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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527697/antibiotics-induce-mitonuclear-protein-imbalance-but-fail-to-inhibit-respiration-and-nutrient-activation-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#1
Jaime Santo-Domingo, Isabelle Chareyron, Charlotte Broenimann, Steve Lassueur, Andreas Wiederkehr
Chloramphenicol and several other antibiotics targeting bacterial ribosomes inhibit mitochondrial protein translation. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis leads to mitonuclear protein imbalance and reduced respiratory rates as confirmed here in HeLa and PC12 cells. Unexpectedly, respiration in INS-1E insulinoma cells and primary human islets was unaltered in the presence of chloramphenicol. Resting respiratory rates and glucose stimulated acceleration of respiration were also not lowered when a range of antibiotics including, thiamphenicol, streptomycin, gentamycin and doxycycline known to interfere with bacterial protein synthesis were tested...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526948/an-innovative-strategy-to-clone-positive-modifier-genes-of-defects-caused-by-mtdna-mutations-mrps18c-as-suppressor-gene-of-m-3946g-a-mutation-in-mt-nd1-gene
#2
María Elena Rodríguez-García, Francisco Javier Cotrina-Vinagre, Patricia Carnicero-Rodríguez, Francisco Martínez-Azorín
We have developed a new functional complementation approach to clone modifier genes which overexpression is able to suppress the biochemical defects caused by mtDNA mutations (suppressor genes). This strategy consists in transferring human genes into respiratory chain-deficient fibroblasts, followed by a metabolic selection in a highly selective medium. We used a normalized expression cDNA library in an episomal vector (pREP4) to transfect the fibroblasts, and a medium with glutamine and devoid of any carbohydrate source to select metabolically...
May 19, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525980/the-distribution-of-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroup-h-in-southern-iberia-indicates-ancient-human-genetic-exchanges-along-the-western-edge-of-the-mediterranean
#3
Candela L Hernández, Jean M Dugoujon, Andrea Novelletto, Juan N Rodríguez, Pedro Cuesta, Rosario Calderón
BACKGROUND: The structure of haplogroup H reveals significant differences between the western and eastern edges of the Mediterranean, as well as between the northern and southern regions. Human populations along the westernmost Mediterranean coasts, which were settled by individuals from two continents separated by a relatively narrow body of water, show the highest frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroup H. These characteristics permit the analysis of ancient migrations between both shores, which may have occurred via primitive sea crafts and early seafaring...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524717/first-molecular-evidence-of-mus-musculus-bactrianus-in-nepal-inferred-from-the-mitochondrial-dna-cytochrome-b-gene-sequences
#4
Pradeep Adhikari, Sang-Hyun Han, Yoo-Kyung Kim, Tae-Wook Kim, Tej Bahadur Thapa, Naresh Subedi, Prabhat Adhikari, Hong-Shik Oh
To identify the house mice collected in Pokhara and Lumbini of Nepal at the subspecies level, morphological and molecular analyses were carried out. Morphologically, two populations collected in Pokhara and Lumbini were distinguished by fur colour, but there was no significant difference in external measurements (p > .05). The phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the haplotypes sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cytochrome B (CytB) gene distinguished into two distinct clades on a phylogenetic tree representing two subspecies, Mus musculus bactrianus and M...
May 19, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511992/rna-seq-analyses-reveal-that-cervical-spinal-cords-and-anterior-motor-neurons-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-subjects-show-reduced-expression-of-mitochondrial-dna-encoded-respiratory-genes-and-rhtfam-may-correct-this-respiratory-deficiency
#5
Amy C Ladd, David G Brohawn, Ravindar R Thomas, Paula M Keeney, Stuart S Berr, Shaharyar M Khan, Francisco R Portell, Meiram Zh Shakenov, Patrick F Antkowiak, Bijoy Kundu, Nicholas Tustison, James P Bennett
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a generally fatal neurodegenerative disease of adults that produces weakness and atrophy due to dysfunction and death of upper and lower motor neurons. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze expression of all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded respiratory genes in ALS and CTL human cervical spinal cords (hCSC) and isolated motor neurons. We analyzed with RNA-seq mtDNA gene expression in human neural stem cells (hNSC) exposed to recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), visualized in 3-dimensions clustered gene networks activated by rhTFAM, quantitated their interactions with other genes and determined their gene ontology (GO) families...
May 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511886/numtogenesis-as-a-mechanism-for-development-of-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Keshav K Singh, Aaheli Roy Choudhury, Hemant K Tiwari
Transfer of genetic material from cytoplasmic organelles to the nucleus, an ongoing process, has implications in evolution, aging, and human pathologies such as cancer. The transferred mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments in the nuclear genome are called nuclear mtDNA or NUMTs. We have named the process numtogenesis, defining the term as the transfer of mtDNA into the nuclear genome, or, less specifically, the transfer of mitochondria or mitochondrial components into the nucleus. There is increasing evidence of the involvement of NUMTs in human biology and pathology...
