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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792526/phages-antibiotic-resistance-are-the-most-abundant-entities-on-earth-ready-for-a-comeback
#1
Colin Hill, Susan Mills, Reynolds P Ross
Bacteriophages, which lost out to antibiotic therapy in the past, may be poised to make a comeback. Once discarded because of their narrow activity spectrum, it can now be viewed as a major advantage that these intracellular, self-replicating entities can exert their killing effect with minimal damage to the commensal microbiome. In eastern Europe, phages continue to be used both prophylactically and therapeutically to treat infections. More recently, much needed regulated clinical trials are underway with a view to restoring phage therapy as a tool for mainstream medicine, although current regulations may impede their full potential...
May 24, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789277/applicability-of-a-web-based-individualized-exercise-intervention-in-patients-with-liver-disease-cystic-fibrosis-esophageal-cancer-and-psychiatric-disorders-process-evaluation-of-4-ongoing-clinical-trials
#2
Daniel Pfirrmann, Nils Haller, Yvonne Huber, Patrick Jung, Klaus Lieb, Ines Gockel, Krystyna Poplawska, Jörn Markus Schattenberg, Perikles Simon
BACKGROUND: In the primary and secondary prevention of civilization diseases, regular physical activity is recommended in international guidelines to improve disease-related symptoms, delay the progression of the disease, or to enhance postoperative outcomes. In the preoperative context, there has been a paradigm shift in favor of using preconditioning concepts before surgery. Web-based interventions seem an innovative and effective tool for delivering general information, individualized exercise recommendations, and peer support...
May 22, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788932/geographic-variation-in-the-aetiology-epidemiology-and-microbiology-of-bronchiectasis
#3
REVIEW
Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Micheál Mac Aogáin, James D Chalmers, Stuart J Elborn, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Bronchiectasis is a disease associated with chronic progressive and irreversible dilatation of the bronchi and is characterised by chronic infection and associated inflammation. The prevalence of bronchiectasis is age-related and there is some geographical variation in incidence, prevalence and clinical features. Most bronchiectasis is reported to be idiopathic however post-infectious aetiologies dominate across Asia especially secondary to tuberculosis. Most focus to date has been on the study of airway bacteria, both as colonisers and causes of exacerbations...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787855/dysbiosis-of-microbiome-and-probiotic-treatment-in-a-genetic-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Tabouy Laure, Getselter Dimitry, Ziv Oren, Karpuj Marcela, Tabouy Timothée, Maayouf Rasha, Werbner Nir, Ben-Amram Hila, Nuriel-Ohayon Meital, Koren Omry, Elliott Evan
Recent studies have determined that the microbiome has direct effects on behavior, and may be dysregulated in neurodevelopmental conditions. Considering that neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism, have a strong genetic etiology, it is necessary to understand if genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Shank3, can influence the gut microbiome, and if probiotics can be a therapeutic tool. In this study, we have identified dysregulation of several genera and species of bacteria in the gut and colon of both male and female Shank3 KO mice...
May 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781841/carbohydrates-and-diet-patterns-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
Ahlia Sekkarie, Jean A Welsh, Miriam B Vos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is lifestyle change, including a healthier diet. However, there are no agreed upon expert recommendations for a specific diet in the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we review studies published between 2015 and 2017 contributing to further understanding of the role of diet in the development and progression of NAFLD, particularly those addressing sugars and dietary patterns...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777041/evolving-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Arie Levine, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Eytan Wine
Recent advances in basic and clinical science over the last 3 years have dramatically altered our appreciation of the role of diet in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The marked increase in incidence of these diseases along with the important role of non-genetic susceptibility among patients with IBD has highlighted that these diseases have a strong environmental component. Progress in the field of microbiome and IBD has demonstrated that microbiome appears to play an important role in pathogenesis, and that diet may in turn impact the composition and functionality of the microbiome...
May 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774018/the-invasive-brazilian-pepper-tree-schinus-terebinthifolius-is-colonized-by-a-root-microbiome-enriched-with-alphaproteobacteria-and-unclassified-spartobacteria
#7
Karim Dawkins, Nwadiuto Esiobu
Little is known about the rhizosphere microbiome of the Brazilian pepper tree (BP) - a noxious category 1 invasive plant inducing an enormous economic and ecological toll in Florida. Some invasive plants have been shown to drastically change the soil microbiome compared to other native plants. The rhizobacteria community structure of BP, two Florida native plants ( Hamelia patens and Bidens alba ) and bulk soils were characterized across six geographical sites. Although all 19 well-known and 10 poorly described phyla were observed in all plant rhizospheres, BP contained the least total bacterial abundance (OTUs) with a distinct bacteria community structure and clustering patterns differing significantly (pCOA and PERMANOVA) from the natives and bulk soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771497/new-techniques-for-the-generation-and-analysis-of-tailored-microbial-systems-on-surfaces
#8
Ariel L Furst, Matthew J Smith, Matthew B Francis
The interactions between microbes and surfaces provide critically important cues that control the behavior and growth of the cells. As our understanding of complex microbial communities improves, there is a growing need for experimental tools that can establish and control the spatial arrangements of these cells in a range of contexts. Recent improvements in methods to attach bacteria and yeast to nonbiological substrates, combined with an expanding set of techniques available to study these cells, position this field for many new discoveries...
