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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#1
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289558/phylogenetic-factorization-of-compositional-data-yields-lineage-level-associations-in-microbiome-datasets
#2
Alex D Washburne, Justin D Silverman, Jonathan W Leff, Dominic J Bennett, John L Darcy, Sayan Mukherjee, Noah Fierer, Lawrence A David
Marker gene sequencing of microbial communities has generated big datasets of microbial relative abundances varying across environmental conditions, sample sites and treatments. These data often come with putative phylogenies, providing unique opportunities to investigate how shared evolutionary history affects microbial abundance patterns. Here, we present a method to identify the phylogenetic factors driving patterns in microbial community composition. We use the method, "phylofactorization," to re-analyze datasets from the human body and soil microbial communities, demonstrating how phylofactorization is a dimensionality-reducing tool, an ordination-visualization tool, and an inferential tool for identifying edges in the phylogeny along which putative functional ecological traits may have arisen...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282449/infection-with-diverse-immune-modulating-poxviruses-elicits-different-compositional-shifts-in-the-mouse-gut-microbiome
#3
Daniel Aguirre de Cárcer, Bruno Hernáez, Alberto Rastrojo, Antonio Alcamí
It is often not possible to demonstrate causality within the context of gut microbiota dysbiosis-linked diseases. Thus, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby an altered host immunophysiology shapes its resident microbiota. In this regard, immune-modulating poxvirus strains and mutants could differentially alter gut mucosal immunity in the context of a natural immune response, providing a controlled natural in vivo setting to deepen our understanding of the immune determinants of microbiome composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261190/fungal-its1-deep-sequencing-strategies-to-reconstruct-the-composition-of-a-26-species-community-and-evaluation-of-the-gut-mycobiota-of-healthy-japanese-individuals
#4
Daisuke Motooka, Kosuke Fujimoto, Reiko Tanaka, Takashi Yaguchi, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, Yuichi Maeda, Yoki Furuta, Takashi Kurakawa, Naohisa Goto, Teruo Yasunaga, Masashi Narazaki, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Toshihiro Horii, Tetsuya Iida, Kiyoshi Takeda, Shota Nakamura
The study of mycobiota remains relatively unexplored due to the lack of sufficient available reference strains and databases compared to those of bacterial microbiome studies. Deep sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions is the de facto standard for fungal diversity analysis. However, results are often biased because of the wide variety of sequence lengths in the ITS regions and the complexity of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. In this study, a curated ITS database, ntF-ITS1, was constructed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251186/uncovering-the-horseshoe-effect-in-microbial-analyses
#5
James T Morton, Liam Toran, Anna Edlund, Jessica L Metcalf, Christian Lauber, Rob Knight
The horseshoe effect is a phenomenon that has long intrigued ecologists. The effect was commonly thought to be an artifact of dimensionality reduction, and multiple techniques were developed to unravel this phenomenon and simplify interpretation. Here, we provide evidence that horseshoes arise as a consequence of distance metrics that saturate-a familiar concept in other fields but new to microbial ecology. This saturation property loses information about community dissimilarity, simply because it cannot discriminate between samples that do not share any common features...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244273/the-human-microbiome-an-emerging-tool-in-forensics
#6
EDITORIAL
Jarrad T Hampton-Marcell, Jose V Lopez, Jack A Gilbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235585/omics-in-fish-mucosal-immunity
#7
Salinas Irene, Susana Magadán
The mucosal immune system of fish is a complex network of immune cells and molecules that are constantly surveilling the environment and protecting the host from infection. A number of "omics" tools are now available and utilized to understand the complexity of mucosal immune systems in non-traditional animal models. This review summarizes recent advances in the implementation of "omics" tools pertaining to the four mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in teleosts. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and "omics" in microbiome research require interdisciplinary collaboration and careful experimental design...
February 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231575/individual-biomarkers-using-molecular-personalized-medicine-approaches
#8
Hans P Zenner
Molecular personalized medicine tries to generate individual predictive biomarkers to assist doctors in their decision making. These are thought to improve the efficacy and lower the toxicity of a treatment. The molecular basis of the desired high-precision prediction is modern "omex" technologies providing high-throughput bioanalytical methods. These include genomics and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, imaging, and functional analyses. In most cases, producing big data also requires a complex biomathematical analysis...
