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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582189/mesenchymal-chondrosarcoma-a-review-with-emphasis-on-its-fusion-driven-biology
#1
REVIEW
Marc El Beaino, Jason Roszik, John A Livingston, Wei-Lien Wang, Alexander J Lazar, Behrang Amini, Vivek Subbiah, Valerae Lewis, Anthony P Conley
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare but deadly form of chondrosarcoma that typically affects adolescents and young adults. While curative intent is possible for patients with localized disease, few options exist for patients in the unresectable/metastatic setting. Thus, it is imperative to understand the fusion-driven biology of this rare malignant neoplasm so as to lead to the future development of better therapeutics for this disease. This manuscript will briefly review the clinical and pathologic features of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma followed by an appraisal of existing data linked to the fusions, HEY1-NCOA2 and IRF2BP2-CDX1, and the associated downstream pathways...
March 26, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567071/predictive-test-for-chemotherapy-response-in-resectable-gastric-cancer-a-multi-cohort-retrospective-analysis
#2
Jae-Ho Cheong, Han-Kwang Yang, Hyunki Kim, Woo Ho Kim, Young-Woo Kim, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Young-Kyu Park, Hyung-Ho Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Kyung Hee Lee, Mi Jin Gu, Ha Yan Kim, Jinae Lee, Seung Ho Choi, Soonwon Hong, Jong Won Kim, Yoon Young Choi, Woo Jin Hyung, Eunji Jang, Hyeseon Kim, Yong-Min Huh, Sung Hoon Noh
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery improves survival of patients with stage II-III, resectable gastric cancer. However, the overall survival benefit observed after adjuvant chemotherapy is moderate, suggesting that not all patients with resectable gastric cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy benefit from it. We aimed to develop and validate a predictive test for adjuvant chemotherapy response in patients with resectable, stage II-III gastric cancer. METHODS: In this multi-cohort, retrospective study, we developed through a multi-step strategy a predictive test consisting of two rule-based classifier algorithms with predictive value for adjuvant chemotherapy response and prognosis...
March 19, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550489/long-non-coding-rna-xist-inhibited-breast-cancer-cell-growth-migration-and-invasion-via-mir-155-cdx1-axis
#3
Ruinian Zheng, Shunhuan Lin, Ling Guan, Huiling Yuan, Kejun Liu, Chun Liu, Weibiao Ye, Yuting Liao, Jun Jia, Ruopeng Zhang
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is an important member of non-coding RNA family and emerging evidence has indicated that it plays a pivotal role in many physiological and pathological processes. The lncRNA X inactive specific transcript (XIST) is a potential tumour suppressor in some types of cancers. However, the expression and function of XIST in breast cancer remain largely unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression and biological role of XIST in breast cancer. The results showed that XIST was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104083/development-and-evaluation-of-a-pan-sarcoma-fusion-gene-detection-assay-using-the-nanostring-ncounter-platform
#4
Kenneth T E Chang, Angela Goytain, Tracy Tucker, Aly Karsan, Cheng-Han Lee, Torsten O Nielsen, Tony L Ng
The NanoString nCounter assay is a high-throughput hybridization technique using target-specific probes that can be customized to test for numerous fusion transcripts in a single assay using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. We designed a NanoString assay targeting 174 unique fusion junctions in 25 sarcoma types. The study cohort comprised 212 cases, 96 of which showed fusion gene expression by the NanoString assay, including all 20 Ewing sarcomas, 11 synovial sarcomas, and 5 myxoid liposarcomas tested...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094201/a-review-of-genetic-factors-contributing-to-the-etiopathogenesis-of-anorectal-malformations
#5
REVIEW
Kashish Khanna, Shilpa Sharma, Noel Pabalan, Neetu Singh, D K Gupta
BACKGROUND: Anorectal malformation (ARM) is a common congenital anomaly with a wide clinical spectrum. Recently, many genetic and molecular studies have been conducted worldwide highlighting the contribution of genetic factors in its etiology. We summarize the current literature on such genetic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search was done using different combinations of terms related to genetics in anorectal malformations. From 2012 to June 2017, articles published in the English literature and studies conducted on human population were included...
