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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444389/smithrnas-could-mitochondria-bend-nuclear-regulation
#1
Andrea Pozzi, Federico Plazzi, Liliana Milani, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Marco Passamonti
Typically, animal mitochondria have very compact genomes, with few short intergenic regions, and no introns. Hence, it may seem that there is little space for unknown functions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, mtDNA can also operate through RNA interference, as small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) produced by mtDNA have already been proposed for humans. We sequenced sncRNA libraries from isolated mitochondria of Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca Bivalvia) gonads, a species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (DUI), and identified several putative sncRNAs of mitochondrial origin...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444329/the-eye-drop-preservative-benzalkonium-chloride-potently-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-preferentially-affects-lhon-mutant-cells
#2
Sandipan Datta, Christophe Baudouin, Francoise Brignole-Baudouin, Alexandre Denoyer, Gino A Cortopassi
Purpose: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Method: Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426424/cdna-library-construction-of-two-human-demodexspecies
#3
DongLing Niu, RuiLing Wang, YaE Zhao, Rui Yang, Li Hu, YuYang Lei, WeiChao Dan
The research of Demodex, a type of pathogen causing various dermatoses in animals and human beings, is lacking at RNA level. This study aims at extracting RNA and constructing cDNA library for Demodex. First, P. cuniculiand D. farinaewere mixed to establish homogenization method for RNA extraction. Second, D. folliculorumand D. breviswere collected and preserved in Trizol, which were mixed with D. farinaerespectively to extract RNA. Finally, cDNA library was constructed and its quality was assessed. The results indicated that for D...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425971/%C3%AF-%C3%A2-cells-feature-de-ubiquitination-of-slc-transporters-and-increased-levels-and-fluxes-of-amino-acids
#4
André Bordinassi Medina, Marcin Banaszczak, Yang Ni, Ina Aretz, David Meierhofer
Solute carrier (SLC) transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ⁰ cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) compared to parental cells...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425438/mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-peripheral-blood-cell-and-hypertension-risk-among-mining-workers-a-case-control-study-in-chinese-coal-miners
#5
L Lei, J Guo, X Shi, G Zhang, H Kang, C Sun, J Huang, T Wang
Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413933/primer-in-genetics-and-genomics-article-3-explaining-human-diversity-the-role-of-dna
#6
Catherine Y Read
Genetic variation lays the foundation for diversity and enables humans to adapt to changing environments. The order of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules of the nuclear chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays an important role in normal cell division, tissue development, and reproduction but is susceptible to alteration from a large number of random, inherited, or environmental events. Variations can range from a change in a single nucleotide to duplication of entire chromosomes...
May 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407867/the-relationship-between-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-stallion-sperm-function
#7
Christa R Darr, Luis E Moraes, Richard E Connon, Charles C Love, Sheila Teague, Dickson D Varner, Stuart A Meyers
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number has been utilized as a measure of sperm quality in several species including mice, dogs, and humans, and has been suggested as a potential biomarker of fertility in stallion sperm. The results of the present study extend this recent discovery using sperm samples from American Quarter Horse stallions of varying age. By determining copy number of three mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4), instead of a single gene, we demonstrate an improved understanding of mtDNA fate in stallion sperm mitochondria following spermatogenesis...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391756/problems-in-mitochondrial-dna-forensics-while-interpreting-length-heteroplasmy-conundrum-of-various-sindhi-and-baluchi-ethnic-groups-of-pakistan
#8
Shahzad Bhatti, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Sana Abbas, Marcella Attimonelli, Gerardo Rodriguez Gonzalez, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Erica Martinha Silva de Souza
The insight heterodox genetics of mtDNA infer new perspectives at the level of human mitochondrial control region heteroplasmy, which is substantial in evolutionary as well as forensic interpretation. The main goal of this study is to interrogate the recurrence and resolve the ambiguity of blurry spectrum of heteroplasmy in the human mtDNA control region of 50 Baluchi and 116 Sindhi unrelated individuals. Sanger sequencing was employed classically, that was further investigated by minisequencing. Only 20% Baluchi and 25...