May 17, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770369/nanomaterial-microbe-cross-talk-physicochemical-principles-and-patho-biological-consequences
#9
REVIEW
D Westmeier, A Hahlbrock, C Reinhardt, J Fröhlich-Nowoisky, S Wessler, C Vallet, U Pöschl, S K Knauer, R H Stauber
The applications of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasing exponentially in consumer products, biotechnology and biomedicine, and humans, as well as the environment, are increasingly being exposed to NPs. Analogously, various (pathogenic) microorganisms are present at all the major exposure and entry sites for NPs in the human body as well as in environmental habitats. However, the field has just started to explore the complex interplay between NPs and microbes and the (patho)biological consequences. Based on recent insights, herein, we critically reviewed the available knowledge about the interaction of NPs with microbes and the analytical investigations including the latest intravital imaging tools...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760467/the-oral-microbiome-bank-of-china
#10
Peng Xian, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin, Li Yuqing, Li Yan, Li Jiyao, Su Xiaoquan, Huang Shi, Xu Jian, Liao Ga
The human microbiome project (HMP) promoted further understanding of human oral microbes. However, research on the human oral microbiota has not made as much progress as research on the gut microbiota. Currently, the causal relationship between the oral microbiota and oral diseases remains unclear, and little is known about the link between the oral microbiota and human systemic diseases. To further understand the contribution of the oral microbiota in oral diseases and systemic diseases, a Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) was established in the US...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755427/16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-for-deciphering-the-colorectal-cancer-gut-microbiome-current-protocols-and-workflows
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad-Afiq Osman, Hui-Min Neoh, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Siok-Fong Chin, Rahman Jamal
The human gut holds the densest microbiome ecosystem essential in maintaining a healthy host physiology, whereby disruption of this ecosystem has been linked to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies such as the 16S rRNA gene sequencing has enabled characterization of the CRC gut microbiome architecture in an affordable and culture-free approach. Nevertheless, the lack of standardization in handling and storage of biospecimens, nucleic acid extraction, 16S rRNA gene primer selection, length, and depth of sequencing and bioinformatics analyses have contributed to discrepancies found in various published studies of this field...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750386/saliva-in-the-omics-era-a-promising-tool-in-paediatrics
#12
Eftychia Pappa, Eleni Kousvelari, Heleni Vastardis
In vulnerable populations, such as infants and children, saliva makes the perfect diagnostic medium because of its non-invasive collection, easy handling and storage of samples. Its unique biomarker profiles help tremendously in the diagnosis of many diseases and conditions. In fact, saliva genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and microbiome-based discoveries have led to complementary and powerful diagnostic information. In children and neonates, saliva is the preferred medium not only for diagnosis of caries and aggressive periodontitis but also for a number of systemic conditions, metabolic diseases, cognitive functions, stress assessment and evaluation of immunological and inflammatory responses to vaccination...
May 11, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743119/profiling-microbial-strains-in-urban-environments-using-metagenomic-sequencing-data
#13
Moreno Zolfo, Francesco Asnicar, Paolo Manghi, Edoardo Pasolli, Adrian Tett, Nicola Segata
BACKGROUND: The microbial communities populating human and natural environments have been extensively characterized with shotgun metagenomics, which provides an in-depth representation of the microbial diversity within a sample. Microbes thriving in urban environments may be crucially important for human health, but have received less attention than those of other environments. Ongoing efforts started to target urban microbiomes at a large scale, but the most recent computational methods to profile these metagenomes have never been applied in this context...