January 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962081/mirna-155-promotes-proliferation-by-targeting-caudal-type-homeobox-1-cdx1-in-glioma-cells
#6
Lei Yang, Conghui Li, Fang Liang, Yakun Fan, Shiyang Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the tumorigenesis of glioma. Recent studies showed that miR-155 expression was increased in types of cancer, including glioma. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-155 on glioma is still unclear. In the present study, expression of miR-155 and caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1) was determined in glioma tissues by qRT-PCR, and the regulatory axis was further studied in glioma cells. We showed that miR-155 expression was significantly increased in glioma tissues while CDX1 expression was decreased...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512631/genetic-alterations-in-gastric-cancer-associated-with-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#7
REVIEW
Claudia I Rivas-Ortiz, Yolanda Lopez-Vidal, Luis Jose Rene Arredondo-Hernandez, Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas
Gastric cancer is a world health problem and depicts the fourth leading mortality cause from malignancy in Mexico. Causation of gastric cancer is not only due to the combined effects of environmental factors and genetic variants. Recent molecular studies have transgressed a number of genes involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to understand the recent basics of gene expression in the development of the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants, polymorphisms, desoxyribonucleic acid methylation, and genes involved in mediating inflammation have been associated with the development of gastric carcinogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418924/rna-sequencing-analyses-reveal-novel-differentially-expressed-genes-and-pathways-in-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Yixiang Mao, Jianjun Shen, Yue Lu, Kevin Lin, Huamin Wang, Yanan Li, Ping Chang, Mary G Walker, Donghui Li
Gene expression microarrays have identified many tumor markers and therapeutic targets for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, microarray profilings have limited sensitivity and are prone to cross-hybridization between homologous DNA fragments. Here, we perform a transcriptome analysis of paired tumor and adjacent benign pancreatic tissues from 10 patients who underwent resection for PDAC. We identify a total of 2736 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with false discovery rate less than 0.05, including 1554 upregulated, 1182 downregulated, and 6 microRNAs (miR-614, miR-217, miR-27b, miR-4451, miR-3609, and miR-612)...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418032/a-new-approach-to-evaluating-aberrant-dna-methylation-profiles-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-potential-biomarkers
#9
Yuan Yang, Linghao Zhao, Bo Huang, Guojun Hou, Beibei Zhou, Jin Qian, Shengxian Yuan, Huasheng Xiao, Minghui Li, Weiping Zhou
Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and their subsequent silencing is thought to be one of the main mechanisms of carcinogenesis. MBD2b enrichment coupled with a NimbleGen array was applied to examine the genome-wide CpG island methylation profile of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hypermethylated DNA of 58 pairs of HCC and adjacent tissue samples was enriched and hybridized in the same array. Aberrant hypermethylated peaks of HCC and adjacent tissues were screened and annotated after data processing using NimbleScan2...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226180/a33-shows-similar-sensitivity-to-but-is-more-specific-than-cdx2-as-an-immunomarker-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#10
Newton A C S Wong, Lukasz A Adamczyk, Shanna Evans, Jayne Cullen, Anca Oniscu, Karin A Oien
AIMS: CDX2 is widely used as a sensitive and specific immunomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but neither its sensitivity nor its specificity is absolute. The aim of this study was to compare CDX1 and A33 with CDX2 as immunomarkers for CRC. METHODS AND RESULTS: As a pilot study, whole sections of 51 cases of liver metastatic carcinoma with different origins-colorectum (n = 32), breast (n = 3), oesophagogastric tract (n = 4), lung (n = 3), pancreas (n = 8), and prostate (n = 1)-were immunostained with CDX1, CDX2, and A33...
July 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149331/combining-omics-data-to-identify-genes-associated-with-allergic-rhinitis
#11
Andréanne Morin, Michel Laviolette, Tomi Pastinen, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Catherine Laprise
Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disorder characterized by immunoglobulin E-mediated inflammation. To identify new genes associated with this trait, we performed genome- and epigenome-wide association studies and linked marginally significant CpGs located in genes or its promoter and SNPs located 1 Mb from the CpGs, by identifying cis methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL). This approach relies on functional cellular aspects rather than stringent statistical correction. We were able to identify one gene with significant cis-mQTL for allergic rhinitis, caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138402/construction-and-analysis-of-tissue-microarrays-in-the-era-of-digital-pathology-a-pilot-study-targeting-cdx1-and-cdx2-in-a-colon-cancer-cohort-of-612-patients
#12
Sarah Nolte, Inti Zlobec, Alessandro Lugli, Werner Hohenberger, Roland Croner, Susanne Merkel, Arndt Hartmann, Carol I Geppert, Tilman T Rau
CDX1 and CDX2 are possibly predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer. We combined digitally-guided (next generation) TMA construction (ngTMA) and the utility of digital image analysis (DIA) to assess accuracy, tumour heterogeneity and the selective impact of different combined intensity-percentage levels on prognosis.CDX1 and CDX2 immunohistochemistry was performed on ngTMAs covering normal tissue, tumour centre and invasive front. The percentages of all epithelial cells per staining intensity per core were analysed digitally...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120184/application-of-unique-sequence-index-usi-barcode-to-gene-expression-profiling-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#13
Sadegh Fattahi, Maryam Pilehchian Langroudi, Ali Akbar Samadani, Novin Nikbakhsh, Mohsen Asouri, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki
Accurate expression profiling is imperative for understanding the biological roles of mRNAs. Real-time PCR have been at the forefront of biological innovation in detection and monitoring of gene expression, however, fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides and double-stranded DNA binding dyes, the two most frequently used dyes in RNA detection, are not very cost effective and have poor specificity, respectively. We have developed a cost effective and specific approach for mRNA expression profiling via added unique sequence index (USI) to cDNAs before amplification...