April 9, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377575/the-role-of-lon-mediated-proteolysis-in-the-dynamics-of-mitochondrial-nucleic-acid-protein-complexes
#9
Nina Kunová, Gabriela Ondrovičová, Jacob A Bauer, Jana Bellová, Ľuboš Ambro, Lucia Martináková, Veronika Kotrasová, Eva Kutejová, Vladimír Pevala
Mitochondrial nucleoids consist of several different groups of proteins, many of which are involved in essential cellular processes such as the replication, repair and transcription of the mitochondrial genome. The eukaryotic, ATP-dependent protease Lon is found within the central nucleoid region, though little is presently known about its role there. Aside from its association with mitochondrial nucleoids, human Lon also specifically interacts with RNA. Recently, Lon was shown to regulate TFAM, the most abundant mtDNA structural factor in human mitochondria...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377518/ancient-individuals-from-the-north-american-northwest-coast-reveal-10-000-years-of-regional-genetic-continuity
#10
John Lindo, Alessandro Achilli, Ugo A Perego, David Archer, Cristina Valdiosera, Barbara Petzelt, Joycelynn Mitchell, Rosita Worl, E James Dixon, Terence E Fifield, Morten Rasmussen, Eske Willerslev, Jerome S Cybulski, Brian M Kemp, Michael DeGiorgio, Ripan S Malhi
Recent genomic studies of both ancient and modern indigenous people of the Americas have shed light on the demographic processes involved during the first peopling. The Pacific Northwest Coast proves an intriguing focus for these studies because of its association with coastal migration models and genetic ancestral patterns that are difficult to reconcile with modern DNA alone. Here, we report the low-coverage genome sequence of an ancient individual known as "Shuká Káa" ("Man Ahead of Us") recovered from the On Your Knees Cave (OYKC) in southeastern Alaska (archaeological site 49-PET-408)...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369108/phylogeographic-patterns-of-lygus-pratensis-hemiptera-miridae-evidence-for-weak-genetic-structure-and-recent-expansion-in-northwest-china
#11
Li-Juan Zhang, Wan-Zhi Cai, Jun-Yu Luo, Shuai Zhang, Chun-Yi Wang, Li-Min Lv, Xiang-Zhen Zhu, Li Wang, Jin-Jie Cui
Lygus pratensis (L.) is an important cotton pest in China, especially in the northwest region. Nymphs and adults cause serious quality and yield losses. However, the genetic structure and geographic distribution of L. pratensis is not well known. We analyzed genetic diversity, geographical structure, gene flow, and population dynamics of L. pratensis in northwest China using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence datasets to study phylogeographical patterns and demographic history. L. pratensis (n = 286) were collected at sites across an area spanning 2,180,000 km2, including the Xinjiang and Gansu-Ningxia regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360127/mitochondrial-replacement-therapy-are-mito-nuclear-interactions-likely-to-be-a-problem
#12
REVIEW
Adam Eyre-Walker
It has been suggested that deleterious interactions between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes could pose a problem for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT). This is because the mitochondrial genome is placed in a novel nuclear environment using this technique. In contrast, it is inherited with half the mother's genome during normal reproduction, a genome that it is relatively compatible with, since the mother is alive. Here, I review the evidence of whether mito-nuclear interactions are likely to pose a problem for MRT...
April 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359291/curcumin-suppresses-gastric-tumor-cell-growth-via-ros-mediated-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-depletion-disrupting-cellular-bioenergetics
#13
Lihua Wang, Xiwen Chen, Zhuanyun Du, Gefei Li, Mayun Chen, Xi Chen, Guang Liang, Tongke Chen
BACKGROUND: Curcumin, as a pro-apoptotic agent, is extensively studied to inhibit tumor cell growth of various tumor types. Previous work has demonstrated that curcumin inhibits cancer cell growth by targeting multiple signaling transduction and cellular processes. However, the role of curcumin in regulating cellular bioenergetic processes remains largely unknown. METHODS: Western blotting and qRT-PCR were performed to analyze the protein and mRNA level of indicated molecules, respectively...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356157/migration-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-the-nuclear-genome-of-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#14
Vinodh Srinivasainagendra, Michael W Sandel, Bhupendra Singh, Aishwarya Sundaresan, Ved P Mooga, Prachi Bajpai, Hemant K Tiwari, Keshav K Singh
BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenocarcinomas are characterized by abnormal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and genomic instability, but a molecular interaction between mitochondrial and nuclear genome remains unknown. Here we report the discovery of increased copies of nuclear mtDNA (NUMT) in colorectal adenocarcinomas, which supports link between mtDNA and genomic instability in the nucleus. We name this phenomenon of nuclear occurrence of mitochondrial component as numtogenesis. We provide a description of NUMT abundance and distribution in tumor versus matched blood-derived normal genomes...
