri Madigan, Jennifer Jenkins
AIM: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between KMC and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE in Process (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), and AMED (OvidSP) were searched. Observational studies and randomized control trials through October 2015 that investigated the association between KMC intervention and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes were included. Studies with <10 participants, those using skin-to-skin only during painful procedures or only on the day of birth, and those that did not report quantitative outcomes were excluded...
May 26, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806081/nutritional-intervention-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-newborn-infants-at-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-impairment-the-dolphin-neonatal-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Morag J Andrew, Jeremy R Parr, Christine Montague-Johnson, Karen Laler, Jane Holmes, Bonny Baker, Peter B Sullivan
AIM: To investigate whether neonates at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment have improved neurodevelopment after docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and uridine-5-monophosphate supplementation versus controls. METHOD: Recruitment was from UK neonatal units. Eligible for inclusion were infants born at less than 31 weeks' gestation with a weight less than the ninth centile; infants born at less than 31 weeks' gestation with a grade II or higher intraventricular haemorrhage/preterm white matter injury; infants born between 31 weeks' and 40 weeks' gestation plus 28 days with a grade II or higher intraventricular haemorrhage/preterm white matter injury, moderate or severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, or defined neuroimaging abnormalities...
May 27, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804059/assessing-whether-early-attention-of-very-preterm-infants-can-be-improved-by-an-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-intervention-a-follow-up-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Jacqueline F Gould, John Colombo, Carmel T Collins, Maria Makrides, Erandi Hewawasam, Lisa G Smithers
INTRODUCTION: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the frontal lobes (responsible for higher-order cognitive skills) of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born preterm miss some of this in utero provision of DHA, and have an increased risk of suboptimal neurodevelopment. It is thought that supplementing infants born preterm with DHA may improve developmental outcomes. The aim of this follow-up is to determine whether DHA supplementation in infants born preterm can improve areas of the brain associated with frontal lobe function, namely attention and distractibility...
May 26, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797280/touch-the-table-before-the-target-contact-with-an-underlying-surface-may-assist-the-development-of-precise-visually-controlled-reach-and-grasp-movements-in-human-infants
#11
Jenni M Karl, Alexis M Wilson, Marisa E Bertoli, Noor S Shubear
Multiple motor channel theory posits that skilled hand movements arise from the coordinated activation of separable neural circuits in parietofrontal cortex, each of which produces a distinct movement and responds to different sensory inputs. Prehension, the act of reaching to grasp an object, consists of at least two movements: a reach movement that transports the hand to a target location and a grasp movement that shapes and closes the hand for target acquisition. During early development, discrete pre-reach and pre-grasp movements are refined based on proprioceptive and tactile feedback, but are gradually coordinated together into a singular hand preshaping movement under feedforward visual control...
May 24, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795315/association-between-sedation-analgesia-and-neurodevelopment-outcomes-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#12
Girija Natarajan, Seetha Shankaran, Abbot R Laptook, Scott A McDonald, Athina Pappas, Susan R Hintz, Abhik Das
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between sedation-analgesia (SA) during initial 72 h and death/disability at 18 months of age in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of the NICHD therapeutic hypothermia (TH) randomized controlled trial in moderate or severe HIE. Receipt of SA and anticonvulsant medications at five time points were considered: prior to and at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h of TH or normothermia...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792885/effects-of-vasopressin-on-neural-processing-of-infant-crying-in-expectant-fathers
#13
Sandra Thijssen, Anna E Van 't Veer, Jurriaan Witteman, Willemijn M Meijer, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the effect of 20 IU intranasal vasopressin on the neural processing of infant crying in 25 fathers-to-be. We explored whether familial background modulates vasopressin effects, and whether vasopressin differentially affects cry processing coupled with neutral or emotional contextual information. Participants listened to cries accompanied by neutral ('this is an infant') or emotional ('this infant is sick/bored') contextual information, and neutral control sounds ('this is a saw')...