May 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508084/clinicopathologic-and-molecular-spectrum-of-rnaseh1-related-mitochondrial-disease
#7
Enrico Bugiardini, Olivia V Poole, Andreea Manole, Alan M Pittman, Alejandro Horga, Iain Hargreaves, Cathy E Woodward, Mary G Sweeney, Janice L Holton, Jan-Willem Taanman, Gordon T Plant, Joanna Poulton, Massimo Zeviani, Daniele Ghezzi, John Taylor, Conrad Smith, Carl Fratter, Meena A Kanikannan, Arumugam Paramasivam, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Antonella Spinazzola, Ian J Holt, Henry Houlden, Michael G Hanna, Robert D S Pitceathly
OBJECTIVE: Pathologic ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) causes aberrant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation and is associated with multiple mtDNA deletions. We aimed to determine the prevalence of RNase H1 gene (RNASEH1) mutations among patients with mitochondrial disease and establish clinically meaningful genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: RNASEH1 was analyzed in patients with (1) multiple deletions/depletion of muscle mtDNA and (2) mendelian progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) with neuropathologic evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, but no detectable multiple deletions/depletion of muscle mtDNA...
June 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506826/an-x-chromosome-linked-mouse-model-ndufa1-s55a-for-systemic-partial-complex-i-deficiency-for-studying-predisposition-to-neurodegeneration-and-other-diseases
#8
Chul Kim, Prasanth Potluri, Ahmed Khalil, Daria Gaut, Meagan McManus, Shannon Compton, Douglas C Wallace, Nagendra Yadava
The respiratory chain Complex I deficiencies are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases. Complex I biogenesis is controlled by 58 genes and at least 47 of these cause mitochondrial disease in humans. Two of these are X-chromosome linked nuclear (nDNA) genes (NDUFA1 and NDUFB11), and 7 are mitochondrial (mtDNA, MT-ND1-6, 4L) genes, which may be responsible for sex-dependent variation in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. In this study, we describe an X-chromosome linked mouse model (Ndufa1(S55A)) for systemic partial Complex I deficiency...
May 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484394/mitochondrial-dna-mutations-in-grade-ii-and-iii-glioma-cell-lines-are-associated-with-significant-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-higher-oxidative-stress
#9
Bee Hong Soon, Nor Azian Abdul Murad, Sue-Mian Then, Azizi Abu Bakar, Farizal Fadzil, Jegan Thanabalan, Mohd S Mohd Haspani, Charng Jeng Toh, Azmi Mohd Tamil, Roslan Harun, Wan Z Wan Ngah, Rahman Jamal
The role of mitochondria in tumorigenesis has regained much attention as it could dysregulate cellular energetics, oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, the role of mitochondria in different grade gliomasis still unknown. This study aimed to identify mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations that could possibly affect the mitochondrial functions and also the oxidative stress status. Three different grades of human glioma cell lines and a normal human astrocyte cell line were cultured in-vitro and tested for oxidative stress biomarkers...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479995/genetic-structure-among-greater-white-fronted-goose-populations-of-the-pacific-flyway
#10
Craig R Ely, Robert E Wilson, Sandra L Talbot
An understanding of the genetic structure of populations in the wild is essential for long-term conservation and stewardship in the face of environmental change. Knowledge of the present-day distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) of a species is especially important for organisms that are exploited or utilize habitats that may be jeopardized by human intervention, including climate change. Here, we describe mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genetic (microsatellite) diversity among three populations of a migratory bird, the greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), which breeds discontinuously in western and southwestern Alaska and winters in the Pacific Flyway of North America...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467301/introduction-of-a-male-harming-mitochondrial-haplotype-via-trojan-females-achieves-population-suppression-in-fruit-flies
#11
Jonci Nikolai Wolff, Neil J Gemmell, Daniel M Tompkins, Damian K Dowling
Pests are a global threat to biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human health. Pest control approaches are thus numerous, but their implementation costly, damaging to non-target species, and ineffective at low population densities. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) is a prospective self-perpetuating control technique that is species-specific and predicted to be effective at low densities. The goal of the TFT is to harness naturally-occurring mutations in the mitochondrial genome that impair male fertility while having no effect on females...