2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217694/probiotics-for-prevention-of-urinary-stones
#9
John C Lieske
BACKGROUND: Urinary supersaturation is one key determinant of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urinary stone formation, and urinary excretions of oxalate and citrate are two key determinants. Each is influenced by gastrointestinal processes. METHODS: Open label and randomized placebo studies have examined the effect of oral probiotic preparations on urinary supersaturation and oxalate excretion. Cross sectional studies in humans have studied the association of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization status and urinary oxalate excretion and prevalence of urinary stones...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184370/metaproteomics-as-a-complementary-approach-to-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Bernardo A Petriz, Octávio L Franco
Classic studies on phylotype profiling are limited to the identification of microbial constituents, where information is lacking about the molecular interaction of these bacterial communities with the host genome and the possible outcomes in host biology. A range of OMICs approaches have provided great progress linking the microbiota to health and disease. However, the investigation of this context through proteomic mass spectrometry-based tools is still being improved. Therefore, metaproteomics or community proteogenomics has emerged as a complementary approach to metagenomic data, as a field in proteomics aiming to perform large-scale characterization of proteins from environmental microbiota, such as the human gut...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178051/urinary-microbiome-and-cytokine-levels-in-women-with-interstitial-cystitis
#11
Melinda G Abernethy, Amy Rosenfeld, James R White, Margaret G Mueller, Christina Lewicky-Gaupp, Kimberly Kenton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the urinary microbiome and cytokine levels between women with and without interstitial cystitis and to correlate differences with scores on standardized symptom severity scales and depression and anxiety screening tools. METHODS: Our cross-sectional study compared women presenting to a pelvic floor clinic and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis over a 6-month period with age-matched women in a control group from the same institution...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174962/dop053-the-fecal-microbiome-as-a-tool-for-monitoring-and-predicting-response-outcomes-in-ustekinumab-treated-anti-tnf%C3%AE-refractory-crohn-s-disease-patients-results-from-the-certifi-study
#12
M K Doherty, C Koumpouras, S E Telesco, C Monast, C Brodmerkel, P D Schloss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174737/metagenomic-characterization-of-microbial-communities-in-situ-within-the-deeper-layers-of-the-ileum-in-crohn-s-disease
#13
Chandra Sekhar Pedamallu, Ami S Bhatt, Susan Bullman, Sharyle Fowler, Samuel S Freeman, Jacqueline Durand, Joonil Jung, Fujiko Duke, Veronica Manzo, Diana Cai, Ashwin Ananthakrishnan, Akinyemi I Ojesina, Aruna Ramachandran, Dirk Gevers, Ramnik J Xavier, Atul K Bhan, Matthew Meyerson, Vijay Yajnik
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microbial dysbiosis and aberrant host-microbe interactions in the gut are believed to contribute to the development and progression of Crohn's disease (CD). Microbiome studies in CD typically have focused on microbiota in feces or superficial mucosal layers of the colon because accessing DNA from deeper layers of the bowel is challenging. In this study, we analyzed the deep tissue microbiome in patients who underwent surgical resection of the small intestine. METHODS: Paraffin blocks were obtained from 12 CD patients undergoing ileocecal resection, and healthy ileum samples (inflammatory bowel disease-free controls) were obtained from 12 patients undergoing surgery for right-sided colon cancer...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167213/metagenomics-approach-to-the-study-of-the-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-fed-with-gluten-formulated-diet
#14
Hyunmin Koo, Joseph A Hakim, Mickie L Powell, Ranjit Kumar, Peter G Eipers, Casey D Morrow, Michael Crowley, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Stephen A Watts, Asim K Bej
In this study, we report the gut microbial composition and predictive functional profiles of zebrafish, Danio rerio, fed with a control formulated diet (CFD), and a gluten formulated diet (GFD) using a metagenomics approach and bioinformatics tools. The microbial communities of the GFD-fed D. rerio displayed heightened abundances of Legionellales, Rhizobiaceae, and Rhodobacter, as compared to the CFD-fed counterparts. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities (PICRUSt) in GFD-fed D. rerio showed KEGG functional categories corresponding to bile secretion, secondary bile acid biosynthesis, and the metabolism of glycine, serine, and threonine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164855/from-culture-to-high-throughput-sequencing-and-beyond-a-layperson-s-guide-to-the-omics-and-diagnostic-potential-of-the-microbiome