May 21, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782546/chronic-use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-breastfeeding-women-is-it-safe
#14
Nirit Kronenfeld, Tomer Ziv Baran, Maya Berlin, Nour Karra, Natalie Dinavitser, Rana Cohen, Yifat Wiener, Eyal Schwartzberg, Matitiahu Bercovitch
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge regarding chronic use of psychotropic medications during breastfeeding is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of psychotropic monotherapy use during lactation on the breastfed infant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we followed 280 infants whose mothers contacted the Drug Consultation Center (DCC) at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center between January 2011 and December 2015, seeking information regarding the chronic use of psychotropic medications during lactation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781504/epidural-versus-non-epidural-or-no-analgesia-for-pain-management-in-labour
#15
REVIEW
Millicent Anim-Somuah, Rebecca Md Smyth, Allan M Cyna, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia is a central nerve block technique achieved by injection of a local anaesthetic close to the nerves that transmit pain, and is widely used as a form of pain relief in labour. However, there are concerns about unintended adverse effects on the mother and infant. This is an update of an existing Cochrane Review (Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour), last published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of all types of epidural analgesia, including combined-spinal-epidural (CSE) on the mother and the baby, when compared with non-epidural or no pain relief during labour...
May 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#16
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767802/sitting-together-and-reaching-to-play-start-play-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-efficacy-trial-on-intervention-for-infants-with-neuromotor-disorders
#17
Regina T Harbourne, Stacey C Dusing, Michele A Lobo, Sarah Westcott-McCoy, James Bovaird, Susan Sheridan, James C Galloway, Hui-Ju Chang, Lin-Ya Hsu, Natalie Koziol, Emily C Marcinowski, Iryna Babik
Background: There is limited research examining the efficacy of early physical therapy on infants with neuromotor dysfunction. In addition, most early motor interventions have not been directly linked to learning, despite the clear association between motor activity and cognition during infancy. Objective: The aim of this project is to evaluate the efficacy of Sitting Together And Reaching To Play (START-Play), an intervention designed to target sitting, reaching, and motor-based problem solving to advance global development in infants with motor delays or neuromotor dysfunction...
June 1, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766496/infant-motor-development-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-synthesis-and-meta-analysis
#18
Kelsey L West
Studies of infant motor development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased in recent years. This article synthesized this literature through meta-analysis to assess (a) whether infant motor ability differs in ASD relative to neurotypical controls; and (b) whether motor ability and communication are related in infants with ASD. Study 1 aggregated data from 1,953 infants with ASD (ages 3.0-42.0 months), and Study 2 included 890 infants with ASD (age 6.0-42.9 months). Study 1 revealed that infant motor ability differed significantly in ASD compared with neurotypical infants-this difference was robust to variation in measurement and design...
May 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763437/postnatal-colonization-with-human-infant-type-bifidobacterium-species-alters-behavior-of-adult-gnotobiotic-mice
#19
Berkley Luk, Surabi Veeraragavan, Melinda Engevik, Miriam Balderas, Angela Major, Jessica Runge, Ruth Ann Luna, James Versalovic
Accumulating studies have defined a role for the intestinal microbiota in modulation of host behavior. Research using gnotobiotic mice emphasizes that early microbial colonization with a complex microbiota (conventionalization) can rescue some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in mice that grow to adulthood completely devoid of bacteria (germ-free mice). However, the human infant and adult microbiomes vary greatly, and effects of the neonatal microbiome on neurodevelopment are currently not well understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760105/triplets-birthweight-and-handedness
#20
Kauko Heikkilä, Catharina E M Van Beijsterveldt, Jari Haukka, Matti Iivanainen, Aulikki Saari-Kemppainen, Karri Silventoinen, Dorret I Boomsma, Yoshie Yokoyama, Eero Vuoksimaa
The mechanisms behind handedness formation in humans are still poorly understood. Very low birthweight is associated with higher odds of left-handedness, but whether this is due to low birthweight itself or premature birth is unknown. Handedness has also been linked to development, but the role of birthweight behind this association is unclear. Knowing that birthweight is lower in multiple births, triplets being about 1.5 kg lighter in comparison with singletons, and that multiples have a higher prevalence of left-handedness than singletons, we studied the association between birthweight and handedness in two large samples consisting exclusively of triplets from Japan ( n = 1,305) and the Netherlands ( n = 947)...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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