May 9, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740416/splinectomer-enables-group-comparisons-in-longitudinal-microbiome-studies
#14
Robin R Shields-Cutler, Gabe A Al-Ghalith, Moran Yassour, Dan Knights
Longitudinal, prospective studies often rely on multi-omics approaches, wherein various specimens are analyzed for genomic, metabolomic, and/or transcriptomic profiles. In practice, longitudinal studies in humans and other animals routinely suffer from subject dropout, irregular sampling, and biological variation that may not be normally distributed. As a result, testing hypotheses about observations over time can be statistically challenging without performing transformations and dramatic simplifications to the dataset, causing a loss of longitudinal power in the process...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736607/engineering-microbes-for-targeted-strikes-against-human-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
In Young Hwang, Hui Ling Lee, James Guoxian Huang, Yvonne Yijuan Lim, Wen Shan Yew, Yung Seng Lee, Matthew Wook Chang
Lack of pathogen specificity in antimicrobial therapy causes non-discriminant microbial cell killing that disrupts the microflora present. As a result, potentially helpful microbial cells are killed along with the pathogen, altering the biodiversity and dynamic interactions within the population. Moreover, the unwarranted exposure of antibiotics to microbes increases the likelihood of developing resistance and perpetuates the emergence of multidrug resistance. Synthetic biology offers an alternative solution where specificity can be conferred to reduce the non-specific, non-targeted activity of currently available antibiotics, and instead provides targeted therapy against specific pathogens and minimising collateral damage to the host's inherent microbiota...
May 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714721/interpreting-heterogeneity-in-intestinal-tuft-cell-structure-and-function
#16
REVIEW
Amrita Banerjee, Eliot T McKinley, Jakob von Moltke, Robert J Coffey, Ken S Lau
Intestinal tuft cells are a morphologically unique cell type, best characterized by striking microvilli that form an apical tuft. These cells represent approximately 0.5% of gut epithelial cells depending on location. While they are known to express chemosensory receptors, their function has remained unclear. Recently, numerous groups have revealed startling insights into intestinal tuft cell biology. Here, we review the latest developments in understanding this peculiar cell type's structure and function. Recent advances in volumetric microscopy have begun to elucidate tuft cell ultrastructure with respect to its cellular neighbors...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693607/harnessing-the-power-of-microbiome-assessment-tools-as-part-of-neuroprotective-nutrition-and-lifestyle-medicine-interventions
#17
REVIEW
Miguel Toribio-Mateas
An extensive body of evidence documents the importance of the gut microbiome both in health and in a variety of human diseases. Cell and animal studies describing this relationship abound, whilst clinical studies exploring the associations between changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding metabolites with neurodegeneration in the human brain have only begun to emerge more recently. Further, the findings of such studies are often difficult to translate into simple clinical applications that result in measurable health outcomes...
April 25, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689266/alterations-in-enteric-virome-associate-with-colorectal-cancer-and-survival-outcomes
#18
Geicho Nakatsu, Haokui Zhou, William Ka Kei Wu, Sunny Hei Wong, Olabisi Oluwabukola Coker, Zhenwei Dai, Xiangchun Li, Chun-Ho Szeto, Naoki Sugimura, Thomas Yuen-Tung Lam, Allen Chi-Shing Yu, Xiansong Wang, Zigui Chen, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Siew Chien Ng, Matthew T V Chan, Paul Kay Sheung Chan, Francis Ka Leung Chan, Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a different gut microbiome signature than individuals without CRC. Little is known about the viral component of CRC-associated microbiome. We aimed to identify and validate viral taxonomic markers of CRC that might be used in detection of disease or predicting outcome. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic analyses of viromes of fecal samples from 74 patients with CRC (cases) and 92 individuals without CRC (controls) in Hong Kong (discovery cohort)...
April 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678199/megan-lr-new-algorithms-allow-accurate-binning-and-easy-interactive-exploration-of-metagenomic-long-reads-and-contigs
#19
Daniel H Huson, Benjamin Albrecht, Caner Bağcı, Irina Bessarab, Anna Górska, Dino Jolic, Rohan B H Williams
BACKGROUND: There are numerous computational tools for taxonomic or functional analysis of microbiome samples, optimized to run on hundreds of millions of short, high quality sequencing reads. Programs such as MEGAN allow the user to interactively navigate these large datasets. Long read sequencing technologies continue to improve and produce increasing numbers of longer reads (of varying lengths in the range of 10k-1M bps, say), but of low quality. There is an increasing interest in using long reads in microbiome sequencing, and there is a need to adapt short read tools to long read datasets...
April 20, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666626/next-generation-immune-repertoire-sequencing-as-a-clue-to-elucidate-the-landscape-of-immune-modulation-by-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#20
Tatsuo Ichinohe, Takahiko Miyama, Takakazu Kawase, Yasuko Honjo, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroyuki Sato, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki
The human immune system is a fine network consisted of the innumerable numbers of functional cells that balance the immunity and tolerance against various endogenous and environmental challenges. Although advances in modern immunology have revealed a role of many unique immune cell subsets, technologies that enable us to capture the whole landscape of immune responses against specific antigens have been not available to date. Acquired immunity against various microorganisms including host microbiome is principally founded on T cell and B cell populations, each of which expresses antigen-specific receptors that define a unique clonotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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