March 29, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343954/a-new-whole-mitochondrial-genome-qpcr-wmg-qpcr-with-sybr-green-%C3%A2-to-identify-phlebotomine-sand-fly-blood-meals
#15
Ana Caroline Moura Rodrigues, Rafaela Damasceno Magalhães, Kalil Andrade Mubarac Romcy, Jeferson Lucas Sousa Freitas, Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso Melo, Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rodon, Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua, Luciana Magalhães Melo
Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of marked medical and veterinary significance. Investigations on the biology of these insects hold great importance for both ecological and epidemiological purposes. The present work describes a new approach for real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green(®), named WMG-qPCR, to identify phlebotomine blood meals. The novelty of the assay was to design primers based on the Whole Mitochondrial Genome (WMG) of the potential hosts (human, dog, cat, brown rat and chicken) aiming to amplify through qPCR the regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which are less conserved among all species...
March 9, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341142/mitochondrial-dna-g13708a-variation-and-multiple-sclerosis-is-there-an-association
#16
S Andalib, M Talebi, E Sakhinia, M Farhoudi, H Sadeghi-Bazargani, M R Emamhadi, N Masoodian, M Balaghi-Inalou, M S Vafaee, A Gjedde
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a pathogenetic enigma. Recently, efforts to implicate genetics in human susceptibility to MS have identified an important role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). G13708A is a common mtDNA variation associated with MS in specific populations. This study tested the hypothesis that the mtDNA G13708A variation is associated with MS in an Iranian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 100 MS patients and 100 unrelated healthy controls...
March 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340409/mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-oxidative-damage-in-hl-60-cells-exposed-to-900mhz-radiofrequency-fields
#17
Yulong Sun, Lin Zong, Zhen Gao, Shunxing Zhu, Jian Tong, Yi Cao
HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120μW/cm(2) power intensity for 4h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2'-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions...
March 7, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339017/sirt1-is-required-for-mitochondrial-biogenesis-reprogramming-in-hypoxic-human-pulmonary-arteriolar-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Pengyun Li, Yan Liu, Nana Burns, Ke-Seng Zhao, Rui Song
Although recent studies have reported that mitochondria are putative oxygen sensors underlying hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, little is known concerning the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory program in pulmonary arteriolar smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). We investigated the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in human PASMCs during H/R. Human PASMCs were exposed to hypoxia of 24-48 h and reoxygenation of 24-48 h...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333293/intra-individual-purifying-selection-on-mitochondrial-dna-variants-during-human-oogenesis
#19
Sara De Fanti, Saverio Vicario, Martin Lang, Domenico Simone, Cristina Magli, Donata Luiselli, Luca Gianaroli, Giovanni Romeo
STUDY QUESTION: Does selection for mtDNA mutations occur in human oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: We provide statistical evidence in favor of the existence of purifying selection for mtDNA mutations in human oocytes acting between the expulsion of the first and second polar bodies (PBs). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several lines of evidence in Metazoa, including humans, indicate that variation within the germline of mitochondrial genomes is under purifying selection...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322800/single-molecule-mtdna-fiber-fish-for-analyzing-numtogenesis
#20
Dal-Hoe Koo, Bhupendra Singh, Jiming Jiang, Bernd Friebe, Bikarm S Gill, Paul D Chastain, Upender Manne, Hemant K Tiwari, Keshav K Singh
Somatic human cells contain thousands of copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In eukaryotes, natural transfer of mtDNA into the nucleus generates nuclear mitochondrial DNA (NUMT) copies in eukaryotes. We name this phenomenon as "numtogenesis". Numtogenesis is a well-established evolutionary process reported in various sequenced eukaryotic genomes. We have established a molecular tool to rapidly detect and analyze NUMT insertions in whole genomes. To date, NUMT analyses depend on deep genome sequencing combined with comprehensive computational analyses of the whole genome...
March 18, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
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