#15
REVIEW
Paul W O'Toole, Burkhardt Flemer
Detailed knowledge of the community of organisms in the gut has become possible in recent years because of the development of culture-independent methods. Largely based on latest DNA sequencing platforms, it is now possible to establish the composition of the microbiota and the repertoire of biochemical functions it encodes. Variations in either or both of these parameters have been linked to intestinal and extraintestinal disease. This article summarizes how these methods are applied, with special reference to gastroenterology, and describes the achievements and future potential of microbiota analysis as a diagnostic tool...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144631/studying-vertical-microbiome-transmission-from-mothers-to-infants-by-strain-level-metagenomic-profiling
#16
Francesco Asnicar, Serena Manara, Moreno Zolfo, Duy Tin Truong, Matthias Scholz, Federica Armanini, Pamela Ferretti, Valentina Gorfer, Anna Pedrotti, Adrian Tett, Nicola Segata
The gut microbiome becomes shaped in the first days of life and continues to increase its diversity during the first months. Links between the configuration of the infant gut microbiome and infant health are being shown, but a comprehensive strain-level assessment of microbes vertically transmitted from mother to infant is still missing. We collected fecal and breast milk samples from multiple mother-infant pairs during the first year of life and applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing followed by computational strain-level profiling...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134778/toward-a-personalized-approach-in-prebiotics-research
#17
Moul Dey
Recent characterization of the human microbiome and its influences on health have led to dramatic conceptual shifts in dietary bioactives research. Prebiotic foods that include many dietary fibers and resistant starches are perceived as beneficial for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota. This article brings forward some current perspectives in prebiotic research to discuss why reporting of individual variations in response to interventions will be important to discern suitability of prebiotics as a disease prevention tool...
January 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134072/lessons-on-dietary-biomarkers-from-twin-studies
#18
Cristina Menni
Metabolomic and microbiome profiling are promising tools to identify biomarkers of food intake and health status. The individual's genetic makeup plays a significant role on health, metabolism, gut microbes and diet and twin studies provide unique opportunities to untangle gene-environment effects on complex phenotypes. This brief review discusses the value of twin studies in nutrition research with a particular focus on metabolomics and the gut microbiome. Although, the twin model is a powerful tool to segregate the genetic component, to date, very few studies combine the twin design and metabolomics/microbiome in nutritional sciences...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131442/the-human-gut-microbiome-as-source-of-innovation-for-health-which-physiological-and-therapeutic-outcomes-could-we-expect
#19
Joël Doré, Marie-Christine Multon, Jehan-Michel Béhier
From the moment of birth, each human being builds a microbe-host symbiosis which is key for the preservation of its health and well-being. This personal symbiotic coexistence is the result of progressive enrichments in microorganism diversity through external supplies. This diversity is nowadays massively overthrown by drastic changes related to clinical practice in birth management, environmental exposure, nutrition and healthcare behaviors. The last two generations have been the frame of massive modifications in life and food habits, with people being more and more sedentary, overfed and permeated with drugs and pollutants...
January 3, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125793/the-state-of-systems-genetics-in-2017
#20
Nitin S Baliga, Johan L M Björkegren, Jef D Boeke, Michael Boutros, Nigel P S Crawford, Aimée M Dudley, Charles R Farber, Allan Jones, Allan I Levey, Aldons J Lusis, H Craig Mak, Joseph H Nadeau, Marcus B Noyes, Enrico Petretto, Nicholas T Seyfried, Lars M Steinmetz, Sibylle C Vonesch
Cell Systems invited 16 experts to share their views on the field of systems genetics. In questions repeated in the headings, we asked them to define systems genetics, highlight its relevance to researchers outside the field, discuss what makes a strong systems genetics paper, and paint a picture of where the field is heading in the coming years. Their responses, ordered by the journal but otherwise unedited, make it clear that deciphering genotype to phenotype relationships is a central challenge of systems genetics and will require understanding how networks and higher-order properties of biological systems underlie complex traits...
January 25, 2017: Cell Systems
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