March 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065741/essential-roles-for-cdx-in-murine-primitive-hematopoiesis
#14
Travis Brooke-Bisschop, Joanne G A Savory, Tanya Foley, Randy Ringuette, David Lohnes
The Cdx transcription factors play essential roles in primitive hematopoiesis in the zebrafish where they exert their effects, in part, through regulation of hox genes. Defects in hematopoiesis have also been reported in Cdx mutant murine embryonic stem cell models, however, to date no mouse model reflecting the zebrafish Cdx mutant hematopoietic phenotype has been described. This is likely due, in part, to functional redundancy among Cdx members and the early lethality of Cdx2 null mutants. To circumvent these limitations, we used Cre-mediated conditional deletion to assess the impact of concomitant loss of Cdx1 and Cdx2 on murine primitive hematopoiesis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737633/huntingtin-associated-protein-1-eutherian-adaptation-from-a-trak-like-protein-conserved-gene-promoter-elements-and-localization-in-the-human-intestine
#15
Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Nektaria Pezos, Damien J Keating
BACKGROUND: Huntingtin-associated Protein 1 (HAP1) is expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, and is critical for postnatal survival in mice. HAP1 shares a conserved "HAP1_N" domain with TRAfficking Kinesin proteins TRAK1 and TRAK2 (vertebrate), Milton (Drosophila) and T27A3.1 (C. elegans). HAP1, TRAK1 and TRAK2 have a degree of common function, particularly regarding intracellular receptor trafficking. However, TRAK1, TRAK2 and Milton (which have a "Milt/TRAK" domain that is absent in human and rodent HAP1) differ in function to HAP1 in that they are mitochondrial transport proteins, while HAP1 has emerging roles in starvation response...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729732/impact-of-homeobox-genes-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
Homeobox genes, including HOX and non-HOX genes, have been identified to be expressed aberrantly in solid tumors. In gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, most studies have focused on the function of non-HOX genes including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 1 (CDX1) and CDX2. CDX2 is a crucial factor in the development of pre-cancerous lesions such as Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and its tumor suppressive role has been investigated in colorectal cancers. Recently, several HOX genes were reported to have specific roles in GI cancers; for example, HOXA13 in esophageal squamous cell cancer and HOXB7 in stomach and colorectal cancers...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693483/adverse-effect-of-valproic-acid-on-an-in-vitro-gastrulation-model-entails-activation-of-retinoic-acid-signaling
#17
Aileen S W Li, Yusuke Marikawa
Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, is a teratogen that causes neural tube and axial skeletal defects, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. We previously established a gastrulation model using mouse P19C5 stem cell embryoid bodies (EBs), which exhibits axial patterning and elongation morphogenesis in vitro. Here, we investigated the effects of VPA on the EB axial morphogenesis to gain insights into its teratogenic mechanisms. Axial elongation and patterning of EBs were inhibited by VPA at therapeutic concentrations...
December 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638535/-pathogenetic-aspects-in-precursor-lesions-of-gastrointestinal-tumors
#18
REVIEW
T Rau
The pathogenesis of precursor lesions of gastrointestinal tumors is manifested in many ways. In the esophagus an aberrant genetic expression of intestinal transcription factors, such as CDX2 is initiated by local environment factors. During the subsequent dysplasia to carcinoma sequence, chromosomal gain and loss of genes occurs. A 4-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay can be applied in dysplasia as well as in Barrett's adenocarcinoma to define prognostic marker combinations. In the gastric carcinogenesis sequence the gene expression of CDX1 is regulatively dependent on an interplay between inflammation and promotor methylation...
November 2016: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590588/protective-and-therapeutic-effects-of-fucoxanthin-against-sunburn-caused-by-uv-irradiation
#19
Mio Matsui, Kosuke Tanaka, Naoki Higashiguchi, Hisato Okawa, Yoichi Yamada, Ken Tanaka, Soichiro Taira, Tomoko Aoyama, Misaki Takanishi, Chika Natsume, Yuuki Takakura, Norihisa Fujita, Takeshi Hashimoto, Takashi Fujita
Mild exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is also harmful and hazardous to the skin and often causes a photosensitivity disorder accompanied by sunburn. To understand the action of UV on the skin we performed a microarray analysis to isolate UV-sensitive genes. We show here that UV irradiation promoted sunburn and downregulated filaggrin (Flg); fucoxanthin (FX) exerted a protective effect. In vitro analysis showed that UV irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts caused production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without cellular toxicity...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566019/low-cdx1-expression-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-after-hepatectomy
#20
Hao Zheng, Yuan Yang, Meng-Chao Wang, Sheng-Xian Yuan, Tao Tian, Jun Han, Jun-Sheng Ni, Jian Wang, Hao Xing, Wei-Ping Zhou
The caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1) transcription factor is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor gene family and has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of cancers. However, the expression status and significance of CDX1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still controversial, and little is known about the role of CDX1 in HCC·In our previous study, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of CDX1 in HCC samples from 313 HCC patients. We found CDX1 was strikingly down-regulated in HCC samples...
September 2016: Surgical Oncology
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