May 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456662/new-mitogenome-and-nuclear-evidence-on-the-phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-the-highly-zoonotic-tapeworm-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto
#12
Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Vanessa Andresiuk, Sami Simsek, Antti Lavikainen, Malik Irshadullah, Gérald Umhang, Myriam Oudni-M'rad, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Steffen Rehbein, Urmas Saarma
Cystic echinococcosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), is a significant global public health concern. Echinococcus granulosus s. l. is currently divided into numerous genotypes (G1-G8 and G10) of which G1-G3 are the most frequently implicated genotypes in human infections. Although it has been suggested that G1-G3 could be regarded as a distinct species E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.), the evidence to support this is inconclusive. Most importantly, data from nuclear DNA that provide means to investigate the exchange of genetic material between G1-G3 is lacking as none of the published nuclear DNA studies have explicitly included G2 or G3...
April 27, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456571/erythropoietin-activates-sirt1-to-protect-human-cardiomyocytes-against-doxorubicin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-toxicity
#13
Lan Cui, Jiabin Guo, Qiang Zhang, Jian Yin, Jin Li, Wei Zhou, Tingfen Zhang, Haitao Yuan, Jun Zhao, Li Zhang, Paul L Carmichael, Shuangqing Peng
The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to protect against chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. We hypothesized that silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), plays a crucial role in regulating mitochondrial function and mediating the beneficial effect of EPO. Our study in human cardiomyocyte AC16 cells showed that DOX-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, as manifested by decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased mitochondrial superoxide accumulation, can be mitigated by EPO pretreatment...
April 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453550/selective-mitochondrial-dna-degradation-following-double-strand-breaks
#14
Amandine Moretton, Frédéric Morel, Bertil Macao, Philippe Lachaume, Layal Ishak, Mathilde Lefebvre, Isabelle Garreau-Balandier, Patrick Vernet, Maria Falkenberg, Géraldine Farge
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can undergo double-strand breaks (DSBs), caused by defective replication, or by various endogenous or exogenous sources, such as reactive oxygen species, chemotherapeutic agents or ionizing radiations. MtDNA encodes for proteins involved in ATP production, and maintenance of genome integrity following DSBs is thus of crucial importance. However, the mechanisms involved in mtDNA maintenance after DSBs remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the production of mtDNA DSBs using a human inducible cell system expressing the restriction enzyme PstI targeted to mitochondria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453513/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-diptera-glossinidae-in-northern-uganda-implications-for-vector-control
#15
Robert Opiro, Norah P Saarman, Richard Echodu, Elizabeth A Opiyo, Kirstin Dion, Alexis Halyard, Augustine W Dunn, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Uganda is the only country where the chronic and acute forms of human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness both occur and are separated by < 100 km in areas north of Lake Kyoga. In Uganda, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of the Trypanosoma parasites responsible for these diseases as well for the animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT), or Nagana. We used highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker to provide fine scale spatial resolution of genetic structure of G...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444389/smithrnas-could-mitochondria-bend-nuclear-regulation
#16
Andrea Pozzi, Federico Plazzi, Liliana Milani, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Marco Passamonti
Typically, animal mitochondria have very compact genomes, with few short intergenic regions, and no introns. Hence, it may seem that there is little space for unknown functions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, mtDNA can also operate through RNA interference, as small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) produced by mtDNA have already been proposed for humans. We sequenced sncRNA libraries from isolated mitochondria of Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca Bivalvia) gonads, a species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (DUI), and identified several putative sncRNAs of mitochondrial origin...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444329/the-eye-drop-preservative-benzalkonium-chloride-potently-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-preferentially-affects-lhon-mutant-cells
#17
Sandipan Datta, Christophe Baudouin, Francoise Brignole-Baudouin, Alexandre Denoyer, Gino A Cortopassi
Purpose: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Method: Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426424/cdna-library-construction-of-two-human-demodexspecies
#18
DongLing Niu, RuiLing Wang, YaE Zhao, Rui Yang, Li Hu, YuYang Lei, WeiChao Dan
The research of Demodex, a type of pathogen causing various dermatoses in animals and human beings, is lacking at RNA level. This study aims at extracting RNA and constructing cDNA library for Demodex. First, P. cuniculiand D. farinaewere mixed to establish homogenization method for RNA extraction. Second, D. folliculorumand D. breviswere collected and preserved in Trizol, which were mixed with D. farinaerespectively to extract RNA. Finally, cDNA library was constructed and its quality was assessed. The results indicated that for D...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425971/%C3%AF-%C3%A2-cells-feature-de-ubiquitination-of-slc-transporters-and-increased-levels-and-fluxes-of-amino-acids
#19
André Bordinassi Medina, Marcin Banaszczak, Yang Ni, Ina Aretz, David Meierhofer
Solute carrier (SLC) transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ⁰ cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) compared to parental cells...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425438/mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-peripheral-blood-cell-and-hypertension-risk-among-mining-workers-a-case-control-study-in-chinese-coal-miners
#20
L Lei, J Guo, X Shi, G Zhang, H Kang, C Sun, J Huang, T Wang
Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
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